anatomy cards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ear wax
temporaliselevates mandible
surgical puncture
on the outside
formation of bones
term for arm
Smaller bronchioles
Simple cuboidal epi
Rhomboid Minor : Insertion
inferior is also called?
Keratohylaine granules - keratinLamellated granules - Slowing water loss
movement of the foot medially
gonads: production of germ cells
synthesize the brown/black pigment melanin
located in stratum basale
What to B lymphocytes produce?
Vertebral Levels - pancreas body
Posterior surface of heart
left atrium
Intervertebral Articulations
Amphiarthrosis articulation between bodies of adjacent vertebrae and diarthrotic articulation between articular processes
Insertion Brachiorad.
lateral surface distal end radius
posterior or dorsal
toward the back surface
__________ is the conscious or unconscious awareness of external or internal stimuli.
"inner" + "skin"
inner of primary germ layers
makes mucous membranes of digestive and respiratory tracks and digestive glands
Spinal nerves of the obturator nerve
NAMEthis organ produces insulin and glucagon
label cells as normal/abnormal
recognition proteins (identifiers)
Lateral Pterygoid
Protracts the mandible; produces side-to-side movement of mandible
compact bone composed of:
osteons cemented together
phase of metabolism where complex molecules, such as proteins and fats, are formed from simpler ones
shaft forming ht long axis ofthe bone
Part of the male reproductive system. external genetalia. surrounds the testes and controls their temperature
A coupled transporter which moves 2 substances in the opposite direction.
connective tissue
fewers cells than epithelium, abundant intercellular material, well vascularized;CT matrix=fibers+ground substance
internal intercostal muscles
easily differentiated from the external intercostal muscles because their fibers run cranioventrally from the cranial border of one rib to the caudal border of the rib in front of it
outer most epithelial layer of a visceral organ: also called serosa
elevated glucagon triggers _____ of ____ and blood glucose is maintained.
- glycogen 
laterally rotates arm (4)
supraspinous, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
cervical lymph nodes, axillary lymph nodes, inguinal lymph nodes
Endocrine function
glands secretes products into tissue fluid and then into blood, ductless. islets of Langerhans (1%, interstitial cells) secrete the hormone insulin (important in glucose metabolism) into tissue fluid and thence into the circulatory system
Flexor Pollicis Brevis
ThenarO: Flexor Retinaculum, Scaphoid, Trapezium I: Lat side of base of Prox Phalanx of thumb A: Flexes Inn: Medial n.
Appositional growth
Secrete new matrix against existing bone
give some exampels of irregular bones
hip bones
Vasa Vasorum
-little vessels that supply larger arteries and veins with nutrients
-feeds outer half of vessel (located in tunica externa)
-luminal blood feeds inner half
-small vessels get full supply from luminal blood
a prominent oval mass of lymphoid tissue on each side of the throat
pericardial cavity
fluid filled space that surround the heart
The 3 types of blood cells
White, Red, Platelet
electrical gradient
Difference in the distribution of + and - charged ions between one side of the plasma membrane and the other.
cerebral cortex is what type of matter
gray matter
Fuction of osteocytes
Sit in site = maintain matrix
homeostatic imbalance
if ability to maintain homeostasis is compromised, disorder and/or disease might result
these are indicated by  

signs- measurable like a stop sign

symptoms- felt by patient

apocrine glands
top part is pinched off, becomes secretionmammary
When calssifying sensory receptors according to structure, what are the 2 types?
Free sensory nerve endingsCorpuscular
a sleevelike structure that unites the articulating bones and surrounds the synovial joint
articular capsule
Stress-Relaxation response
Allows smooth muscle to undergo great changes in length while retaining the ability to contract effectively.
A crown surface can be divided both horizontally and vertically into three portions or....
Inferior Mesenteric Ganglion
Location--adjacent to the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery.
~innervate the distal colon, rectum, urinary bladder, distal ureter, and most of reproductive organs.
of or pertaining to the mamma or breast.
muscle tissue
body of muscle consisting of muscle fibers, muscle cells, connective tissue, extracellular material
Most of the blood volume of the body will be fouond in the...
oxygen and sodium ions
More concentrated outside the cell. They will move down the concentration gradient to the inside of the cell.
Which ligaments monitor medial rotation of the knee? Which for lateral rotation?
1.) cruciate ligmants2.) collateral ligaments
Lower Limb
carries the entire weight of the erect body
bones are thicker and stronger than upper limb
divided into 3 segments: thigh, leg, foot
Epithelial Membranes otherwise known as true membranes are composed of 2 tissues what are they?
Epithelial over arelor connective tissue
Toward the front of the body
Anterior/Frontal or Ventral (quadraped)
Blood Brain Barrier
Created because the blood vessels that enter the brain and spinal cord have a very tight lining. The lining is much tighter in brain and spinal cord. Keeps bacteria-poisons, toxins out.
the Interspinalis Muscles
The deep layer also includes the Interspinalis Muscles (all of which are epaxial) the IntertransversariiMuscles (some of which are hypaxial) and the Levator Costarum muscles(all epaxial)
Which heart chamber is the last one during blood circulation that pumps the oxygenated "good" blood to the rest of the body?
left ventricle
simple squamous
one layer of flat cells, thin and smooth sites: alveoli to permit diffusion of gases, capillaries to permit exchanges between blood and tissue
Greater Omentum
Suspended from?
Lessor Omentum
what is posterior?
what boundary does it form?
Greater curve of the stomach and the transverse colon
-comes from Lesser curve of stomach to liver.
-epiploic space
-lesser Omentum + stomach forms anterior boundary of lesser peritoneal cavity
What do FSH and LH act on?
the testis and ovaries
longissimus cervicis
o: transverse processes of T1 - T4 or T6
i: transverse processes of C2-C6
Extensor Digitorum Longus
O- Lateral condyle of the tibia and medial surface of the fibulaI- Middle and Distal digits of Digits 2-5A- extends digits 2-5, inverts, dorsiflexes ankleN- deep peroneal branch of the common peroneal
The outer layer of blood vessels is composed of connective tissue called theA. medullary cord. B. tunica adventitia. C. red pulp.D. white pulp.
B. tunica adventitia.
simple cuboidal epithelia
single row of cube shaped cells often with microvilli

absorption and secretion, produces mucus

liver, thyroid, mammary, salivary and other glands, brochioles, and most kidney tubules
IVC and liver:
1) IVC is physiclly attached to...
2) path to heart from here.
3) What drains into IVC (in relation to liver)?
1) most superior of liver. 
2) passes up through resp diaphragm at T8, then immediately enters RA of heart.
3) Veins of the liver
How does deep breathing affect alveolar ventilation?
it increases alveolar ventilation and decreases dead space
The ileum is mainly located on what side of the body?
Inferior and right quadrant
___ carry nutrients to upper layers of skin and help to regulate temperature.
dermal blood vessals
Sperm Passage through duct system of testes. 
 before the spermatic cord
1) Seminiferous tubule: sperm made
2) Straight tubule
3) Rete testis (in mediastinum of testis)
4) Efferent ductules
5) Epididymis: head, body, tail
6) Ductus deferens is constituent of spermatic cord
Erector Spinae - Iliocostalis : Action
Extend & Laterally Bend Trunk & Neck
Define the Hypodermis (subcutaneous) layer
Made up of adipose tissue and areolal helps muscle connect to skin
R and L Crus of Diaphragm
1) arise
2) contribute to
1) L2, L3 level
2) median arcuate ligament
How many germ layers in second week and what are they?
2, epiblast and hypoblast (remember rule of 2's for second week)
What is the primary role/function of neutrophils?
-usually the first of the WBCs to arrive at an injury site-very active phagocytes, specializing in attacking & digesting bacteria
if it falls below the lower limit of autoregulation waht happens
can cause cerebral ischemia and depress neuron function
you measure a solution having a pH of 4. It should have a pH of 5. what do you do?
adjust the pH to 5 since it is ten times too acidic
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