Anatomy-Muscles Flashcards

Terms Definitions
elevates mandible
masseter
oppose/reverse particular movement
antagonists
gracilis inserts on
tibia
sartorius helps assume
cross-legged position
action: sternocleidomastoid provides __ flexion of head
lateral
example of effort
biceps brachii
synergists that immobilize bone/muscle’s origin
fixators
lateral hamstring muscle
biceps femoris
Muscles of Forearm: Brachioradialis
forearm flexion
extends fingers and hand
extensor digitorum
erector spinae is also called
sacrospinalis
short fascicles, attaching obliquely to central tendon, which runs length of muscle, toward which fascicles converge on either side
pennate
action: acting together sternocleidomastoid provides
neck flexion
clavodeltoid (clavobrachialis
chavicle; ulna; flex forearm
Abdominal Wall:
Four Muscles:
1) External Oblique
2) Internal Oblique
3) Transversus Abdominus
4) Rectus Abdominus
deltoid active during arm
swinging, during walking
abducts and extends thumb
abductor pollicis longus
abdominal wall muscles are involved w/lateral flexion & rotation of __
trunk
action of gastrocnemius is __ flexion
plantar
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius are all part of
quadriceps femoris
subscapularis inserts on
lesser tubercle of humerus
elevates, adducts, retracts, and steadies the scapula; flexes neck to the same side when the scapula is fixed
levator scapulae
flexes and laterally rotates the head
sternocleidomastoid
consists of frontal & occipital belly
epicranius
longest muscle in body, crosses both
hip & knee joints; O-anterior superior
iliac spine; I- medial aspect of proximal tibia; action: flexes hip,
laterally rotates thigh, helps assume cross legged position; tailors muscle
sartorius
dorsiflexes foot and inverts foot
tibialis anterior
adductor magnus originates on
ischium & pubis
forearm supinators are __muscle but w/biceps brachii supinates the forearm
posterior
spinotrapezius
spinous process of thoracic vertebra; spine of scapula; move pectoral girdle and head
Describe the Smooth Muscle.
non-striated (smooth), involuntary, forms walls of hollow organs.
Muscles of forearm: Extensor Digitormus
2. finger extension
infraspinatus originates on posterior of scapula, below scapular spine,
within infraspinous fossa
serratus anterior muscle is associated w/scapular movements of __ & __
protraction; depression
muscles that help prime mover by contracting at same time to assist in movement so that movement is more effective
synergists
rectus femoris acts on
both knee & thigh
sternocleidomastoid inserts on
mastoid process of temporal bone
biceps brachii is responsible for elbow __ & __ of forearm
flexion; supination
gastrocnemius & soleus __ posterior calf, & __ via common Achilles tendon on calcaneous
shape; insert
__ head of biceps brachii originates on supraglenoid tubercle of scapular glenoid cavity
long
rectus abdominis originates on
pubic crest & symphysis
vastus medialis __ __ at knee
extends leg
rectus femoris & vastus- lateralis, medialis, & intermedius insert via common __ tendon into __
quadriceps; patella
extensor digitorum longus inserts on __ 2-5 of __
digits; foot
flexion of glenohumeral joint would be __ in anterior angle, in relation to anatomical position
reduction
muscles that relax when prime mover and synergists are contracting
antagonists
leg muscles that produce flexion & extension
toes
abducts arm; anterior part flexes and rotates arm medially
deltoid
example of 3rd class lever
flexing forearm w/biceps
action: extend & hyperextend head
two splenius muscles
inferior fibers of trapezius provide action of __ __
scapular depression
muscles with fibers that run straight or parallel to the long axis of the body are called
rectus
flexes forearm at elbow joint; supinates forearm
biceps brachii
most posterior forearm muscles are __, each having superficial & deep layers
extensors
medial compartment muscles of leg all __ thigh
adduct
add force to a movement; reduce undesirable/unnecessary movement
synergists
long axis of fascicles correspond to long axis of muscle; strap-like/spindle-shaped muscles
parallel
platysma muscle
divides the neck into two triangles
levator scapulae ventralis
1st cervical vertebra/occipital bone; scapula; draws the scapula anteriorly
Describe the Cardiac Muscle.
striated, involuntary, forms the heart.
rectus femoris also has movement of
flexion of thigh
location, shape, relative size, direction of fibers, location of attachments, & action of muscles determines
name of skeletal muscles
subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, & teres minor are
muscles that make up rotator cuff
flexes and laterally rotates leg at knee
biceps femoris
muscles of anterior compartment of leg are __ extensors & __ dorsiflexors
toe; ankle
pronator teres has __ & __ heads
humeral; ulnar
extensor digitorum inserts on
distal phalanges of digits 2-5
prime mover of extension at elbow joint (forearm extension)
triceps brachii
consists of 3 muscle columns; action is keeping spine extension; prime mover of extension; sacrospinalis
erector spinae
muscles on the side of the neck located deep to platysma and sternocleidomastoid
scalenus
extends wrist; O- ulna; 1st-5th metacarpal
extensor carpi ulnaris
pectoralis muscle originates on
anterior surfaces of ribs 3-5
has 2 bellies; O- medial & lateral condyles of femur; I- via Achilles tendon into calcaneous; action: plantar flexion
gastrocnemius
extension of glenohumeral joint results from contraction of teres major
which is the synergist
semitendinosus is __ member of group of muscles known as __
superficial; hamstrings
teres major inserts on
interior edge of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
rhomboid major muscle originates on
spinous process of T2-5
deeper layer- depress the rib cage &
aid in forced expiration
internal intercostals
extensor carpu radialis longus
humerus; 2nd metacarpa; extend forepaw
triceps brachii-long head
scapula; olecranon process of ulna; extends forearm
Describe the Skeletal Muscle.
striated, voluntary, and attatched the bones.
Shoulder Joint: Humerus Movements: Fibers originate anteriorly in DELTOID
1.arm FLEXION
2. medial rotation
extends leg at knee and flexes thigh at hip
rectus femoris
muscles of lateral compartment of lower leg include
fibularis longus & brevis
everts foot; plantar flexes foot
fibularis (peroneus) longus and brevis
steadies, retracts, and rotates the scapula
rhomboids (major and minor)
hamstring muscles that have common origin from ischial tuberosity
biceps femoris, semimembranous, semitendinous
teres major is __ __ muscle that crosses glenohumeral joint
posterior scapular
shape posterior calf, & insert via common Achilles tendon on calcaneous; action: prime movers of ankle plantar flexion
gastrocnemius & soleus
wrist flexor; O- ulna; I- carpal bones
flexor carpi ulnaris
O coracoid process; I radial tuberosity
short head biceps brachii
O tubercle above glenoid cavity; tendon runs w/n joint capsule & in intertubercular sulcus; I radial tuberosity
long head biceps brachii
muscles acting on pectoral region cause anterior movements of scapula, including
pectoralis minor, serratus anterior
scapula slips away from rib cage, giving wing-like appearance on upper back
winging of scapula
anterior arm flexors consist of
brachialis, brachioradialis, & biceps brachii
heads of pronator teres insert on
midlateral surface of radius
extensor carpi ulnaris passes under extensor retinacula, & inserts on
base of metacarpal 5
flexor carpi ulnaris inserts on
pisiform, hamate, & metacarpal 5
extensor carpi radialis longus passes under extensor retinacula, and inserts on
base of metacarpal 2
Muscles of Forearm: Superficial Anterior
1. Pronator Teres
2. Flexor Carpi Radialis
3. Palmeris Longus
4. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
5. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
Muscles of Forearm: Flexor Carpi Radialis
1. flexes wrist
2. abducts hand
muscles of shoulder can be divided into 3 separate groups based on
distribution & functional relationships
all originate in the scapula & insert on lesser tubercle of humerus (subscapularis) & greater tubercle (the rest 3); function to stabilize shoulder joint & prevent its dislocation
rotator cuff muscles
4-pairs of muscles involved in mastication
buccinators, medial & lateral pterygoids, temporalis, masseter
example of 1st class lever
lifting your head off your chest
those that cause wrist movement & move digits
forearm muscle group
O- ischium & pubis; I- linea aspera of femur; action: adduction at hip joint
adductor magnus
rotator cuff muscles __ __ __ from humerus on acromion process of scapula
decrease upward pressure
1 movement of scapula is __ __, or raising of glenoid cavity
lateral rotation
what are the three different kinds of muscles tissues found in the body?
Cardiac, Skeletal, and Smooth.
Muscles of Forearm: Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
1. Flexes wrist
2. flexes middles phalanges of fingers 2-5
pectoralis major muscle originates on
sternal angle of clavicle, sternum, & costal cartilages of ribs 1-6
O tubercle below glenoid cavity I olecranon process
long head of triceps brachii
movements of knee joint include
rectus femoris & 3 vasti muscles, which make up quadriceps femoris
Muscles of Forearm: Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
1. extends wrist with extensor corpi ulnaris
2. abducts wrist with flexor corpi radialis
muscles of sternocleidomastoid acting alone
rotates heads so face is turned to opposite side
ulnar head of pronator teres originates on
medial side of coronoid process of ulna
muscles that plantar flex & evert foot; include fibularis longus & fibularis brevis
muscles of lateral compartment of lower leg
primary function of pectoral girdle is to provide
only connection btwn arm & axial skeleton
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