and 92 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
organized output
Wernicke's area
Language/speech understanding
(neurotransmitter) influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. Not enough = Parkinson's. Too much = Schizophrenia
semantic memory
memory of FACTS
Broca's Area
production of speech
first menstrual period (12-13)
the understanding that physical properties do not change when nothing id added or taken away, even though appearances may change. 
temporal lobe
(side of the head)
personality disorders
-disorders characterized by inflexible, enduring behavior patterns-impairs social functioning
pain relief, feelings of well-being,relaxation
long term potentiation
increased synapse firing
Brief Psychodynamic therapy
Just as effective
Picture Prime experiment
einstein and supermodel
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Has masters degree, treats non-mental disorders
Antisocial personality
Considered the most serious personality disorder. People with this feel little personal stress. Egocentrism, lack of conscience, impulsive behavior, and superficial charm.
A high-level goal fundamental to social survival. These are goals with a broad scope, such as the desire to gain status, protect family members, etc.
adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to better fit with new information
Hormones released by the adrenal cortex that play a key role in the body's response to long-term stressors.
A serious developmental disorder that causes debilitating symptoms including bizarre behaviors, lack of language development, lack of social development, impaired nonverbal behavior (such as eye-to-eye gaze), impaired peer relationships, and lack of social reciprocity. Pg 388
Reinforcement Schedule
C- Continuos reinforcement (after every trial)
VR- Varying ratio (after every random number of trials)
F- Fixed ratio (after every certain number of trials)
VI- Varying intervals- varying intervals of time
Check if there is one more
The third stage of Yalom's group development is marked by the development of
behavioral medicine
studies behavior and medicine. Multidisciplinary, not limited to psychologistsIntegrates behavioral science approaches with biomedical knowledge and techniques
problems with falling or staying asleep
Lateral Genticulate
*Back of thalamus
*Where ganglion cell axons make 1st synaptic contact (after forming optic nerve, 1/2 crossing at chiasm, going through optic tract)
*Organization/Function: color processing
Green ganglion cell excites LG cell
Red ganglion inhibits LG cell
-->see green
*After looking at green for a while, you wear the cell out 
*White light should equally excite and inhibit-->nothing
*But, now inhibition wins out over excitation-->see red 
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
Personality Perspectives- Psycholanalytic (dynamic)
unconcious processes; early childhood
protective covering that covers the eye
19th-century school of psychology that argued that breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to understand thought and behavior.
cognitive dissonance
anxiety that results from simultaneously holding incompatible attitudes or beliefs, as when one likes a person but disapproves of their habits
attachment style in which infants are able to explore, are upset when their caregiver leaves and happy when their caregiver returns
A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina.
neuron that sends the chemical signal across the synapse
directing an impulse from a socially unaccepted target onto a safer and more socially accepted target
psychological tests
standard mearsures devised to assess behaivor objectively; used by psychologists to help people make decisions about their lives and understand more about themsleves.
a voltage shift in a positive manner 
means the probability the neuron will fire will increase
auditory nerve
connected to the brain, transmits information from ear to brain.
fetal alcohol syndrome
a collection of congenital(inborn) problems associated w/ excessive alcohol used during pregnancy including: small head, heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity, retarded mental & motor development
sensory memory
the capacity to preserve sensory information in a relatively pure, unanalyzed form for a very brief period.
In Piaget’s theory, the process by which individuals interpret new information in accordance with existing knowledge or schemas.
Herman Ebbing haus
german phychologist.....tests him self with long he can remember stuff.
- after repeated pairings you no longer experience UCS
what's are interneurons?
cns neurons that internally communicate & intervene btwn sensory inputs & motor outputs
Maximum range of frequencies which a person can hear ...
Myelin Sheath
The white, fatty coating wrapped around some axons that acts as insulation and enables impulses to travel much faster.
anorexia nervosa
involves intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain a normal weight, and dangerous measures to lose weight, 2 types-restricting & binge eating/purging, old disorder that reemerged in middle 20th century, onset 14-18 yrs old, 1-1.5% of females develop
An inert or harmless substance given to the control grooup in an experiment as a control for the placebo effect.
retrograde annesia
inability to recall events preceding an accident or injury but without loss of earlier memory.
What is reuptake?
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron in the communication of neurons
cross-cultural approach
-to truly understand human behavior, we have to examine the influences of culture
The process of getting or recalling information that has been placed into short-term or long-term storage.
the visible aspect of one's character as it impresses others:
to strengthen the probability of a response to a given stimulus by giving or withholding a reward
Case Study
Research involving a single individual (or, as most, a few individuals).
random presentation
A process by which chance alone determines the order in which the stimulus is presented.
stress response
in the internal and external adaption by an individual
Pleasure Principle
principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regards for consequences.
blood-brain barrier
a protective mechanism by which the blood capillaries supplying the brain create a carrier that prevents dangerous substances access to the brain
part of the lower brain that functions primarily as a central relay station for incoming and outgoing messages from the body to the brain and the brain to the body
Stimulus Generalization
the occurrence of a learned response not only to the original stimulus bot to other, similar stimuli as well.
Healthy personality(self-actualizing persons)
are people with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by personal growth
event-related potentials (ERP)
EEGS patterns observed shortly after presentation of a stimulus.
experimental psychology
Field of specialization in which the primary activity is conducting research.
Norm –
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe “proper” behavior
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
A well- researched, clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems.
Auditory Localization
ability to locate the origins of sounds by differences from ear to ear in variables such as intensity and the time the sound arrives at each ear.
Allport's trait hierarchy
cardinal traits, central traits, and primary traits; always be consistent with cardinal
All the cases in a group being studied
The analysis of variance, or ANOVA, is the most commonly used inferential test for examining a null hypothesis when comparing more than two means in a single-factor study, or in studies with more than one factor (i.e., independent variable). The ANOVA test is based on analyzing different sources of variation in an experiment.
behavioral appraoch
behavior is primarily the result of learning it from other people
An example of a drug that would affect a nerve impulse by clogging the sodium/potassium channels is:
ovejustification effect
when people are given more extrinsic motivation than necessary to perform a task, their intrinsic motivation declines
constructive processing
referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered revised or influenced by newer information
Positive reinforcer
Any event whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will occur.
Self- actualization
A stage of personal development in which individuals reach their maximum potential.
borderline mental retardation
IQ of 68-83, often considered “slow learners”
Robert McClelland
Devised a way to measure H. Murray's theory "The need to achieve that varied in strength in different people and influenced their tendency to approach success and evaluate their own performances." He devised the TAT-Thematic Appreciation Test. Subjects are asked to generate stories in response to ambiguous pictures.
John Bowlby
there must be a biological basis for attachment. infants are biologically programmed to emit behavior (smiling, cooing, clinging) that triggers effectionate, protective response from adults. adults are programmed by evolutionary forces to be captivated by this behavior
The central nervous system consists of ______.
Brain and Spine
motor nueron?
a motor nueron is used to send info from brain to muscles. unlike others, it has dendrites (receiving part)
number of times a wave passes a given point
A cell can only divide a certain number of times. This is absent in cancer cells and is referred to as what?
Hayflick Limit
rodswhere located
process light in dark cant see fine detail ; cant see colorAround edges of retina
after classical conditioning
CS: tone = conditioned response (CR): salivation
Borderline Personality Disorder
come here, go away shifts in mood
lack of coherent sense of self
unpredictable, impulsive
Substance Abuse
A pattern of behavior in which people rely on drug excessively and regularly, bringing damage to their relationships, functioning poorly at work, or putting themselves or others in danger.
Major depressive disorder
2 weeks or more without rational justification feelings of depression, diminished interest in normal life, and it's very common. Common more in women. Lasting less than six months. Genetic; mostly caused b/c of situation; linked to nonrepinepherine and serotonin (brain hormones).
james-lange theory
a theory of emotion that argues that body reactions precede and drive the subjective experience of emotions
women in close contact tend to have menstrual cycles synchronize
McClintock effect
Feeding and eating disorders
Disturbances in eating behavior that involve maladaptive and healthy efforts to control body weight.
institutional review board (IRB)
A committee at each institution where research is conducted to review every experiment for ethics and methodology.
stage 2 of sleep
theta waves show short period of really fast/higher energy sleep spindles
Kohlberg's TheoryPostconventional Level
realize some laws are immoral and need to be changedMartin Luther King Jr.
short - term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the info is stored/forgotten
Definition of Peripheral Nervous System
Connects the Central Nervous System with the body's sense receptors, muscles, and glands. (Connects brain and spinal column to the rest of the body.)
Serial Position Effect
States that we remember the first and last items in a list better than the middle items.Short term remember 1st things on the listreoccuring- recall last things listed.
Hermann Ebbinghaus (1908/1973)
"psychology has a long past, but only a short history" One of the first experimental scientists.
Sit. factorsurban v. ruralpresence of others
rural more likely to help, overstimulation of urban-reduces likelihood of helping, tunnel vision
gist and verbatim processing
gist: get the gist of itVerbatim: more detailed, exact information
two types of messages can be sent from cell to cell
1. excitatory2. inhibitory
Hindbrain, Midbrain, Forebrain
What is the lower part of the brain which includes the medulla, the brain stem, the pons and the cerebellum?
"Brown & Kulik�s flashbulb memory study"
"""1. Examined an idea that people remember very well where they were when JFK was shot2. People gave a great level of detail
I-O Psychology ψ 
Chapter 1
The 4 Trends of I/O ψ 
1st Trend: The changing nature of work. Many jobs are becoming increasingly complex due to technological advancements, and they are more demanding, requiring workers to process more and more information and to make more decisions.
2nd Trend: Expanding focus on human resources- Organizations have become more and more concerned about and responsive to the needs of the workers.
3rd Trend: Increasing diversity of the workforce. Although diversity has benefits, demographic and cultural differences can-if not carefully managed- create great difficulties in the functioning of work teams (i.e. increasing conflict and decreasing performance and cooperation)
4th Trend: Increasing Globalization of Business- As more and more organizations go international, there is an increasing need for workers to be trained for working in or with organizations located in other/different countries.
What is the 4th Stage of the Epigenetic Model?
Industry vs. Inferiority( ages 6-12 )Am I successful or worthless?spectrum/ Narrow Virtuosity or InertiaCenter/ Competency ( I can Finish )
Which of Erik Erikson's stages do you think you are currently in and what makes you think so?
Intimacy vs IsolationI got married and have seen my true colors, I'm a lot more selfish than I originally thought, but I'm a work in progress lol.
By the end of their first year they will
increase their size 50% in the first year.
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