Ancient Greece 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
unique
special
Agora
...
aristocracy
the landowners
Euclid
wrote "Elements"
Free residents
citizens
Lady of Auxerre
Orientalizing
Demeter
Goddess of agriculture
Hippocrates
"Father of Medicine"
demagogues
A bad leader.
Golden Age of Athens
...
Ceres
Roman goddess of agriculture
Cavalry
soldiers mounted on horseback
Elaborate
work out in detail
Patriotic
loyal towards ones country
Pericles
Main political leader of Athens
Pediment sculptures, Temple of Zeus
Early Classical
Hestia
goddess of hearth and home
Greece had many waterways including...
•seas
•straights
•islands
•harbors
Stoicism
an important hellenistic schoolof philisophy that developed in Athens about 300 B.C. empasized dignity, self control, and reason
polis
a city-state in ancient greece
pediment
top triangular part of the temple
Acropolis
the main gathering place, usually stood on top of a hill and was fortified
conclusion
the end or close; final part.
Rhetoric
public speaking and making an agrument
Sophocles
Playwright. Wrote Antigone and Oedipus Rex
Greece
mountians barriers and seas seperate the Greeks into competing city states
Karphi
Location where people moved within Greece, high above the hills during Dark ages
ideal
just as you would wish; perfect
Values
things that are important to you
Dorians?
Invaders of central and southern Greece at the end of the Bronze Age, the Dorians were responsible for major changes to the city-states of the region. Although they introduced the new technology of iron to Greece, their methods of rule also led to the period known as the Greek Dark Age.
ionia
where did the persian wars begin?
Hellenic
Means "Greek." Note that Hellenistic means "Greek-like"
Mycenaean Civilization
Mainland Greeks from the Bronze Ages
Empire
a large territory in which several groups of people are ruled by a single leader or government
oligarchy
a type of government where the richest, most powerful citizens control decision-making
currency
form of money used in a country
Aphrodite
-Venus
- Love and Beauty
- Swan and Dove
delian league
a defensive alliance of city-states; led by athens
democracy
rule by the people; first established in Athens
Tragedies
1st Greek dramas which were presented in a triology (set of 3 plays) built around a common theme
Aristotle
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
tyrant
someone who takes control of a government by force and rules alone
Plataea
after the Battle of Salamis, the Greeks again crushed the Persians during the Battle of ___
Athleticism
physically active and strong; good at athletics or sports
tragedy
play that end in death or sarrow
Phillip 2
ruled one of worlds larges empires
Homer
orally told stories about the Trojan War-Iliad and the Odyssey
Odyssey
epic poem written by Homer; tells of the adventures of Odysseus after the Trojan War
Parthenon
a 23,000 square foot building a temple built to honor the goddess Athena
Poseidon
- Trident
- Neptune
- god of the seas
Hera
Greek queen of heaven, a daughter of Cronus and Rhea, and the wife and sister of Zeus.
Thrace
top right or greece; about an inch from the black sea and byzantium
Who made up the Delian League
City-states supporting Athens
oral tradition
worlds most famous stories passed down by word of mouth
Macedonian Phalanx
Longer phalanxes that could break up into smaller ones and fight.
Captions
words printed above or below a picture to explain what the picture is showing
Ostracism
What do we call the practice of banishing overly ambitious citizens who were deemed dangerous to the Polis?
blockade
an action taken to isolate an enemy and cut off its supplies
TROYAN WAR
The legendary cause was that Paris kidnapped the Greek King's wife, Helen the most beautiful woman of the world. The actual cause was over money and power between Trojan and Greece.
aristocrat
a memeber of a rich and powerfull family
comedy and tragedy
The Greek Performed both types of drama__as a part of religious festivals
troy
an ancient city in Asia that was the site of the Trojan War; modern day Turkey
the Parthenon
located in athens; to the god athena; open temple; "the greatest example of the Classical Greek temple"
Trojan War
a ten-year war waged by the Greeks under Agamemnon against the Troy to avenge the abduction of Helen, wife of Menelaus, by Paris, son of the king Priam, and ending in the plundering and burning of Troy. What war did the Greeks win because of this picture?
Direct Democracy
a form of government in which all citizens can participate first hand
Most of the good land in ancient Greece was controlled by Who?
the aristocrats
peninsula
an area of land surrounded by water on three sides
merchant
someone who buys and sells goods for a living
pisistratus
He played a trick and a girl riding on a chariot claiming to be Athena said she was bringing Pisistratus back. So the people welcomed him.
alexander the great
taoght by aristotle, died at a young age, sought revenge for the persain wars, became leader at 20 years old. other known as alexander the conqueror, son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
Greeks started colonies because...
They needed more farmland to feed their people
Hammurabi's Code
Now can be found in a museum in Paris, this code of conduct was written by a man who claimed God gave him authority.
Hellenic or Classical Age
Known as the Golden Age. Was a very advanced age in art, architecture, drama and history. Ruled mostly by Pericles
typical activities for boys in Sparta (not Athens)
stealing food to survive, hunting and killing rebellious slaves, policing slaves
Greece is mostly made up of peninsulas and _____
A. rivers B. subcontinents C. islands D. plateaus Answer: Islands
Epicurians
...
navy
marine
plunder
steal goods
aristocrats
rich landowners
alexander dad is
assinated
not a
rainy place
philosophy
love of wisdom
Corinthian
capital covered with leaves
Constitution
A plan of government
Archimedes
famous scientist; established pi
phalanx
formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)
periokoi
Not Spartiates but not slaves
Myths
told about gods explaining why
Mount Olympus
home of the gods
Strategic
of great importance, well planned
settlement
a small community or village
Athena
goddess of wisdom and war
the growing middle class demands a
say
Citizenship
The right to participate in government.
Alexander
Called 'The Great', conquered the known world for Greece
Who decided to rebuild the Acropolis?
Pericles
Kryptaia
Elite secret police that killed Helots
Mythology
myths or traditional stories handed down from generation to generation
Miscellaneous
consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds
heredotus
"Father of History"; first Greek historian; chose Persian wars as subject; asked questions, recorded answers, and checked reliability; wote Historia
Thucydides
The greatest histororian from the ancient world. He believed that studying the past helped us understand human nature.
Black-figure pottery
black figures painted on terra-cotta, associated with the Golden Age of Greece
Attica
a 1,000 square mile promontory in southeast central Greece that formed the territory of the Athenian city-state; rugged terrain that yielded high-quality marble and potter's clay as well as silver and lead.
stoa
covered colonnade used for shops and offices
Minoa
an early Greek civilization on Crete based on trade
Epicurus
founder of Eupicureanism; aim of life is to seek pleasure and avoid pain
epic
a long poem that tells a story.
immortal
someone that lives for ever, gods. never dies
sparta
all male citizens over 18 were soldiers
Angora
an open air market and gathering place
Athens
Athens became a democracy around 500 B.C.E.
lyric poetry
poetry that expresses that poet's thoughts and feelings; often accompanied by a lyre
Xeres
Darius's son that led another huge Persian army and fleet against Greece. Greece defeated them at the battle of THERMOPYLAE
Which ancient Greek philosopher was a student of Socrates, believed men and women should be educated equally and have equal access to all positions, believed individuals could not achieve a good life unless they lived in a just and rational state, and wro
Plato
Hellenism
a blend of Greek and Eastern cultures, emerged from Alexander the Great's journeys
Mycenae
city where the mycenaeans had a sacred tomb
Minoan
Linear A writing was not yet been translated.
Monarchy
government where a king or queen has all the power
oracle
in ancient Greece, a sacred site used to consult a god or goddess; any priest or priestess who spoke for the gods
representative democracy
citizens chooses small group to make decisions
Greeks (Mycenacans) vs. Trojans
Trojan War: who vs. who?
Stichomythia
Back and forth type of dialogue in Athenian theater
Draco
developed a legal code based on the idea that all Athenians, rich and poor, were equal under the law
tribute
a payment made by a less powerful state or nation to a more powerful one
Greece Cultural Diffusion
very crowded, people spread, mad colonies in Medirerranean
theseus
a young Greek prince who was brought to Knossos
what years did the greeks rule to 3000B.C. -??????
1,100B.C.
Sparta government
two kings. Council of elders (28 men over the age of 60). and the assembly of male citizens over the age of 30
the mountain ranges caused villages to have
there own government
Assembly of Citizens
All Spartan men. Passed over 20 laws
The Iliad
Was an epic poem written by Homer about the Trojan War
persian war
Persia wanted to punish Athens for its aid to Ionia; Delian League alliances formed in case they come back causing Athens to get rich; Persia is not successful
comedy
a type of Greek play in which the writer makes fun of important people
The Odyssey
Tells of the adventures of a hero on his way home to Greece after the Trojan War written by Homer
History of Greece
started on island of Crete with King Menos and Troy
The Persian Wars
490 - 479 BC
-major turning point for Greeks
-Thermoplyae and Marathon were two major battles cities
-Sparta and Athens became allies
-Athenians suffered early defeat to the Persians
-Greeks were outnumbered by they had great battle strategy-phalanx
why was the strategy effective in the peloponnesian war
more ships, more power
who was king philip II
the kind of Macedonia. wanted to take over greece and attack persia
leave their homes and learn to read and write
Alexander's empire also gave women more power, what did it allow them to do?
How did the mountain terrain of their land affect Greek culture and history?
It isolated them from one another and forced them to move outward by sea
Mycenaeans
...
government
direct democracy
plato
founded academy
example of volute
region
broad geography area.
priestess
a female priest
Early Greek
480-431 BC
Minoans
an Ancient Greek Civilization
All city states had
language,money,government,laws,army,agora,acropolis,religion,myths and legends
Aegean Sea
sea around Greece
Trojan War date
about 1250 BC
Perioeci
workers, trader. Non-citizens. Needed because aristocrats did not work
Eratosthenes
director of the Alexandrian Library
Constantine
legalized christianity and converted to that religion.
City-state
geographical and political center in Greek life
where was the Minoan civilization located
Crete
The most powerful Greek god was
Zeus
Ionic
this more decorative order developed later in the 6th century on the Aegean Islands-features include spiral scrolls on capitals and acroteria
Vesta
Roman goddess, equivalent to Greek Hestia
aristophenes
a great writer of Greek comedy
colony
new settlement separated from but ruled by a homeland
menander
most succesful of the new playwrites
Hero
mathematician who created the wind wheek and aeolipile
pythagrorus
thought everyhting could be solved thru math
mountains and sea
divided Greece into city-states
plague
a deadly disease that spreads rapidly from person to person
Heinrich Schliemann
German archaeologist who uncovered the remains of Troy in the late 1800's
Knossos
The capital of the ancient Minoan civilization who flourished during ~ 2500 B.C. to 1450 B.C.; located on the island of Crete.
achilles
greek hero whose anger led to disaster
Who wrote The Iliad and The Odyssey
Homer
Agamemnon
(Greek mythology) the king who lead the Greeks against Troy in the Trojan War
majority rule
the doctrine that the numerical majority of an organized group can make decisions binding on the whole group
An amphitheater is inside?
False, it is outside.
helots
captive workers- This name comes from the Greek word for "capture."
Thales of Miletus
According to tradition, first Greek phil
humanities
the formal study of human thought and culture
slaves, timber, corn, iron, tin
Major imports of Athens
Crypt Layer
Ephors talked loudly about bad Helot family. Army went out and destroyed the family. Kept Helots in line.
Defeated boxer
A hellenistic sculpture that shows a sad expression on the mans face that he is defeated and he is all beat up and bloody and old and not perfect at all.
King Philip
King of Macedonia who conquered the Greek city-states; Alexander the Great's father
Hellenistic Culture
culture Alexander built in the Middle East
Minoan Crete
A Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete (2700-1400 BCE). Popular trading center known for the legend of King Minos & the Minotaur. Known for shipbuilding, agriculture, and frequent earthquakes. Symbol of power - Palace of Knossos. Royal symbol - double axe (labryss in Greek). National symbol - Bull.
what was trade used for?
getting goods they needed
Supplication
The act of holding onto a polis' diety's statue in order to be given a fair trial.
Persian Wars
492 B.C.-449 B.C. series of wars between Greek states and Persia, particularly two invasions of Greece by Persia.
The Achaeans/Mycenaeans
the first "real" Greeks. lived on the Greek mainland. They were Indo/European people and were very violent.
At what point did the Greek city-states start to share an enormous cultural and political unity?
victory over Persia
Xenophanes
We see the gods as human because we are human. Religion needs to be grander than human pettiness
what do people believe destroyed the minoan civilazation?
A great volcano
battle of thermopylae
300 spartans held narrow mountain pass against the whole persian army for 2 days until they were defeated- persia, led by its leader xerxes marched toward athens
geography of Greece made it hard
to unify the communities
Battle of Salamis
The entire Persian Navy is defeated by Triremes hidden behind the rocks, Xerxes sat on his golden thron and watched his navy get annihilated
What right and responsibilities did citizens have?
Political rights-vote, pay taxesm serve in military, hold office.
aristorcracy
rule by the best in reality rule by an upper class
what is an aristocrat
A member of a rich and powerful family
What were the rules in Pankration
None, except no biting or eye gouging
Farming in ancient Greece what they grew
grew wheat, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables, fruits, and nuts
What effect did the mountains of Greece have in the Greece people?
it made it difficult to travel and trade nearly impossible
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