closet to inner cheek
eyeball, and orbit
vertical groove extending downward from the nasal septum to the tubercle
indentations in root surfaces
smallest and only unencapsulated gland. only 10% of total saliva output. mixed but mostly mucous.
rodlike structures of the condensed chromatin, seen microscopically during cell division
the processes of dental matrix formation that occurs during the appostion stage of tooth development.
odontoblasts produce the predentin which is a mesenchymal product consisting of nonmineralized collagen fibers. odontoblasts were orgionally the outer cells of the dental papilla of the tooth germ.
appostion of dentin, unline enamel, occurs throughout the life of the tooth. Odontoblasts are retained along the inner pulpal wall inside the tooth.
forehead and area above eyes
Rubbery surface texture and resiliency. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Includes the attached gingiva, the hard palate, and the dorsal surface of the tongue.
innermost tissue of the tooth
a connective tissue that forms from the central cells of the dental papilla of the tooth germ
involved in support
continued formation of dentin- inner layer of the cell bodies of odontoblasts remain along the outer pulpal wall
nutritional functions for dentin- bc dentin has no blood supply of its own
protective functions due to its involvement in the formation of secondary dentin, which increases pulp coverage
contains WBCs- allows triggering of inflammatory and immune response
common, small, yellowish elevations on the buccal or labial mucosa, that are deeper deposits of sebum usually associated with hair follicles.
associated w the acinius (terminal) portion of the gland. "stalk attached to the grapes". hollow tube lined w a single layer of cuboidal epi cells.
connected to the intercalated ducts in the lobules of the gland. larger in diameter. basal straitions ue to the precsene of numerous elongated mitocondria seperated by highly folded cell membranes. transports saliva, and resorbs and secretes electrolights from the adjacted blood vessels.
a clear, constricted area near the middle of the chromosome
Bartholin's duct- duct from the sublingual salivary gland
hardest calcified tissue in the human body
avascular wih no nerves
a crystalline formationof mainly calcium hydroxyapate
other minerals such as carbonate, magnesium,potassium, sodium, and fluoride are also present in smaller amounts
96% inorganic, 1% organic, 3% water
a white ridge of raised callused buccal mucosal tissue that extends horizontally at the level where the teeth occlude.
*watch this area for changes (aka cancer)
space between the tooth and the gingiva.
imaginary line formed by the junction of two surfaces on a tooth. The name is a combination of those two surfaces. eg where the mesial surface meets the occlusal surface it's called the mesio-occlusal.
|what is the function of premolars?||
tearing and grinding
|imbrication lines of von Ebner||
microscopic feature of dentin
incremental lines or bands that stain darkly
show the incremental nature of dentin apposition
run at right angles to the dentinal tubules
|define basement membrane||
a thin acellular, chemical based, structure always located between any form of epithelium and its underlying connective tissue
gingiva that is tightly adhered to the alveolar bone
|what is the function of canines?||
pierce or tear food
the uptake of materials into the cell by an invagination of the cell membrane around the material
|primary, secondary and tertiary dentin||
primary dentin- formed before the completion of the apical foramen. Characterized by its regular pattern of tubules
secondary dentin- formed after the completion of the apical forament and continues to form throughout the life of the tooth. Formed more slowly and less mineralized than primary. regular pattern of tubules.
tertiary dentin- aka reparative dentin. formed quickly in localised regions in response to injury . tubules assume irregular course.
sclerotic dentin- a type of tertiary dentin. associated with chronic injury and is noted to increase as the tooth ages. the odontoblastic process dies and leave the tubules vacent. the hollow tubes become retrofilled and occluded by a mineralized substnce similar to periotubular dentin. clinically appears dark, smooth and shiny *arrested caries
|Universal tooth designation system||
tooth naming system most commonly used in the states. Primary teeth are A-T. Secondary teeth are 1-32. Starts with maxillary right, moves clock wise ending with mandibular right.
|of the oral mucosa epithelial tissue types which one is the most common?||
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
|describe the golgi aparatus||
it is the second largest organelle after the nucleus. composed of stacks of three to twenty flattened, smooth membraned vesicular sacs. functions to further modify and package protiens for export out of the ell, as well as the production of lysosomes.
|accessory canal of the root||
assocaited w the pulp. extra openings from the pulp to the PDL
|root axis line (RAL)||
imaginary line that is parallel to the long axis of the tooth
|What is the free gingival groove?||
It separates the attached gingival from the marginal gingival. It is noted by a slight depression on the gingiva which corresponds to the depth of the gingival sulcus. This is more prominent on the mandibular anterior and premolar regions.
|tubercle of the upper lip||
a thicker area denoting the midline of the upper lip
|which lingual papilla has the thin layer of ortho or parakeratinized epithelium and is highly vascularized in it's lamina propria?||
The fungiform lingual papillae. These are the mushroom shaped ones, and have tastes buds in the most superficial epithelium.
|about how many vertical ridges make up the foliate lingual papillae? Are these on the posterior or anterior lateral boarder of the tongue?||
4-11 on the posterior lateral boarder.
|name and describe the two types of cartilage growth||
interstitial growth- growth from deep with in the tissue by mitosisappositional growth- layered growth on the outside of the tissue from th eouter layer of chonroblasts within the perichondrium