Anatomy Test 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
upon, above
ell, elle
lower back
Interventricular groove
oriented obliquely
shrug shoulders
anterior tibial
leg muscle
electrons shared unequally
Parietal pleura
costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic
inflammation of the hip
structures with specific functions
flex thigh
lumbar vertebrae
lesser trochanter of femur
When spermatozoa leave the seminiferous tubules they pass through the...
Vestibulocochlear Nerve
Vestibular Division: fibers from receptors in vestibule (utricle, saccule, semicircular ducts)--> internal acoustic meatus--> cranium
Fxn: balance & equilibrium
Cochlear Division: fibers from choclear receptors00> internal acoustic meatus--> cranium
Fxn: Hearing
separates muscles or muscle groups
O-Posterior surface of the femurI-joins achillies tenonA- flexes knee, plantarflexes, invertsN- Tibial nerve
As muscular tissue contracts,it produces heat.
hearing, smell, learning, memory, emotional behavior

agnosia-inability to recognize objects
prosopagnosia-inability to recognize faces
feedback system #1
receptors detect changes
integumentary system
protection from environmental hazards; temperature control
muscular pump
the heart is a ______
horizontal portions of the vertebral arch
Bony prominence of the posterior cubital region which serves as the insertion for the triceps brachii
swollen parts of reticulum near transverse tubules
laughing and crying
fast inhalation and exhalation
obaining and processing food, science of the study of food. foods are nutrients
The epidermis is a _________________________ epithelium.
stratified squamous
Suprahyoid muscle (2 bellies)O: Ant,Lower margin of Mandible; Post, Mastoid ProcessI: Hyoid, via tissue loopA: Floor of Oral Cavity, anchor tongue, elevate Hyoid, elevate Larynx
Geniohyoid muscle
Adipose Tissue (Fat)
Large, empty-looking cells (adipocytes) with thin margins; nucleus pressed against cell membrane
Energy storage, insulation, space filled as cushioning
Subcutaneous fat beneath skin & surrounding organs
brown fat found in hibernating animals produces heat only no ATP
contain CHON, made of amino acids
Insertion Supinator
back, lateral, front upper 1/3 radius
Similar to Meissner corpuscles but occur in mucous membranes.
Krause Bulbs
the circulatory system is a _____ system
Afferent (sensory)
_________ neurons carry nerve impulses from receptors to the central nervous system.
band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
Boundaries of the nasal cavity - Posterior?
tactile cells
found only in the stratum absaleprovide information regarding light touch sensation
Epithelial Tissue
tissue which covers surfaces, lines body cavities, and forms glands-includes epithelia and glands
the left ventricle forms the __________ of the heart. It pumps blood up and out to the body through the _____.
apex; aorta
j-shaped organ that occupies the left hypochondriac, epigastric, and portions of the umbilical region of the abdominal cavity
The precentral gyrus is an important motor area located within the _________ lobe.
Muscle that contracts to produce a particular movement; also called prime mover. For instance, the biceps brachii is an agonist that causes flexion of the elbow joint
Your wrist is _____ to your elbow
of, in, on, or for the abdomen:
branch of physiology dealing with the functions of the nervous system
inner surface of the lower ribs, upper borders of ribs 2,3. Inn.:intercostal nerves (T1-T11) and T12, the subcostal nerve. Vasc.-intercostal branches
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Location: Kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface
meiotic division as well as the end stage of differentiation referred to as..
the normal component of urine that is derived from the detoxification of ammonia produced as a result of deamination of protein is _________
the ______ is a major relay station for sensory information ascending to primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex
The epidermis is composed of...
stratified squamous epithelial tissues
Water can form a resilient (1) around certain body organs, helping protect them during physcial trauma
buccal or oral cavity, opening of the digestive tract, contains teeth and tongue
humans are this, have several types of teeth in each set
support and protection, give shape to the head, thorax and limbs, bones such as pelvis and lower limbs provide support for the body
bone functions
Erector Spinae Iliocostalis
Extends neck & vertebral column; maintains posture
Pectoralis Minor
O: ribs 3-5
I: Coracoid process of scapula
A: depresses and pulls scapula forward
an act or instance of noticing or perceiving.
vertebral or spinal canal
formed by bones of vertebral column
adductor magnus
-name 2 parts
-deepest and largest muscle in the medial compartment
-1-hamstring portion-it originates from the ischial tuberosity(hamstrings arise from the ischial tuberosity)
2-adductor part-arises from the shart of the femur along the linea aspera
-the tendon for this muscle inserts onto the inferior medial part of the femur on the adductor tuberosity (Adductor tendon)
control center
This sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it recieves from receptors, and generates output commands when needed.
supraspinous fossa
section of the scapula cranial to the spine
Latissimus dorsi
Origin: spinous processes of TV VI to LV V and sacrum, iliac crest, and ribs X to XII
Insertion: intertubercular groove
Innervation: dorsal scapular
T or Ffood fuels can be used to energize body activities directly
What is the function of "peyers patches"?
to fight infection
Narrow in the center of each A band contains thick but no thin filaments.
Usually open at rest.- Coughing- Valsalva's maneuver (strained defecation) - Giving birth
Features of Left Lung
of or pertaining to the tarsus of the foot.
Enter your front text here.
Enter your back text here.
What external genitalia is not visible externally?
accessory glands on female
avian vent
anus, esp. one in a lower animal such as a fish that serves for both excretion and reproduction
Humidified, warm air entering lungs : pp O2 = _____
1.  150 mm Hg
What are the lymph functions?
1. Production and movement of lymphocytes throughout the body2. Drainage of interstitial fluid back into general circulation
Prime Movers that Extend IP Joint?
Extensor Digitorum, Extensor Indicis, Extensor Pollicis Brevis & Longus, Extensor Digiti Minimi, Lumbricals, Dorsal & Palmar Interossei
zygomatic arch
the bony arch at the outer border of the eye socket, formed by the union of the zygomatic bone and the temporal bone.
general features of epithelium (8)
1. Arranged in sheets (either single or multiple layers), 2. Many cell junctions to provide secure attachments, 3. Apical (free) surface, 4. Basal surface adhered firmly to a basement membrane, 5. Lateral surfaces, 6. Avascular (so it uses diffusion), 7. Has nerve supply, 8. High capacity for renewal (high mitotic rate)
collagenous, elastic, reticular
name 2 of the three fibers found in the matrix of connective tissue
The name for the major part of the phylorus
The pyloric canal
how do long bones grow during childhood?
they lengthen via endochondral ossification
What articulates with the head of the humerus?
articulates with the glenoid fossa
parts of the lever in the body
joint-fulcrum bones are the lever contraction is the effort body tissue is the load
What happens in an Autoimmune disease?
Lose tolerance, body attacks own t cells
What is the nerve that innervates the laryngeal derivative of the 6th arch? Be specific.
recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus (CN X).
what happens during long term potentiation?
-nevronal RNA is altered and newly syn RNA is delievered to axons and dendrites
-dendrites spine changes-more form so strenght of synapse increases
-unique external proteins are deposited
-the number and size of presynaptic terminals may increase
-more neurotransmitters being released by presynaptic neurons

Why is late closure of cranial suture important?
Allows for head (calvaria) to mold into a more birth canal friendly shape
What is a motor unit? (Ch. 9 pg. 248)
All the muscle fibers that are controlled by a single motor neuron.  Some neurons control one or few fibers, while mot control hundreds.  The fewer fibers to the neuron, the more fine the control.
heart muscles
anti-viral protein
Vastus Lateralus
largest lymphoid organ
A Band
Thick Filaments
Cutaneous membrane
The skin
nerve pronator teres
median nerve
Movement from the midline
Ellipsoidal Joint
Biaxial, e.g. knuckle
abductor pollicis brevis
hand muscle
tumor of a gland
another word for microscopic anatomy
The inorganic component in bones
What is this called?
Interspinous ligament
small organic, helps cell metabolism
Four regions of the stomach
Regional Anatomy
Axial-head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular- upper and lower limbs(arms and legs)
decrease in the angle between articulating bones
Cartilage: fibrocartilage
Location: Intervertebral discs; pubic sympysis; discs of knee joint
Carpal tunnel
Covered by flexor retinaculum
9 tendons and 1 nerve
[Flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus and flexor pollicis longus
Median nerve]
No major vessels pass through carpal tunnel
B cells are responsible for
antibody production
CNIX- general sensation
Posterior 1/3 of tongue
(1) is also called displacement reaction
located on the maxilla bone
histology of urethra
females-transitional epithelium near bladder, rest is stratified squamous
males-neck of bladder to external urethral meatus changes from transitional to pseudostratified columnar or columnar, then stratified squamous
Food fuel, heat loss, protects, supportsBreasts, kidneys, skin, eyes
- allow no movement
- long fibers
- "ligaments" = some movement
a lubricating fluid resembling the white of an egg, secreted by certain membranes, as those of the joints.
cauda equina
Enter your back text here.
pleural cavity
Each lung is surrounded by the...
taking place or originating in a corresponding part on the opposite side of the body.
organic compounds
Compounds which always contain carbon and hydrogen, usually contain oxygen, and always have covalent bonds.
What is the name of this viscerocranium bone?
exocrine gland
maintain contact w/ surface by duct
releases secretion to surface
closer to the point of attachment; opposite of distal
The bilaminar disk is formed within which week?
B and T cells stimulated by
phagocytesproteinsantigen receptors
Pertaining to the abdomen; used to denote a position that is more toward the belly/abdominal surface than some other object of reference.
Two types of pituitary glands?
Anterior & posterior.
What is surfactant?
phospholipid secreted by alveolar epithelium used as a barrier between water and air
A progressive, neural disability that destroys myelin is
multiple sclerosis
either of two flat, triangular bones, each forming the back part of a shoulder; a shoulder blade
tunica interna (tunica intima)
endothelium, basement membrane, internal elastic lamina
coverings over the central nervous system
The meninges are...
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord collectively
polyunsaturated fat
Contains more than one double covalent bond between fatty acid carbon atoms.
tuber spinae
roughed area around midpoint of spine on scapula
Scalenus Posterior : Origin
Transverse Process of Cervical Vertebrae
hormonal GIP is controled by beta to secrete insulin.  Insulin rises in anticipation of elevated glocse in blood
NAME LEVELcells are made up of molecules
cellular level
Ascidians "_" do not greately resemble what we think of as chordates, but the _ state exhibits all 4 chordate characteristics.
sea squirts, larval
pouches along the walls of the colon that permit considerable distension and elongation created by muscle tone
Skin & structures associated with it, hair nails, sweat glands, oil glands
trans fats
oils that are solidified by additionof hydrogen atoms at sites of double carbon bonds
Articular Capsule
Outer fibrous layer is formed from dense regular connective tissue to strengthen the joint
Inner synovial membrane secretes a viscous, oily fluid that has the following functions:
Lubricates the articular cartilages
Provides nourishment to the articular cartilages
Acts as a shock absorber during compression of the joint
the first or innermost digit of the foot of humans and other primates or of the hind foot of other mammals; great toe; big toe.
Inferior border of the heart
Formed by the right ventricle
nearer to the top of the bodyex the neck is superior to the chest
What is the CNS composed of?
Brain & spinal cord
Reticular Region
- collagen fiber bundles arranged in a dense irreg. array w/ elastic fibers interspersed to provide strength & elasticity
- contains accessory organs: adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, oil glands, & sweat glands
3 types of muscle contraction
Concentric (length of muscle decreases)
Eccentric (length of muscle increases)
Isocentric (length of muscle doesn't change)
Simple cuboidal epithelia
occur in regions of secretion and absorptionLocations:1. small ducts of exocrine glands2. surface of ovary (germinal epithelium)3. kidney tubules4. thyroid follicles (glands)5. lines ducts of salivary glands6. pancreas--secretion
____begins with 1st order sensory neurons-olfactory bulb-2nd order sensory neurons-olfactory nerve- rhinencephalon of the telecephalon
Olfactory nerve (CN I)
An example of a multipolar neuron is _____________.
motor neuron
Labyrinth Fluids
The space between the walls of the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth is filled with a fluid similar to cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) called perilymph. It supports and protects the membranous labyrinth.
***The membranous labyrinth contains a fluid called endolymph.
the roof of the mouth, consisting of a hard palate and a soft palate that separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity
What are the muscles of the Transversospinalis group?
semispinalis, multifidus, Rotatores, splenius capitis, splenius cervicis.
internal jugular vein
the brain and dural sinuses drain into veins which drain into the..
Common types of Fractures
Comminuted - bone fragments into 3+ pieces
Compression - bone is crushed
Spiral - ragged break due to excessive twisting (sports injury)
Epiphyseal - epiphysis separates from diaphysis
Depressed - broken bone is pressed inward
Greenstick - bone breaks completely (like a twig snapping)
What is the function of Schwann cells?
To promote axonal regeneration
Criteria for recognizing food
can be used as energy source, contributes to growth and development, contributes to regulation of a vital body process
Three types of stimulus origin receptors
1.Exteroceptors :found in skin or mucous membranes
2.Interoceptors: in the walls of viscera
3.Proprioceptors :found in muscles, tendons and joints
Heart venous system
1. Coronary sinus
2. Middle cardiac vein
3. Small cardiac vein
4. Great cardiac vein
1. in the posterior aspect of heart in the coronary sulcus and drains into the right atrium
2. accompanies the posteror interventricular artery in the posterior aspect of the coronary sulcus (posterior side of heart)
3. accompanies the right marginal branch- inferior border of heart
4. accompanies the anterior interventricular (descending) branch- main branch located in the anterior interventricular sulcus
Where can we find cell bodies of sensory neurons in spinal cord?
In dorsal root ganglia
Lateral arch of the foot maintained by
cuboid. Medial side requires ligaments.
radial collateral ligament, elbow a ligament spanning the lateral side of the elbow joint
it connects the lateral epicondyle of the humerus with the radius and the annular ligament; it reinforces the lateral side of the elbow articular capsule; it is smaller and less distinct than the ulnar collateral ligament
ligament of the neck
neck of the rib to the ventral surface of the transverse process and adjacent area; reduced in last few ribs
The item that consists of voluntary muscle for voluntary contol of swallowing
The upper end of the esophagus
The stomach is very______, and has a pH of ________, and whats it's function?
acidic,2.0, and destroy salvury enzymes
what is the embryological origin of the facial muscles? and what is the embryological origin of the nerve which supplies the facial muscles?
the facial muscles develop from the pharyngeal arches and they are innervated by the facial N (CN 7) which derives from the 2nd pharyngeal arch. The muscles of facial expression are also derived from the 2nd pharyngeal arch.
What is a tissue?
It is a group of cell with a common function.

    Which of the following are not properties of an action potential?


The size of an action potential is determined by the size of the stimulus              
An adult male is having an EEG. The recording shows irregular waves with a frequency of 4-7Hz. This is:
Abnormal in an awake adult. These are "theta" waves.
examines tissues
Adducts arm
Flexes arm
Darker color
sharp, slender projection
off, away from
shaft of bone
leul - o
cuspschordae tendineaepapillary muscles
atrioventricular valves
masseter/temporalis muscle function
close jaw
blood type ab
Valence Shell
atom's outermost shell
attachments: Xiphoid process, costal margin of thoracic wall, ends of ribs XI and XII, vert. of the lumbar region, ligaments across the back of abd. wall. Vascularization: pericardiacophrenic, superior and inferior phrenic arteries, musculophrenicInnervation: phrenic nerves
temporal lobe
auditory and olfaction stimulation
Deepest layer of the eye
atoms combine to form (1)
return blood to the heart
cells that conduct electrochemical empulses from one part of the body to another. irritability and conductivity are characteristics
Thoracic spine
spine of the chest
The brachialis muscle is named according to its...
lamina propria
cervical glands secrete mucous; cylical changes in mucin secretion
axillary n supplies muscles that
flex shoulder
goblet cell
epithelium cell that secretes mucus
Produced by the kidneys, Promotes calcium and phosphate ion abosorption along the digestive tract
aerobic cellular respiration. has its own DNA ribosomes. mitochondria reproduces regardless is the cell does or not.
sensation to occur must have....
sensory receptor

are composed primarily of myosin
thick filaments
connect bones to bones at joints
psychological problem that causes physical harm to a persson that views distorted body images of themselves that makes them eat dangerously
eating disorder
a muscular and cartilaginous structure lined with mucous membrane at the upper part of the trachea in humans, where the vocal cords are located
lymphatic system
tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus
Cleavage furrow shows up... two nuclei begin forming
male and female chromosome unite to make this..
arachnoid villi
projections of subarachnoid space into this dural sinus
term used to describe a location within the joint capsule
proteins that act as catalysts in chemical rxns
increase rate of rxn by lowering the activation energy required
Types of Movement - Flexion
reduces the angle
the knee is (1) to the thigh
pharyngeal slits likely first evolved to aid in _ and later with _
feeding, respiration
Stratum Spinosum
consists of several layers of keratinocytes, thickest stratum, produce keratin filaments that cause the cells to flatten, higher up in the stratum the flatter cells appear, keratinocytes are attached to eachother by desmosomes
hyaline cartilage or disks of fibrocartilage unite the bones in___
cartilaginous joints
chemicals signal the change across the surface of the sarcolemma and transverse tubules
Fovea Centralis
~contains the highest proportion of cones and almost no rods
~~Sharpest area of vision
the serous membrane that lines the cavities of the heart.
Nerve Lev. Scap
Ventral Primary Rami of CN 3-4
the type of endocytosis in which teh cell engulfs some relatively larege or solid material
ovarian cycle
at puberty, FSH stimulates the onset of the ovarian cycle; each month about 1-20 follicles begin growing and maturing; only 1 follicle fully matures and ovulates (releases the oocyte)
the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood is called the ________
elevation of the medial edge of the foot (Ex. the sole of the foot faces medially)
the study of
the structure of
an organism
When do genitalia begin to have male/female characteristics?
Week 10
the ________ contains only the actin filaments
I band
effectors of ANS
smooth and cardiac muscle and glands
sotres excess energy released by the mitochondria is present to regenerate atp from adp and phophate
creatine phospahte
serous membranes
line the subdivisions of the ventral body cavity
a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
to examine by touch, esp. for the purpose of diagnosing disease or illness.
blood flow
volume of blood that flows through tissure in a given period of time (mL/min)
Intraperitoneal Organs
Define and List
Organs completely surrounded by a visceral peritoneum (serous membrane):
Transverse colon
Sigmoid colon
Gall bladder
Blood cell functions:
Transport oxygen from teh lungs to every other cell in the body.
things necessary for flight
triceps, ext carpi radialis, radial n
Glycogen, a polysaccharide contains many unstable hydrocarbon bonds and is readily oxidized. Glycogen is thus very effective as
a chemical messenger
a biological catalyst
a solvent
an energy storage molecule
genetic material
a chemical messenger
a biological catalyst
a solvent
an energy storage molecule
genetic material
The opening to the ureter of the kidney is called what?
Renal pelvis
pacemaker of the heart set at 60-100 bpm located upper posterior wall of the right atrium sends electrical impulses to av node
sympathetic stimulation of myenteric plexus
promotes inhibition of muscular activity and relaxation
The left and right rectus sheaths are connected by a vertical fibrous strip termed the linea alba
Inguinal ligament
ventral gray horns
part of spinal cord that contain neurons concerned with somatic motor control
optic nerve
either one of the second pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the retina to the brain
Scwann cells (neurolemmocytes)
glial cells of PNS that surround nerve fibers and form myelin sheath
Diaphramitic fatigue syndrome
the muscle becomes very weak or fails so the accessory muscles take over
Nodes of lymphatic drainage of colon
Epiploic nodes (along omental appendices)
Paracolic nodes (along margin of colon)
Intermediate colic nodes (along major branches of the SMA and IMA)
Superior and inferior mesenteric nodes (at bases of SMA and IMA)
....drain to intestinal lymphatic trunks which drain to the CISTERNA CHYLI (=beginning of where the thoracic duct originates)
remove fluid and waste( urea, nitrogenous waste, ammonia, creatinine,) regulates electrolytes (ph balance), plays role in blood pressure erytrocyte production
regions that are associated with the limbic system, they produce emotions and motivation
amygdala, hippocampus, limbic cortex
the part of a foot or hind limb, esp. its bony structure, included between the tarsus and the toes or phalanges.
what to sertoli cells do?
protect germ cells, and promote their development
What are the five classes of antibodies?
What types of neurons are multipolar
association neurons and most motor nuerons
Types of Granular (3) 70%
Neutrophil - no color, stains pinkish, predominant, phagocyticEosinophil - involved with allergies, stains redBasophil - initiates inflammation, stains blue
How does the middle ear function?
What are the 2 mechanism that help the middle ear transmit sound into the inner ear?
1) Vibration -> Malleus -> incus ->stapes vibrates mecanically (pushes in & out on the oval window)
- Lever arm mechanism
- Hydrolic mechanism
Deep layer of perineal fascia invests...
Deep layer of perineal fascia invests ischiocavernosus, bulbospongiosus, and superficial transverse perineal muscles
Attaches laterally to the ischiopubic ramus
continuous w/ deep fascia covering the external oblique and rectus sheath
Fuses w/ the suspensory ligament of the penis or clitoris
what are the 3 components of the intracranial space
brain tissue-neurons and glial cellsblood perfusing the brainthe interstitial and cerebrospinal fluids
List 5 types of CT and describe the principal elements of the extracellular matrix that make them unique.
Loose CT: arolar tissue, consists of protein fibers that form a lacey network, with numberous fluid filled spaces, attaches skin to underlying tissue- Support and Nourishment

Dense CT: form thick bundles and fill nearly all fo the extracellular space- Tensile Strength

Special Properties (adipose and reticular): adipose is composed of large cells and small amount of extracellular matrix (loosely arranged collagen and reticular fibers) - packaging, thermal insulator, energy store, protection for organs.
Reticular - lymphatic tissue (reticular fibers and cells) - superstructure for lymphatic and hemopoietic tissues

Cartilage: matrix consists of protein fibers, ground substance and fluid- allows growth in long bones, allows rigidity with flexibility (trachea, ribs, nose, etc)

Bone: consists of living cells and mineralized matrix (calcium and phosphate). - scaffolding to provide strength and support
Describe the unique features of each cardiac chamber.
• R atrium: smooth posterior wall, muscular anterior wall,
fossa ovalis, opening for superior and inferior vena cava,
and tricuspid valve.
• L atrium: smooth-walled, openings for 4 pulmonary veins
and mitral valve.
• R. ventricle: tracbeulae carneae, tricuspid valve, opening
for pulmonic valve, 3 papillary muscles, moderator band.
• L. ventricle: mitral valve, trabeculae carneae, 2 papillary
muscles, opening for aortic valve, thick walls.
What is a dermatome?
What is a myotome?
Strips of skin innervated by a single spinal nerve
Muscle segments innervated by a single spinal nerve
cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in
the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
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