Anatomy terms 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
strat-
layer
TARSAL
ANKLE
choano
funnel
malacia
soft
albumin
albumin
homo-
same, alike
neurology
nervous system
histology
examines tissues
DORSUM
BACK OF HAND
Branches of CNVII
Temporal
Zygomatic
Buccal
Mandibular
Posterior auricular
calcaneal tendon
achilles heel
slightly permeable
small, uncharged
endosteum
connective tissue inside bone
dysplasia
condition of abnormal formation
membrane proteins: within membrane
integral
levator scapulae
elevate scapula
transverse processes
superior angle of scapula
Define:
 
1) Hypochondric
2) Epigastric
3) Inguinal
Define:
 
1) Hypochondric
2) Epigastric
3) Inguinal
Parotid Gland
Salivary gland 
located just anterior to external acoustic meatus
Stimulated by PSNS
Parotid duct carries saliva into oral cavity
 
Innervation: CN VII
Cartilage
embryonic forerunner of most bones-covers many joint surfaces
PNS
Peripheral Nervous System- The cranial nerves and branches
Myofibrils
Contractile organelles of skeletal muscle.(little threads)
frontal
voluntary motor functions
planning, mood, smell and social judgement

lesions
problems with personality
inability to plan and execute appropriate behavior
feedback system #3
effectors produce response
lymphoid system
defense against infection and disease
continuous capillaries
continuous endothelium and continuous basal lamina; found in muscle, brain, lung
interspinous ligaments
connect adjacent spinous processes with the fibers decussating to form an X
Thalamus/Pineal Gland
Structure which lies immediately superior and anterior to the superior colliculus of the corpora quadirgemina
Trigeminal nerve
maesster muscle, temporalis muscle, medial pterygoid muscle, lateral pterygoid muscle
chemical and mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed
digestion
enlargement of GI tract permitting food storage and chemical digestion. where chemical digestion begins
Cardia
The structure that contains the genetic material of the cell is the ______.
nucleus
LongitudinalO: Hard palate, palatine aponeurosisI: Post. Thyroid, side of Pharynx, EsophagusA: Elevates pharynx/larynxInn: Vaugs CN10
Cricophyngeal muscle
Elbow Joint
Diarthrosis, hinge joint articulations between (1) humerus and ulna and (2) humerus and radius
~~structural characteristics~~
*Radial (lateral) collateral ligament
*Ulnar (medial) collateral ligament
*Anular ligament:goes across
ATP
energy currency of cell, energy released when 3rd phosphate is removed forming ADP
insertion f.c.u.
pisiform, hook hamate, base 5th meta
What muscle allows you to drink through a straw?
Buccinator
epicardium
inner loose CT and outher mesothelium make up this layer of the heart
adrenal medulla
hormones that are sympathomimetic are secreted by the _________.
Longitudinal axis
imaginary line around which rotation in the transverse plane occurs
Paranasal sinuses? (4)
FEMS1. Frontal2. Ethmoid3. Maxillary4. Sphenoid
areolar connective tissue
very vascular, contains fibroblasts and many irregularly arranged fibers surrounds nerves muscles and some organs
Columnar Epithelium
cells taller than they are wide
the space where blood can flow through in vessels is called?
LUMEN
pulp cavity
spongy, highly vascular hollow inside of a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves
Taste is classified as a ____________ sense.
special
Pronation
Rotation of the forearm whereby the palm is turned posteriorly
The gluteal region is on the __________side of the body
Posterior
pubic
of, pertaining to, or situated near the pubes or the pubis.
muscle cell
an elongated contractile cell that forms the muscles of the body
Axial
Pertaining to the central part of the body, the head and trunk
What two muscles close the jaw?
Masseter and temporalis
fetal testosterone secretion
male duct development; converst to dihydrotestosterone which stimulates development of external genitalia; influences development of other systems
increases
as the partial pressure of oxygen in blood increases, the percent saturation of hemoglobin _________
Which bones have a styloid process?
radius, ulna, skull
levator veli palatini
medial to tensor innervation Xcontract to raise soft palateeustachian tube to soft palate
NAMEare regions of space in which electrons ocupy
electron shell
LARGE INTESTINES
absorbtion of h2o and electrolytes for balance and hydration temporarily stores waste for elimination
Submucosa of Small Intestine
connective tissue containing blood vessels, nerves and glands. Scattered cell in a matrix
unmyelinated nerve tissue in the cns comprise the ___ ____
gray matter
Triceps Brachii (Long Head)
Origin: ScapulaAction: Extends & adducts arm
Pronator quadratus
O: ventral surface of ulna
I: ventral surface of radius
A: pronation
osteocyte
a cell of osseous tissue within the bone matrix; a bone cell.
anterior or ventral
nearer to the front of the body
fovea capitis
1-location
2-accommodates what ligament
1-depression in the center of the head of Femur
2-accommodate prominent ligament
What does the Scapula look like?
thin, flat, triangular bone
Costochondral Junction
where the bony rib unites with the costal cartilage
Bone Development Terms (3)
1) Ossification- bone formation (turns hyaline cartilage into bone)2) Intramembranous ossification- bone develops within fibrous sheet, produces flat bones of skull, most of clavicle3) Endochondral ossification- bone develops from hyaline cartilage model
Water's (1) is highly benefictial when we sweat bc as the prespiration evaporates from our skin, large amounts of heat are removed from the body, providing a effective cooling mechanism
high heat of vaporization
Describe the cardiac muscle.
Composed of mostly involuntary muscle fibre but bears a superficial resemblance to voluntary muscle, in that there is some poorly defined striation. It makes up most of the heart and is only found in the heart.
Refractory Period
The period of lost excitability, is a characteristic of all muscle and nerve cells.
Physiology
study of how the body and its parts work or function
olecranal
the part of the ulna beyond the elbow joint.
saturated fatty acid
no double bond, solid at room temp
as hypothalamus matures, it produces what hormone?Which does what?
GRHstimulates anterior pituitary to release FSH, LH, and Interstitial cell stimulating hormone
Marrow (Medullary) Cavity
hollow space in the diaphysis of a long bone where bone marrow is foundLined by spongy bone
Reflux ( heartburn) is common when position is altered during ___ with ___.
-pregnancy
-new babies (differential growth will move sphincter downward) 
Describe muscle tone.
The stress or tension caused by the continual conflict between the agonist and antagonist.
Prime Mover that Flex Wrist?
Flexor Carpi Radialis, Flexor Carpi Ulnaris, Flexor Digitorum Profundus & Superficialis
kidney
one of the two organs in the back of the abdominal cavity that excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolytes, and act as endocrine glands
Where do high frequency/pitch sound crest?
 
Where do low frequency/pitch sound crest?
 
Name the ends of the cochlear duct:
 
 
Early/base end (SV)
 
Late apex end (SV)
 
1) Apex
2) Base
Utricle & Saccule
Two organs deep to the surface of the vestibule
The name for the 2nd of 1-way valves that keeps food moving in 1 direction
The pyloric sphincter
what is the periosteum?
it is a membrane surrounding the bone EXPECT IT DOES NOT SURROUND THE EPIPHYSIS
movement of solutes through a membrane against a concentration gradient is
diffusion and is a passive process
What are the 7 distinguishing characteristics of the sacrum?
- 5 fused vertebrae
- Anterior & posterior sacral foramina
- Anterosuperior edge of S1/sacral promontory
- Alae for articulation with the pelvis
- Sacral hiatus
- Lateral crest
- Medial crest (reminants of fused processes)
What does the visceral serosa do?
it COVERS the outside of the organ.
What is the relationship of the glossopharyngeal nerve to the constrictor muscles? What about the recurrent laryngeal nerve to the constrictors? What about the internal laryngeal?
1.) It courses between superior and middle pharyngeal constrictor muscles.2.) Between inferior constrictor and esophagus.3.) between middle and inferior constrictors
ANS Symp systme neuron overlook (2kinds)
1. sensory info sym w/ symp pregang (MYELINATED) neuron, release ACh at autonomic ganglion to symp postgang (UNMYELINATED) neurons which release NE to receptor cell
2.sensory info sym w/ symp pregang (MYELINATED) neuron, release ACh at ADRENAL MEDULLA---from here, NO AXONS, and NE and E released from chromaffin cells into blood
What is the name of this muscle of the mouth?
 
What is its function?
 
Buccinator
 
Keeps food within the oral cavity during mastication/chewing
Name the cranial bones and the space they surround. (Ch. 6 pg. 135)
1 frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 occipital, 1 sphenoid, 1 ethmoid, which enclose the cranial cavity, a fluid-filler chamber that cushions and supports the brain
squam-
scale
COXAL
HIP
chole
bile
oma
tumor
bile
bil
ped-
child, foot
vagina (f)
vagina
umbilicus
belly button
ANTECUBICAL
FRONT OF ELBOW
CNX- general sensation
Laryngopharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Espophagus
gluteus maximus
butt muscle
simple sugars
monosaccharides, disaccharides
sesamoid bones
protect and redirect
symbiosis
close association between organisms
bind/respond to ligands
receptor proteins
pectineus
adduct thigh
superior pubic ramus
linea aspera
Inguinal Hernia Anatomy from Superficial Posterior View
 
**This is a picture....describe it first, then look, fool***
 
Fontanelle
Soft spot
prominent suture between the frontal bones (large open space)
Diarthroses types (6)
HingePivotPlaneCondyloidSaddleBall and Socket
calcaneocuboid
calcaneus and cuboidplane, but resembels a saddle joint. bifarcated ligament- connects calcaneus with cuboid and navicular.
Myoglobin
Red-colored protein inside the sarcoplasm.This protein found only in muscle,binds oxygen molecules that diffuse into muscle fibers from interstitial fluid.
nucleus
large organelle that stores DNA
nervous system
directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating activities of other organ systems
tunica intima (TI)
endotheliumsubendothelium: CT with scattered "myointimal" cells that have properties of smooth muslcle and fibroblasts and are phagocytic
intertuberal/bicipital sulcus/groove
between tuberosities and facing cranially
Cerebrum
Most superior part of human brain
Buccinator
Origin: Alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible. Insertion: Blends into fibers of obicularis oris. Action: Compresses cheeks. Innervation: Facial Nerve
organ in which starch digestion begins
mouth
Lesser Curvature
right side of stomach...for individual
Interphase
cell is not dividing (resting place).
LongitudinalO: Auditory tubeI: blends w/ PalatpharyngeusA: Elevates pharynx/larynxInn: Vagus CN10
Palatopharyngeus muscle
Bursa
saclike structure found around the outside of most synovial membranes
ion
atom that loses or gains electrons
Origin Latissimus Dorsi
Spinous Processes lower thoracic, lumbar, and upper sacral vert.
Iliac crest
Lower ribs
What spinal column-area muscle allows you to bend forward?
Rectus Abdominus
group A beta haemolytic streptococci
pathology: rheumatic fever
proteins
blood colloid osmotic pressure is due to the presence of ______ in blood plasma
Medial
term used to describe that a structure, surface or side is closer to the median or midsagittal plane
Sphenoid Sinus Relations - Medial?
Other Sphenoid Sinus
langerhan cells
found primarly in the stratum spinosumplagocytes
Stratified Squamous epithelia
-surface where there is stress-keratinized v. nonkeratinizedLocations:1. surface of skin (epidermis)2. oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus3. rectum and anus4. vagina
Left AV valve -bicuspid/tricuspid- when heart relaxes does valve (close/open)-when heart contracts does valve (close/open)
bicuspid; open; closed
detrusor muscle
formed from the longitudinal and smooth muscle layers of the urinary bladder-contraction compresses the bladder and expels its contents
Which of the following cranial nerves DO NOT contain preganglionic parasympathetic fibers?
trigeminal
Endomysium
The innermost layer that surrounds an electrically insulates each muscle fiber
__________ is the anatomical term for armpit
Axillary
otic
of or pertaining to the ear; auricular.
organ
grouping of tissues into a distinct structure that performs a specialized task
Lumbar
Pertaining to the lower back or lion region
Actin must interact with which of the three filaments in order to cause a muscle contraction?
Myosin
pelvic fascia
a layer of dense connective tissue covering the skeletal muscle
compliance
the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall can be expanded is called __________
What bone bears almost all of your weight?
tibia
incisive formaen
on the paltine plate of the maxilla
NAMEis a chemical bond btwn atoms formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other
ionic bond
TRICEPS BRACHII
lies along posterior of humerus, boxer muscle
internal nares. opening between nasal cavaties and nasopharynx
Eustachian Tubes
form myelin in the brain and spinal cord
oligodendrocytes
Erector Spinae Spinalis
Extends neck & vertebral column; maintains posture
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
O: Medial Epicondyle of humerus
I: Carpals, metacarpals, and palmar aponeuris
A: flexion of the wrist
sublingual
situated under the tongue, or on the underside of the tongue
positive feedback mechanism
the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the activity is accelerated
Hip Joint
-Stable joint, head is locked in deap to acatabulum
 
goblet cells are a characteristic of
epithelia of the stomach
medial plane
divides animal in half from head to tail; only one
Bones at birth/bones at death
270 at birth206 as adult
What is a solution?
are homogenous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids, or solids
_ project outward from the oral hood and prevent large particles from entering
Buccal cirri
Muscular Hypertrophy
Is an increase in the diameter of muscle fibers due to increased production of myofibrils, mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum,and other organelles.
Stimulation of acquired immunity
active = person contracts disease, takes weakened antigen (vaccination)passive = individual doesn't produce antibody, they are produced elsewhere and injected into person
acromial
the outward end of the spine of the scapula or shoulder blade.
fluid mosaic model
fluid lipids with a mosaic of proteins
how is HIV transmitted to vagina?
tricks antigen presenting dendritic cells
Site of hematopoiesis includes...
medullary cavities in bones of a healthy adult
Factoid: 3 ml O2 / liter is a gas tension of 105 mm Hg.  the 3 ml O2 / liter always has an oxygen tension (pO2) of 105 mm Hg regardless of whether the liquid is in contact with air or has  air with a different pO2.
cilia that line the pharynx establish the _ of water and move _ into the digestive tract
current, food laden mucus
Structure (joint classification)
based on the type of connective tissue involved in the binding of the 2 bones
vocal cords
either of the two pairs of folds of mucous membrane projecting into the cavity of the larynx
Name the structures in the membranous labyrinth:
 
Where are these found?
 
 
1) Utricle
2) Semicircular ducts
3) Saccule
4) Cochlear duct
 
Inside the boney labyrinth
Cell junctions that form fluid-tight seals between adjacent cells are called
desmosomes
gap junctions
tight junctions
seal junctions
 
desmosomes give cells and tissues stability

gap junctions allow transfer of cytoplasmic material, communication

tight junctions
seal junctions 
 
The name for the last 12 feet or the lower 3/5 of the SI
The ileum
What does a long bone consists of? name a few things
diaphysis, epiphysis, medullary cavity, etc.
what is a steroid?
 
what is not a steroid? 
is --> cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen
 
isnt --> fatty acid  
Where are discs not found?
-Between C1 & C2
- Within sacrum & coccyx
What is gross anatomy?
it is MACroscopic. it is seen with the naked eye.
What are the four arteries that supply the tonsillar bed? Which one is the main source of problematic hemorrhaging after surgery? How is this fixed as a last resort?
1.) facial (tonsilar branch & ascending palatine), descending palatine (from maxillary), lingual, & ascending pharyngeal (from external carotid). Lingual artery hemorrhages most often. As a last resort to stop bleeding, the external carotid is ligated.
control of motor out put of SNS
-cerebral cortex which gets input from basal ganglia, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord
What is the use of a anatomical pulley? (Ch. 9 pg. 255-6, inc fig 16)
The ability to change the direction of the force.
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