Anatomy Physiology Saladin 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Origin
head of muscle
Belly
mid-region of a muscle
Flexion of Fingers
curling fingers
Abduction of Fingers
spreading fingers
Aponeurosis
broad sheet-like attachment of tendon
 
example: scalp, abdomen, hands, and feet
Arthrology
study of anatomy function, dysfunction, and treatment of joints
Extension of Thumb
straightening the thumb
Synovial Fluid
fluid in joint/articular cavity
 
slippery and viscous; same consistency to a raw egg white
 
nourish articular cartilage and removes wastes by phagocytes
Temporomandibular Joint
jaw joint
 
combines condylar, hinge, and plane joints
 
lateral and sphenomandibular ligament support this joint
Joint
shoulder, elbow, hips, and knee
 
self-lubricating, frictionless, weight-bearing, movable structures--which enable vertebrates and animals in general to do work
 
or immovable for strength of uniting 2 or more bones
 
typically named after bones involved in articulation
 
 
Retinaculum
band of connective tissue that separates groups of tendons from other muscles
 
example: around wrists and ankles
Perimysium
each fascicle (bundle) is separated from other fascicles by this connective tissue sheath
Pennate Muscle
feather-like with fascicle obliquely oriented towards a central tendon that extends the length of the muscle;
 
uni, bi, multi
Resistance
equals load and effort;
 
which is the energy needed to overcome it
Bursae of Shoulder
subdeltoid, subacromial, subcoracoid, subscapular
Fibrous capsule
outer layer of joint capsule
 
continuous with the periosteum
Dorsiflexion
movement in which toes are elevated
 
example: applying toenail polish, foot does this as it comes forward in walking
Arthroscopic Surgery
greatly improved repair, recovery time, and levels of pain associated with knee surgery
Joint/Articulation
any point where 2 bones meet
Biomechanics
sub-discipline of kinesiology and the study of mechanical analogy of motion including physics, physiology, etc
 
study of the mechanical structure of a living organism using physics to describe structures and the analogy of machines to understand movement
Saddle Joint
saddle-shaped joint; both articulating surfaces are concave
 
biaxial
 
example: thumb and sternoclavicular joint
Cartilaginous Joint/Amphiarthrosis
bones held together by cartilage
 
slightly movable
 
eg--intercarpal, intertarsal, intervertebral joints
Agonist
muscle that does the prime movement for a particular joint
 
example: biceps brachii
Fusiform Muscle
tapered ends, thick belly; relatively strong
 
example: biceps brachii and gastrocnemius
Supination of Foot
combination of plantar flexion, inversion, and adduction
Adduction
movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline
 
hyper: stand with ankles crossed, cross fingers
Hyperextension
furthur extension of a joint beyond the zero position
 
examples: admiring a ring = wrist; backswing of lower limb when you walk = hip
Elbow Joint
hinge joint composed of two articulations--humeroulnar and humeroradial joints that are enclosed in a single capsule
Extension
movement that straightens a joint and returns a body part in zero position (anatomical position)
 
examples: straightening elbow/wrist/knee; returning arm/thigh to zero position; hip and knee in stair climbing
Radial flexion
tilts the hand toward the thumb
 
example: waving
Supination
forearm movement that turns palm to face anteriorly/upward
 
example: in anatomical postion, forearm is this and radius is parallel to ulna
Pronation of Foot
combination of dorsiflexion, eversion, and abduction
Circumduction
one end of an appendage remains stationary while the other end makes a circular motion
 
example: pitcher windmill; individual finger, hand, thigh, foot, trunk, and head
Pronation
forearm movement that causes the palm to face posteriorly/downward
 
example: radius crosses the ulna like an X
Inversion
foot movement that tips the soles medially, somewhat facing eachother
Articular Cavity
healthy synovial joints are held separate by soft tissue and fluid in cavity
Third-Class Lever
effort is in the middle
 
most musculoskeletal levers are this kind
 
example: forearm acts as this when elbow is flexed; fulcrum is joint between ulna and humerus; effort is applied partially by biceps brachii; resistance is any weight in the hand or weight of forearm itself
Fulcrum
joints act as these in mechanical advantage
First-class lever
fulcrum is in the middle
 
example: seesaw
 
Gliding (Plane) Joints
flat articular surfaces move (slightly) over an adjacent bone; monaxial
 
examples: found between bones of carpals, tarsals, and articular processes of the vertebrae
Spinal Nerves
innervate all muscles other than head and neck and have their origin in the spinal cord and emerge through the intervertebral foramina and branch subsequently into dorsal/ventral rami
 
identified by letter and number; T6 (6th thoracic nerve)
Intrinsic Muscle
muscle that has its origin and insertion both in one region
Epimysium
the whole muscle is held together by this layer of connective tissue
Rotator Cuff
tendons of four muscles that also stabilize the shoulder
 
supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
Lateral/Medial Menisci
within the knee joint cavity, these cushion and stabilze the knee
Humeroradial Joint
capitulum or humerus meets head of radius
Depression
movement that lowers a body part in the frontal plane
 
example: setting down a suitcase, important in chewing
Abduction
movement of body part in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body
 
example: spreading legs, raising arm to one side
 
hyper: arm if you raise it high enough to cross slightly over front or back of your head
Pivot Joint
rotational movement at a single point; monaxial
 
examples: atlantaoaxial joint between first 2 vertebrae and radioulnar joint at the elbow
Hinge Joint
convex surface fits into a concave surface; monaxial (one plane of movement)
 
limits lateral movement
 
examples: elbow, knee, and finger/toe joints
accessory structures of a synovial joint
tendons, ligaments, bursae
Ulnar flexion
tilts the hand toward to little finger
 
example: waving
Cranial Nerves
innervate the muscles of the head and neck; and arise from the base of the brain and emerge from cranial foramina
 
numbered I - XII
Adduction of Thumb
bring thumb back to zero positoin, touching the base of the index finger
Olecranon Bursa
eases the movement of tendons over the posterior surface of the elbow
Synovial Joint
2 freely moving bones separated by a cavity filled with a lubricant synovial fluid
 
eg--jaw, shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee
 
structurally complex and can become uncomfortable and dysfunctional
 
healthy held separate by soft tissue and fluid by a joint (articular cavity)
Biceps Tendon
strap to hold humerus in place against glenoid cavity
 
held in groove by transverse humeral ligament
 
merges with biceps brachii
 
O: glenoid cavity
Transverse Acetabular Ligament
bridges a gap in the inferior margin of the acetabulum
Calcaneal (Achilles) Tendon
tendon in the ankle that extends from the gastrocnemius to the calcaneus, which allows us to flex our feet
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
ligament in the knee joint that prevents hyperextension of the knee
 
excluded from fluid-filled synovial cavity
 
most knee injuries; damanged ligaments can be replaced with a graft
Facial Nerve (CN VII)
nerve that is vulnerable to damage by cuts and fractures that can cause paralysis and the face to sag
Right or Left Rotation
twisting at the waist or turning of the head when chest when face turns right or left
 
important in pitching and discus
Effort Arm (LE)
portion of a lever from the fulcrum to the point of effort
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