Ancient Chinese philosophies Flashcards

Terms Definitions
"enlightened one"
Buddha
xin:
trustworthy->mind-heart, using your mind and heart to accomplish short and long-term goals
Yang
positive force, masculine, active, dry, bright, aggressive, men, heaven, fire, horses, good spirits, warm
Buddha
"The Enlightened One", What Siddhartha was known as after he was enlightened
3 Jewels of Daoism
Compassion, Moderation, Humility
Followers of Daoism
Peasants, Artists, Poets, Confucians
Ren (Jen)
compassion and respect->comes from your heart, an inner spirit to be humane
Confucius
Kong's name according to his disciples, AKA Supreme Sage
Kong
b. ca. 551 BCE, d. ca 478
Decline
couldn't compete with other, more fun, philosophies
Teachings and Beliefs
believed in reincarnation, salvation comes from knowing the 4 Noble Truths and following the Eightfold Path.
Reincarnation
belief that the soul upon death returns to earth in another life form
Li:
proper conduct-> doing the right thing without thinking about it
Dao
a) an invisible mysterious force that flows through everything. ( yoda )
b) "the way"/ "the path"/ "the way of nature"/
c) A harmony of opposites in nature
Mo- Tzu
1. A book containing Mohist thought, 71 chapters 3.written by Mozi and/or his disciples
Meritocracy
A system i which talented, skilled, or intelligent people are rewarded and advanced
Teachings of Confucius
1. Wanted to end political disorder a.everyone should accept their assigned job b. wanted the government to be virtuous 2. didn't agree with Nepotism 3. people should be given jobs based on their merit 4. Govern by example and people should follow that example
Husband to Wife
HUSBAND: a. carries out family duties b. honorable and faithful WIFE: a. looks after home b. obedient c. meets needs of husband and children
4 noble truths
1. there will always be pain and suffering in the world 2. greed for pleasure and material possessions cause pain and suffering 3. lack of greed for pleasure and material possessions frees person from suffering and helps reach Nirvana 4. follow the Eightfold Path
Philosophy
1. a main idea to live by 2. searching for the truth
Divine Retribution
believed in a type of heaven and a type of hell after death (rewarded/punished based on actions during life)
Rejecting Music, Rejecting Fatalism
opposed to music, didn't believe in fate
Lao-Tse (zi)
1. started Daoism 2. B. ca 604 BCE, d. ca. 517 BCE (during WSP) 3. wanted to bring peace, and end fighting in the kingdoms 4. against government
Spread of Buddhism-Hinayana Buddhism
saw Buddha only as a teacher, very simple lives-went to Thailand, Cambodia and Myanmar
Daoist teachings and beliefs
a) simple life style
b) did not like big goverment
c) did not believe in unneccasary violance
d) become 1 with dao
e) polythiestic - belief in many gods
f) "3 jewls of Daoism"
Why did ancient chinese people develop philosophies?
a) to understand "warring states period" (700s BCE - 221 BCE)
b) political coflict
c) to understand feelings / emotions
d) what is meaning of life?
Questions Sid asked about life
1. what is the value of life and death? 2. why is there suffering and pain in the world?
Mohism
fl. 630 BCE
Humility
to be humble and modest
Aristocracy
rule by the upper class
Filial Piety
Great respect towards your family-obey, care, proper burial
Inherent
innate; existing from birth (Daoists thought that people were inherently good)
zhi:
Understanding self and knowledge of right and wrong -> translates as wisdom, breaking the rules when it's the right thing to do even though you know you could suffer the consequences
Warring States Period
400 years (300-700 BCE)
Dao-De-Ching
1. probably written by Lao-Tse 2. means "way of Virtue Classic" 3. short book about the main idea of Daoism (81 chapters)
Piety
devotion and reverence to parents and family
Daoism
a) founded by Laozi
b) started as philosophy, evolved into a religion
c) strong belief in yin and yang
Analects
1. a series of books written by Confucius's disciples 2. writing that contains Confucian thoughts
Filial
pertaining to or benefiting a son or daughter
Eightfold Path
(EVIL SCAM) right effort- working to prevent evil, right views- see the world as it really is, right intentions- do the right things, right living- work at a job that doesn't hurt others, right speech- don't lie, gossip or us profanity, right concentration-meditation, right actions-don't commit crimes, right mindfulness- being aware of you self and actions
Nirvana
perfect peace, frees the soul from the cycle of reincarnation
6 relationships
Ruler to Ruled, Father to Son, Husband to Wife, older brother to younger brother, elder to junior, friend to friend
Heavens intention and Elucidating Ghosts
believed in divine retribution, rewarded or punished people based on actions while living
Elder to Junior
ELDER: a encourages b. is considerate c. leads by example JUNIOR: a. respect b. follow their example c. eager to learn
3 jewls of daoism
a) believed in compasion
b) believed in moderate
c) believed in humility
Mozi
b. ca 480 BCE d. ca 400 BCE, founder of Mohism, lived during WSP, sought to solve problems by creating universal love, equality and good conduct
Siddhartha Gautama
Founder of Buddhism, b. ca. 563 d. ca 483 BCE, later KA Buddha, saw the real world when he was 30
(followers of Daoism) Peasants
liked it because the lived with nature
Older to Younger Brother
OLDER: a. leads by example YOUNGER: follows examples b. respect
Inclusive Care and Rejecting aggression
Equal, universal love, not excluding, didn't like war
Laozi
a) b. ca. 604 BCE d. ca 517 BCE
b) lived during " warring states period"
c) wanted to bring about peace
d) didn't like big goverment with harsh laws.
e) may have written Dau de Jing
Mohism Teachings and Beliefs (10 doctrines)
Elevating the Worthy and Conforming Upward, Inclusive Care and Rejecting Aggression, Thrift in Utilization and Thrift in Funerals, Heavens Intention and Elucidating Ghosts,
Why did ancient people develop Philosophies?
1. to understand political conflicts (Warring States Period) 2. to understand emotional conflict 3. to understand emotional conflict
Dao de Jing
a) means " way of virtue classic"
b) 81 short chapters about Daoist beliefs
c) most influential chinese book
"Elevating the Worthy" and "Conforming upward"
Govt. Role: create a stable society, create a stable economy, create a stable govt., virtuous-set good examples-, select govt. officials who are intelligent and live a moral life, didn't like aristocracy. Society: obey emperor (right to question) Individual: get moral education by following the example of govt. officials, fear punishment, rewarded for good deeds
Thrift in Utilization and thrift in funerals
Luxury items discouraged, not spending a lot of time/money on mourning, better to not spend money and get back to work
What does philosophy mean?
a) an idea or belief
b) a way of life
c) study of truth and or theories
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