Anatomy Test 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tumor, mass
pierna (f)
freely movable

2 layers

Reticular layer
Infraspinous fossa of scapula
Inn: Musculocuntaneous nerve
formation of new cells
ventral root
efferent; out; motor

Pectoralis major
Medial pectoral nerve
Lateral pectoral nerve
-changes associated with memory
-brain changes
-brain has enormous plasticity
indented region of lymph
Common Uses of Electrolytes:Bone Development
how limbs attach to body
exaggerated feeling of well being
How many thoracic nerves?
12 nerves
surrounds individual bundles within each muscle
plantar flex foot
tibia and fibula
calcaneus (via calcaneal tendon)
Enter your back text here.
Reticular layer of dermis
Dense irregular CT
Meshwork of collagen fibers
Contains: hair follicles, nerves, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
Name the Suprahyoid muscles.
Digastric (posterior/anteiror bellies)
large rounded projection, may be roughened. VertebraeAt M&L attachmen
movement of particles through a membrane via hydrostatic pressure
weight of water provides force, no energy required

transfers water, salts and nutrients from bloodstream to tissue fluid
Define erythrocytosis
Increased number of red cells
trama to kidney, infection
axial: for protection, support, carryingappendicular: for locomotion and manipulation
short bone
– makes a sharp bend backward
anterior body trunk inferior to ribs
Glial Cells
non-excitable but essential, protect and support neurons
lines inner surface of sclera, provides nutrients to retina, melanin prevents scattering of light
hypogastric region
The abdominal region located directly inferior to the umbilical region is the...
Terms of movement: ___ describes movement of the sole of the foot away from the midline. ___ is the opposite.
eversion, inversion
Pedicles (2)
Between the body and transverse processes
tricuspid; bicuspid
the right atrioventricular valve is also known as the _______ valve, and the left atrioventricular valve is also known as the _________ valve.
moving away from the median plane. (Ex. moving limb away from the trunk of the body)
longissimus capitis
o: lower four cervical vertebrae transverse processes medial to insertions of longissimus cervicis
i: mastoid process
Action Potential
A large, short depolarization event that does not decrease in strength with distance. They occur only in Axons, Sarcolemma and T-tubule.
In hyperpolarization, the membrane potential will move?
away from zero
Define homeostasis
Body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions in a changing environment
interventricular septum
separates the right and left ventricles
Which tonsils are located in your nasopharynx?
Medial Pterygoid
Elevates & protracts the mandible; produces side-to-side movement of mandible
refers to the center of the armpit
adrenal glands
ductless glands above the kidneys, consisting of a cortex producing steroidal hormones, and a medulla producing epinephrine and norepinephrine
hydrogen bond
attraction between partial charges - weak bond
vertebral artery
The branch of the subclavian artery that transports blood to the basilar artery is the...
vertical plane passing longitudinally through the body, divides right and left, intersects the midlines of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the body
median plane (midline) (midsaggital)
defining characteristic of areolar connective tissue is
a semifluid ground substance
cerebrospinal fluid
the ventricles of the brain normally are filled with _________
reticular layer
deeper and thick
made up of dense irregular connective tissue
contains collagen
Contents of anterolateral abdominal wall from superficial to deep
SkinSuperficial fatty subcutaneous tissue (Camper fascia)Deep membranous subcutaneous tissue (Scarpa fascia)Superficial investing fasciaExternal obliqueIntermediate investing fasciaInternal obliqueDeep investing fasciaTransversus abdominis Endoabdominal (transversalis) fasciaExtraperitoneal fatParietal peritoneum
The prostatic portion of the urethra is in what gland?
prostate gland
located behind the sternum and below the thyroid, processes lymphocytes to t-cells, shrinks after puberty
Stratum Lucidum
thin translucent zone only in thick skin, keratinocytes are densely packed with a clear protein called eleidin, have no nuclei or organelles
the __ is a reflex center for integrating sensory information concering positon of body parts and for coordinating complex skeletal muscle movements
1. route for circulatory vessels and nerves2. hold organs in place3. fat storage
Retriperitoneal organs
What does the PNS regulate?
central and spinal nerves
coronal suture
a seam extending across the skull where the frontal bone and the parietal bones meet.
damage to AV node?
heart block-signal can't pass from atria to ventricles, ventricular contraction is too slow(bradycardia)fibrillation-rapid, out-of-phase contractions; leads to death
Functions of muscles?
In addition to mevement, they also provide stability, communication, control of body openings and passages, and heat production.
bond energy
Energy which is necessary to break a bond.
Sympathic Nervous System
Originates in the thoracic regions of the spinal cord; opposes physiological effects of the parasympathetic: reduces digestive secretions; speeds the heart; contracts blood vessels.
Negative feedback
a mechanism of response in which a stimulus initiates an action to return a system to its reference or set point (example: blood pressure regulation, body temp, blood sugar regulation, water and electrolyte distribution, acid base balance)
What is the fundus in the stomach?
most superior portion
study of how the body and its parts work or function
3 muscles (sup, med, inf) O: med 1/3 of Sup Nuchal LineExt Occipital Protuberance, Nuchal ligament, Spinous processes C7 - T12I: Lat 1/3 of Clavicle, Acromion of Scapula, Spine of Scapula A: Diff fibers elevate, retract, depressInn: Accessory n.
Name the 3 types of membrane junction.
Tight junctions
Gap junctions
a system in vertebrate blood of 12 or more proteins that react in a cascade to a cell displaying immune complexes or foreign surfaces, acting in various combinations to coat the cell and promote phagocytosis, make holes in the cell wall, or enhance the in
Blood supplied to the heart?
left & rigt coronary arteries-arise from base of aorta, each branches several timescardiac veins-travel w/ arteries, all drain into coronary sinus which empties into right atrium
ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
The 3 primary germ layers from which all tissue and organs develop.
What are the types of Neuro tissue?
Neurons and glial cells
What does the below image show?
Name the ligaments:
Joints of the digits
1) Collateral ligaments
2) Metacarpo-phalangeal ligament (MP)
3) Proximal interphalangeal ligament (PIP)
4) Distal interphalangeal ligament (DIP)
The receiving end of a nerve cell is called?
A dendrite
median or midsaggital section
if sagittal cut creates two even parts
carpometacarpal joint, thumb the articulation between the trapezium and the proximal end of the metacarpal bone of the thumb
a synovial saddle (sellar) joint; this articulation permits two planes of motion: flexion/extension and abduction/adduction which may be combined to produce circumduction
factors that must be maintained inside the body for homeostasis (8)
1. pH2. temperature3. wastes4. nutrients5. electrolytes6. CO27. O28. water (body fluids)
The stratum basale contains______. These cells are nourished by_________.
cells undergoing mitosis; dermal blood vessels
What are the 4 functions of the skeleton?
1. Protection2. Locomotion3. Production of red and white blood cells4. Storage of some minerals such as calcium and phosphorous
During translation in eukaryotic cells:
B) proteins are created at the ribosomes according to the instructions carried out by the mRNA
What makes up the anterior part of conus elasticus? What are the other ligaments that constitute conus elasticus?
1.) cricothyroid ligament (includes median) 2.) Vocal ligament & cricothyroid ligament
What are physical properties?
are those that we can detect w our senses
when cells push from deeper portion of the epidermis to the surface:
C) they keratinize and die
What is countershading? Which animals have it?
The upper part of the body will usually be darker than the underbelly. Animals that live in illuminated environments have it.
O: prox 3/4of med and ant Ulna, interosseus membrane
I: base of distal phalanges 2-5
Which leg bone transfers weight to the ankle and foot? (Ch. 7 pg. 196)
The tibia (the fibula does not transfer weight)
What is multiple motor unit summation?
its the sum of all the motor units of a muscle. A motor unit is a motor neuron plus all the fibers that it supplies... the fibers of different motor units are intermingled.
auris/ otic
cytomegalovirusoppurtunistic virus
fatty lymph
stratum granulosum
keratinosomeskeratinohyaline granules
Umbilical cord
p. 74
front of elbow
Pertaining to the pelvis
Refers to the brain
nalga (f), glúteos (m)
function of pancreas
secrete insulin
Indo-European, “to arch over”, “roof over.”
in vivo
occuring within the body
the measurement of joint angles
What is this called?

Mastoid process
puffed up alveoli barrel chest
Thoracic Region:
the intertransversarii are poorlydeveloped in this region and may not exist inmany people. Where the muscles do exist theyare epaxial muscles innervated by the segmentaldorsal rami
endochondral ossification
bone formation and growth
synovial joints
bones eld together by ligaments
What muscle pulls the scapulas together, shoulders back?
First-degree burn
only the epidermis is damaged.Symptoms: localized redness, swelling, and pain
- filtration is greater than reabsorbtion
-nodes = cleans fluid
-spleen = cleans blood
Brachial plexus- voluntary or autonomic?
Voluntary only
NAMEare substances present in smaller amount
white blood cells that contain granuals, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
expandable organ for temporary storage of fecal matter
Tooth-bearing portion of each jawbone
alveolar process
latissimus dorsi
extend arm
adduct arm
thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, iliac crest, scapula
intertubercular groove of humerus
a muscular and cartilaginous structure lined with mucous membrane at the upper part of the trachea in humans, where the vocal cords are located
dura mater
Enter your back text here.
The membrane which lines the abdominal cavity is the...
Levator scapulae
Origin: Transverse process of the first 4 cervical vertabrae
Insertion: Vertebral border of scapula
Action: Elevates scapula
Innervation: Cervical Nerves and Dorsal Scapular Nerves
A graded potential with a volatage change in the positive direction
only vert moveable in bird thorax
T1, T6
3rd layer of skin
Another layer of connective tissue
Areolar or adipose tissue between skin and muscle
toward the back; the opposite of anterior
Describe nucleus of lymphocyte
small, round, densely staining
ID and answer
1. Splenius Capitis2. Splenius Cervicis3. Spinous Processes4. Transverse Process & skull5. Extend and Rotate head6. Dorsal Rami
nitrogenous base pairs
adenine, tymine, guanine and cytosine
Positioned around the upper portion of the radius. It works with the biceps to turn the palm upwards (called supination).
femure - longshort - carpus,tarsusflat - sternum, pelvisirregular - vertebrae,inner ear,penis)
the fingers are blank to the wrist.
This structure is the second largest in the brain and is responsible for balance and coordination
pulmonary valve
a semilunar valve between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle of the heart that prevents the blood from flowing back into the right ventricle
dorsal root ganglion
Enter your back text here.
The dura mater is a division of the...
brain stem
consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla
the cerebrospinal fluid re-enters the blood at the
superior saggital sinus
corocoid process
small beak-like process medial of the scapular tuberosity; vestige of corocoid bone
Internal Intercostals : Origin
Superior border of rib below
Mechanism of Inspiration
 expand thoracic cavity by expanding rib cage (contract external intercostal muscles) and lowering diaphrams.  (streches parietal and visceral pleurae through force transduce via fluid.  ultimately streching lungs
What is cytology?
is the study of the cells
set point
average value for a given variable. ex 37C for body temp and fluctuates around it
vermiform appendix
lymphoid tissue attached to surface of cecum and suspended by a band of mesentery called mesoappendix
Where are the adrenal glands located?
Over the kidneys.
Hydrogen Bonds
extremely weak bonds formed when a hydrogen atom bounds to one electron hungry nitrogen or oxygen atom s is attracted by another hungry atom
hwta is another name for a pacemaker?
sinoatrial node
middle ear
the middle portion of the ear, consisting of the tympanic membrane and an air-filled chamber lined with mucous membrane, that contains the malleus, incus, and stapes.
Muscles found w/in the muscular triangle
The infrahyoid muscles:
sternohyoid: sternum to hyoid - depresses hyoid.
superior belly of omohyoid: lateral to sternohyoid - hyoid to supior border of scapula - depresses hyoid.
sternothyroid: sternum to oblique line of thyroid cartilage - depresses larynx.
thyrohyoid: oblique line of thyroid cartilage to hyoid - elevates larynx.
**All innervated by ansa cervicalis EXCEPT the thyrohyoid which is innervated by C1 via hypoglossal nerve.
in vitro
occuring outside the body, in a test tube or other artificial environment
Common flexor origin of forearm
Medial epicondyle
Injury results in "golfer's elbow"
Sagittal Plane
Divides Right from Left. (not down the middle)
Layers surrounding the testes
On top of testicle and epididymis:
visceral layer of tunica vaginalis
parietal layer of tunica vaginalis
internal spermatic fascia
cremaster muscle and fascia
external spermatic fascia
superficial (dartos) fascia of the scrotum
classification, movements, and bones of the knee joint
hinge, flexion, extension (at terminal extension, femur medially rotates), rotationfemur, tibia, patella, NOT Fibula, menisci (medi and lat. )
Surfaces are molded to each other in such a way to permit flexio and extension movements onlyex- interphalangel joints, elbow, knee, ankle
Ginglymus(hinge) joints
the site where the motor neuron and the muscle fiber meet is the
neuromuscular junction
Shoulder and Upper Limb Region
~Clinically important because of frequent trauma to these body regions
divided into: S.A.A.F.H
umbilical cord
a cord connecting the embryo or fetus with the placenta of the mother and transporting nourishment from the mother and wastes from the fetus
What is red pulp?
Consists of venous sinuses filled with blood and cords of lymphatic cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages
sacral and coccygeal spinal nervessympathetic nerves to visceral organspelvic splanchnic nerve (parasympathetic innervation ot visceral nerves)
nerve supply to these pelvic structures
What is wrong in myasthenia?
Chronic progressive damage of the neuromuscular junction
What is one disadvantage of radioactivity?
they all damage living tissue
osteoarthritis: wear and tear of articular cartilagerheumatoid arthritis: autoimmune disease. body attacks jointsgouty arthritis: uric acid crystals
what joint dislocates more easily
Muscles of the Pharynx
The primary pharyngeal muscles are the superior, middle and inferior constrictor muscles
When a bolus of food enters the pharynx, these three muscles contract sequentially to initiate swallowing
Flow of blood through heart
superior vena cava- drains the body superior to the diaphram 
inferior vena cava- drains the body inferior to the diaphram
1. SVC and IVC
2. Right atrium
3.tricuspid valve
4. right ventricle
5. pulmonary valve
6. pulmonary trunk to pulmonary arterys to lungs (de02)
7. Pulmonary veins to heart fromluungs (02)
8. left atrium
9. Mitral or bicuspid valve
10. Left ventricle
11. Aortic valve
12. Aorta (to superiot and inferior body)
lateral collateral/ medial collateral ligaments of the humerous
attach epicondyles to the radius and ulna
Benign hypertrophy of the prostate (BHP)
enlarged prostate impedes urination by distorting the prostatic urethra
Digital rectal examination w/ full bladder
where do autonomic sensory neurons get info from??
stomach, urinary system, blood vessels....
-also monitors viscera for stretching via mechanoreceptors
squamosal suture the articulation between the parietal bone and the squamous portion of the temporal bone
a suture; the greater wing of the sphenoid bone participates in the formation of the anterior end of the squamosal suture
Name the five bone areas in the Appendicular skeleton
pectoral girdle = shoulderupper extremity = armpelvic girdle = hiplower extremity = legcoxal bone
The GI tract starts where?
in the mouth inferior to the nasal cavity
Between Aquaporin 1 and Aquaporin 5, which one will you find in the epithelium vs the endothelium?
Aquaporin 5 = EpitheliumAquaporin 1 = Endothelium
what are the 3 components to the nasal cavity?
-lateral walls
-nasal septum
For atoms and molecules to react chemically, what most happen?
they most collide w enough force to overcome the repulsion btwn their electrons
Which of these is NOT true of adipose tissue?
a. It is the site of energy storage
b. It is a type of connective tissue
c. It acts as a protective cushion
d. Brown adipose is found only in babies
e. It functions as a heat insulator
d. Brown adipose is found only in babies
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