Anatomy Exam 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cardi-
heart
LITH
stone
pilus
hair
somato-
body
-tripsy
crushing
Semilunar
half moon
NOSTRILS
air enters
decubitus ulcer
bedsore.
cornu
Latin for HORN
ACE Inhibitors
Renal damage
tendon
muscle to bone
Otic
Pertaining to the ear
Lateral
Away from the midline
mediastinum
cavity between the lungs
Nasal Septum
Divides nasal cavity
cation
loses electron, positive charge
Anconeus
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Olecranon on ulna
Action: Extends elbow
Innervation:Radial Nerve
Condyle
A knob on a bone
Sulcus
A shallow impression or groove
Cellulose
is structural polysaccharide that gives strength to the cell walls of plants. wood cotton and paper
Head
–a rounded, almost spherical, projection
dorsal
toward the back or spine
calcification
initiated by bone builidng cells called osteoblasts
What muscle pulls the thigh medially?
Adductors
Agonist
prime mover, muscle produces desired action when it contracts
osteomalacia
in adults, bones are inadequately mineralized
Axis of movement through temporo-mandibular joint
Condylar process
How many elements ocur in nature?
92
cation
loses electrons acquires a positive charge
round ligament
aka ligamentum teres-in the liver-fibrous band that marks the degenerated umbilical vein
dorsal cavity
cranial cavity(brain) and vertebral cavity(spinal cord)
Forms posteroinferior region of the coxal bone
Ischium
anemia
a quantitative deficiency of the hemoglobin, often accompanied by a reduced number of red blood cells and causing pallor, weakness, and breathlessness.
38
How many total ATP molecules are produced after a molecule of glucose has gone through both glycolysis and aerobic repiration?
coronal plane
The imaginary, vertical plane that cuts through a cadaver, from side to side, at right angles to the mid-sagittal plane, is referred to as the...
synapse
junction or point of close contact between neurons
microglia
cell type of macrophage that is specific to the vertebrae nervous system
rostral caudal order of vessels in limb
VAN
Reference man
Reference woman
healthy
22 years old
temperature 20 degrees celcius
light physical activity
 
man: 70kg/154lbs
2800kcals
woman: 58kg/128lbs
2000kcals
Constant pressure against the bed causes __________.
decubitus ulcers
B lymphocytes are part of the -------------- immune response.
humoral
What is a hiccup?
Spasms of the diaphragm
Accumulated fluid in the joint cavity.
Joint effusion
Bony structure that separates the nasal passage and throat in mammals.
Secondary palate
Dentine
Main structure of the tooth is comprised of thisDoes not contain living cells
anomic aphasia
text and pictures make no sense
Post ganglionic fibers in the ANS
thin, UNMYELINATED
tonsil
a prominent oval mass of lymphoid tissue on each side of the throat
Pupil
A circular opening in the center of the iris and into the anterior chamber, allows light to enter the retina.
two
How many pairs of floating ribs are included in the rib cage?
tetany
a decrease in PTH resulting in low plasma levels of calcium
the central sulcus separates which lobes
frontal from parietal
intermediate ridge
only in horses; ridge in bicipital sulcus of humerus
necrosis
cellular death or tissue death due to disease or trauma
Digestive System
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells; indigestible food stuffs are eliminated as feces
NAMEis when a result or stimulus enchances the orginal stimulus so that the acitivty is accerleted
postive feedback
The muscle layer that does the actual contracting?
Myocardium
circumflex artery
branch of the left coronary artery that curves to left within the coronary sulcus and reaches the posterior surface of the heart
Function of the liver
Secretion of bileStorage of nutrients
biceps brachii OAI
O: coracoid process of scapula, bicipital groove, supraglenoid tubercle
A: flexion and supination
I: radial tuberosity
How many false ribs are on each side?
3
immune system
a network of cells and cell-forming tissue that protects the body from pathogens, destroys infected, malignant cells, and removes cellular debris
Muscular derivatives of the pharyngeal arches
1st arch:
muscles of mastication
mylohyoid
anterior belly of digastric
tensor palatine
tensor tympani
 
2nd arch:
stapedius
stylohyoid
posterior belly of digastric
auricular
muscles of facial expression
 
3rd arch:
stylopharyngeus
 
4th & 6th arch:
cricothyroid
levator palatini
constrictors of pharynx
intrinsic muscles of pharynx
sympathetic nervous system
fight or flight part of the ANS
Surface Anatomy
the study of shapes and markings on the surface of the body that reveals the underlying organs
What hormones maintain and develop the skeleton?
Calcitonin, calcitriol, PTH
Contents of the subinguinal space
Muscular lacuna (lateral to iliopectineal arch): iliopsoas muscle and femoral nerve (b/w the iliacus and psoas major)
Vascular lacuna (medial to iliopectineal arch): femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve (L1,L2), femoral artery, femoral vein, Rosenmuller lymph node
explain branches of the femoral artery
three brancehs...the profundafemoral, the lateral femoral circumflex, and the medial femoral circumflexprofunda feeds the posterior compartment of the thigh, the lateral feeds the anterior, and the medial feeds the medial compartment of the thigh blood.
The ends of the bones are shaped concave-convex and positioned opposite to each other.ex- first carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
Sellar(saddle) joints
the __ is a collection of structures that activate the cerebral cortex into a state of wakefulness
reticular formation
Muscles That Move the Glenohumeral Joint/Arm
~~origins on the scapula~~
1.Deltoid
2.Coracobrachialis
3.Teres major
4.Triceps brachii
5.Biceps brachii
6.Rotator cuff muscles (4)
---Subscapularis
---Supraspinatus
---Infraspinatus
---Teres minor
~~origins on the axial skeleton~~
1.Pectoralis major
2.Latissimus dorsi
radius
the bone of the forearm on the thumb side.
inferior mesenteric
A vein that is a tributary to the splenic vein is the...
feedback system
A cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is continually monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated, and so on.
Branches off of the Aortic arch
Brachiocephalic, Left common carotid artery, Left Subclavian
Matter can exist in (1), (2), or (3)
(1)liquid (2)gas (3)solid
2 functional divisions of the respiratory tract
conductive portion-extends from nasal cavity to smallest bronchiole of lung-heats air
respiratory portion-respiratory bronchioles and alveoli-gas exchange
The Nervous system and the Endrocrine system work closley together to maintain the
Homeostasis of an individual
What union forms the braciocephalic veins?
the internal jugular veins and subclavian veins.
Name all the ligaments of the larynx
1.) median cricothyroid ligament2.) cricotracheal ligament3.) Vocal ligmant4.) lateral thyrohyoid ligament5.) median thyrohyoid ligament (4 & 5 makes up the thyrohyoid membrane)6.) thyroepiglottic ligament7.) hyoepiglottic ligament
the internal pudendal artery passes _____ to the sacrospinous ligament and reenters the pelvis via what to supply what?
posterior, via lesser sciatic foramen, then supplies obturator internus muscle
region of stomach inferior to where esophagus enters
pouchlike extension, left middle side
3 main variables that determine BP
CO, blood volume (regulated by kidneys), resistance to flow
Calcium as a 2nd messenger
- higher outside than inside of a cell
- allows it to be a triggor to other activity throughout the body
** Ca2+ charge allows it to want to come in
**Liver, skin, kidneys (and sometimes your gut) helpt Vit. D. --> calcitrol (an active protein which increase blood calcium through the action on both kidneys & small intestine, main main action = enable the absorption of Ca 2+ in the small intestine (enables Ca2+ to be transported out of the intestine lumen & into the blood)
what is the pressure gradient that exists with breathing?
Breathing is a negative pressure situation.Where ambient pressure (760) is higher than in the lungs (750-758). Thus air moves into the lungs when the diaphragm RELAXES.
intermaxillary suture the articulation between the palatine processes of the right and left maxillae
a suture; it is a midline feature of the hard palate and marks the line of fusion of the two palatine shelves (secondary palate) during development
Length and location of female urethra
4 cm in length
on anterior of vaginal wall - opens into the vestibule of the vagina
three descending motor tracts of the direct pathway
1. Corticobulbar tract
2. Lateral corticospinal tract
3. Anterior corticospinal tract
the left and right terms refer to (1)
the sides of the cadaver being viewed
How does the heart beat? Can you control it?
By a series of 3 pacemakers. Some CNS control, but very little.
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