Anatomy Exam Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Pd
Palladium
syn-
together
phago-
eat
(arth-)
joint
-Oxia
oxygen
zygo-
union, join
Integumentary system
skin
-ole, ule
small
pneumatic bones
humerus
coracoid
sternum (keel)
pelvis
vertebrae
(RIA)
radioimmunoassayonly invitro test
taste receptors
Gustatory cells


Endochondrial ossification deals w/ ______ Bone

 
Long
Levatator Scapulae : Insertion
Scapula
reflex pathway
sensory receptor-sensory neuron-interneuron-motor neuron-effector
Compact bone
Smooth and homogeneous
ren-
kidney (renal: of the kidney)
cortex
ovarian follicles surrounded by CT
positive feedback
producing positive change/normal process
 
ex: labor/woman giving birth
Myofilaments
Fibers within the Sacromere


Thick filaments (myosin)
Thin filaments (actin)
Tendon
Connective tissue, attaches muscles to bones
Natural teeth in the jawbones
Dentition
arterioles
smallest arteries
tunica media only has 1-2 layers of smooth muscle
Lower Respiratory Tract/Conduction Portion
Larynx
Trachea
Primary, Secondary Tertiary
Terminal bronchioles
congenital
present at the time of birth
neurotransmitters
chemicals that transmit a nerve impulse to the next cell in line
endocrine gland
lose contact with surface
 
no ducts
 
lots of blood capillaries
 
secrete into blood---->hormones
What are TIMPs?
They are MMP antagonists
Temporary storage of fecal material is held where?
rectum
yellow-orange pigment tat gives egg yolkand carrots color
carotene
Calsquestrin
Inside the SR,molecules of a calcium-binding protein.
comparative anatomy
considers anatomical organization of different types of animals
The basic fundamental and structural component of life is the
Cell
mandible
the bone of the lower jaw.
body fluids
defined as dilute watery solutions containg dissolved chemicals inside or outside of the cell
Serous Membranes
1. Structure
 
2. Function
1. Mesothelium-simple squamous epithelium
-connective tissue
-single layer of cells
 
2. Secrete Serous Fluid: Lubricant
 
* remember-no matterwhere it is located it is always the same histologicaly 
what are triglycerides also referred to as?
neutral fats
Triangle of auscultation
Bordered by trapezius, latissimus dorsi and rhomboid (or medial border of scapula, whatever)
facies lunata
moon face; articular surface of acetabulum
Scalenus Medius : Action
Raise first 2 ribs
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
hormone from duodenum secreted in sreponse to fat content of chyme
-stimulates production of pancreatic enzymes by acinar cells 
NAMEare regions around the nucleus in which the given electron or electron pair are likely to be found
orbitals
contraction elicited by a single brief stimulus is
a twitch
autonomic ganglion
-autonomic sensory neurons located in dorsal root gangalia
SEPTAL CELLS(TYPE 2 CELLS)PRODUCE
SURFACTANT WHICH IS PHOSPHOLIPID
Disk Herniation
• Nucleus pulposus bulges through the annulus fibrosis• Annulus is thinnest in the posterior – next to the spinal cord• But this region is re-enforced by the posterior longitudinal ligament• Herniation is therefore most likely to go dorso-laterally• This type of can encroach upon the dorsal root ganglion creating dermatomal pain pattern
Give the levels of structural organization from start to finish.
CHEMICAL
CELLULAR
TISSUE
ORGAN
ORGAN SYSTEM
ORGANISMAL
produces chyme and brings food into the small intestine
stomach
mediastinum
a median septum or partition between two parts of an organ, or paired cavities of the body.
elastic fibers
constructed of a rubber liek protein called elastin and allows tissues to stretch and recoil
The characteristics of hormones are based on:
__________
and
______________
steroids (lipid based)
and 
proteins (amino acids)
i am negative and have an extra electron and few protons?
Anion
Serratus anterior
O: ribs 1-8
I: anterior surface of medial scapular border
Innervation - long thoracic nerve (runs superficial to the muscle)
Action - lateral rotation of scapula to permit abduction of scapula above the horizontal plane
 
Injury --> "winged scapula"
Which of the epidermal cell types is most numerous?
keratinocytes
Parietal Bone
Most superior bone of the lateral skull
What is the Epiphyseal Plate:
Line of cartilageseparating epiphysisfrom diaphysis
Femoral Triangle
Bordered by the adductor longus, the sartorius, and the inguinal ligament...on top by fascia lata and the bottom by pectineus, adductor longus, and Illiosoas....the femoral artery, vein, and nerve come through it
_ – greatly increased size to meet the needs of increasing brain size. Additional modifications to support greater sensory input.
dermatocranium
dorsal
Pertaining to the back; also used to denote a position that is more toward the back than another object of reference. Sometimes called posterior.
Sebaceous gland
Oil, simple branched alveolar, NOT ON PALM OR SOLE
Three functional types of joints
1. synarthroses
2. amphiarthroses
3. diarthroses
satellite cells
regulate the exchange of nutrients and waste products in the PNS
tendon
a cord or band of dense, tough, inelastic, white, fibrous tissue, serving to connect a muscle with a bone or part; sinew.
cardiac sphincter
The valve at the entrance to the stomach is the...
give some examples of fibrous proteins
examples include collagen (bones/cartilage) and keratin (hair/nails)
stable and strong
thin filaments
composed of 2 strands of the protein actin, tropomyosin, and troponin
an area of the brain in which the blood brain barrier is disrupted would be
hypothalamus
In the large intestine ____ , ____ and __ are absorbed
-Na+
-K+
-Water 
The area of the stomach above the opening of the esophogus known as the 2nd stomach - designed to let material rot - no excretions
The fundus
Circumvallate Papillae
Form an inverted V on the posterior surface of the tongue, all contain taste buds
Function of the Pancreas
Exocrine cells secrete buffers and digestive enzymesEndocrine cells secrete hormones
Cranial nerve III: Oculomotor
-Primarily motor (a few sensory proprioceptors report back the position of the eyeball)
-Controls 4 of 6 muscles (skeletal) that move eye in orbit and iris (autonomic)
-Somatic branch of nervous system
-Arises from midbrain
-If severed, eyelid may droop or person may not be able to move eyeball in certain direction
respiratory system
the system by which oxygen is taken into the body; in mammals the system includes the nasal passages, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
central nervous system
The brain and spinal cord may be collectively referred to as the...
What is 1 called?
 
What is its function?
 
 
Intervertebral foramen
 
Exit for the nerves of the spinal cord
Maxillary Sinus Relations - Vascular?
Maxillary - Superior Alveolar branches (Ant., Mid., and Post.)
What is the integumentary system? (3)
forms the external covering (2)protects deeper tissue from injury (3)synthesizes Vitamin D
Tissue surrounding Vocal Folds
* SSE - Stratified Squamous above vocal folds

* Psuedostratied Columnar below
What are the parts of the lower respiratory system?
larynx, trachea(windpipe), lung
What part of the hip complex is the largest, smallest?
largest- Illiums
Smallest- Pubis
O, I, A, N: occipitomandibularis
O: jugular process of occipital boneI: caudal border of mandibleA: open mouthN: facial n.
Diarthroses is also known as
Synovial Joints (e.g. end of long bones)permits the wides range of motion
I: Deltoid Tuberosity (Lat Humerus)
A: Ant fibers: flex, med rotatesMed fibers: AbductsPost fibers: extend, lat rotates
1. Aorta and esophagus relationship as they go inferior
2.where does the inferior vena cava pass through the diaphram
3. esophageal hiatus where the esophagus passes through the diaphram
4. Aortic hiatus where the aorta passes through the diaphram
1. esophogus crosses the Aorta anteriorly
esophogus shifts left and the Aorta shifts to the midline
2. T8 level
3. T10
4. T12
Three pigments that contribute to skin color
melanin: most important pigment, made from tyrosine (white people have minimal amount)
carotene: yellowish pigment from carrots & tomatoes
hemoglobin: allows red color of blood to show
How does high blood pressure affect the size of your
heart?
• High blood pressure typically increases the size of your
heart.
What is the function of the spleen?
filters blood: removes old and damaged erythrocytes (red blood cells) from circulation
 
can act as a reservoir for blood
Foramen - related to the bone surface
A rounded passageway fro blood vessels or nerves
14 Facial Bones
2 Unpaired: 1) Mandible 2) Vomer; 6 Paired: 1) Maxillae 2) Zygomatics 3) Nasals 4) Lacrimals 5) Palatines 6) Inferior Conchae
what is the function of the medial column
adapts to the terrain or ground differences
T or F There are no capillaries in the matrix of the spongy bone
True: nutrients move via diffusion
/ 90
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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