and American History Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hierarchy
(n) ranking
Alexander Hamilton
...
States Rights party
Dixiecrats
John Adams
Thoughts on Government
Leif Erikson
-Discovered "Vineland" (1000)
New form of media
radio
no bles were
miltary and priset
FDCI
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: guaranteed bank deposits for the depositors
literally
(intensifier before a figurative expression) without exaggeration
Urban Sprawl
the unplanned spreading of cities
Black codes
severely restricted African Americans lives
communal
native americans lived in what fashion
Jamestown
1st permanent settlement in the Americas
marshall field
Opened department store Marshall Field's in Chicago
back country
a remote and undeveloped area
Peon
landless labors most were american indains
Spanish governor Weyler hered cubans into conc. camps how many died?
200,000
tariff
a government tax on imports or exports
Capitalist
An investor of capital in business, especially one having a major financial interest in an important enterprise.
Material the Voyager was made of
Carbon fiber
Initiative
A procedure by which a legislative measure can be originated by the people rather than by lawmakers.
40,000
Scientists disagree as to exactly when the early Americans arrived in the Americas. Some think they were here as early as _____________years ago.
espionage
when the law provided stiff penalties for spying.
Henry Steele Commager
"Who is Loyal to America?"
Joseph Bryant
Mohawk chief Thayendanegea was also know as Joe Bryant. They became valuable allies for the English by charging lower prices than the French did.
How did muckrakers right corruption?
arousing public opinion
New York.
Which colony was ruled by James?
Representative Government
voters elect representatives to make laws for them
Economy of Colonies
1. New England (Maritime)-diversified farming, fishing, commerce ship building, manufacturing of textiles, leather goods, iron wares and run2. Middle colonies(Provision)-farming, fur trading, and manufacturing3. South (Plantations)-tobacco, rice, indigo and naval stores
Monroe Doctrine
*Policy written by Monroe in 1823*Warning to nations of Europe to stay out of western hemisphere
starving time
in the winter 1609-1610 the settlers were forced to eat dogs rats ands hourses
South Carolina Meeting
December 1860 to discuss leaving union
Exodusters
groups of southern blacks on a mass "Exodus" westward, fleeing the violence and exploitation that followed reconstruction
Judicial Branch
Mainly the United States Supreme court which is a panel of nine judges or justices that decide on matters of constitutionality.
Harry Hopkins
a young social worker, he had supervised relief activities in New York State while Roosevelt was governor; one of FDR's most influential aides whose contributions to New Deal programs included his preference for work relief as opposed to money relief
samuel champlain
who founded the first settlement of new france?
Potsdam Conference
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
air shafts.
Many of the windows in dumbbell tenements opened onto
Kent State
Ohio college where an anti-war protest got way out of hand, the Nat'l Guard was called in and killed 3 students (innocent & unarmed,wounded 9) in idiscriminate fire of M-1 rifles
joint-stock company
type of business arrangement in which a number of people pool thier funds in exchange for stock in a company
U boats
Best weapon the Germans has against British on the high seas, but cause friction with the U.S. when used to sink shipping.
New Jersey.
Established by John Berkley and George Carteret.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
The use of censorship, mass arrests, and a secret police force are most characteristic of...
Totalitarian regimes
gertrude ederle
first woman to swim accross the english channel
pride
a becoming or dignified sense of what is due to oneself or one's position or character; self-respect; self-esteem.
Selective Service
A system put together to enforce draft to war.
Battle of Little Bighorn
1876, an ultimatum was issued requiring all non-reservation Sioux to report to the reservation but Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse refused to go so the U.S. fought to get them back, this battle symbolized a successful armed attempt by the Cheyenne's and Sioux to preserve traditional ways and to not give in to cultural change from European American expansion
the last 5 days of the mayne calendar were considered
unlucky
First Labor Unions*
(AJ), in Philly, wanted 1) abolition of imprisonment for debt 2) free education 3) abolition of prison contract 4) 10 hour work day
Oregon Trail
the most common trail to the Pacific Coast
Grant vs. Lee-
Grant attacked Lee's army in Virginia and Grant could not get through Lee's army but Grant didn't retreat.
Duke of York
Brother of Charles II, conquered New Netherland
Freedman's Bureau
developed in 1865 and led by Oliver Otis Howard
Lyndon Johnson's Great Society
legislative goals, program to reduce poverty and racial injustice and to promote a better quality of life in the US
general strike
a strike involving all the workers in a particular geographic location
Medgar Evans
part of NAACP, wanted blacks to have the right to vote; assassinated
What does the US do about the Free elections in Vietnam?
stops them
Rosie the Riveter
a popular symbol for the working woman during World War II
how many slaves are imported from africa between 1788-1808?
250,000 slaves were brought
tecumseh and the prophet
1809- A Shawnee chief and his half-brother that sought to unite several tribes in Ohio and the Indiana territory against American settlers. Their deaths ended the hope of an Indian confederacy.
declaration for independence
T Jefferson, govt power from people so people can abolish/alter govt when life liberty and pursuit of happiness is denied
Christopher Columbus
I landed in the Bahamas but I thought I was in India.
He is best known for his efforts to promote efficiency
Frederic Taylor
Bartolommeo Dias and Cape of Good Hope
Portuguese explorer that discovered the southern tip of Africa, hoping to find a trade route to India. Important because Europeans could trade directly with India without the middle eastern middle man.
Ten Percent Plan
when 10% of states swore an oath to loyalty to the US, the voters could organize a new state government
One of the two cities the atomic bomb was dropped on.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
America's campaign against Canada in the War of 1812 was
poorly conceived because it split up the military
Why Parliament sought to impose greater taxes on the colonies
Britain owed debt from French and Indian War (they needed revenue). It attempted to have colonies pay part of war debt. It also wanted them to contribute toward the costs of frontier defense and colonial government
What was the Boxer Rebellion about?
The Chinese did not want to be controlled by the Western influence
How did mining lead to new settlements in the west?
mining towns supplied miners with necessities of life while they sought there fortunes
What gains did Reconstruction bring to African Americans and former slaves in the South?
got to wrok for wages, sanctity of private proberty, held positions in political office, education
What was the Zimmerman note and what effect did it have on the USA'S involvement in WW1?
It was a note was going from Germany to Mexico, but was intercepted by the US. It was talking about how they wanted to attack the US. The US then attacked Germany becoming a part of WW1.
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Annuity
Yearly allowance
Protestant Reformation
1517 in Germany
hacienda
large farm of estate
override
to defeat a presidential veto
Abraham Lincoln
1860 Republican presidential candidate
Alexis deTocqueville
1837, French philosopher, wrote Democracy in America which discussed the rising equality of social conditions on the individual and the state in western society.
Prison Reform
1. rehabilitate the inmates
2. Dorothea Dix
Strict Constructionist
means states have more power
Triple Alliance
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry
Sam Houston
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
Georgia
last of original 13 colonies settled in 1733, only colony founded by conscious colony decision, founded to protect south and florida, outlawed slavery
Creole
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
Describe one new Christian belief of the early 1800's.
...
Specie Redemption Act
Reduced circulation of "greenbacks" and put the US back on the gold standard
Common Sense
An influential pamphlet written by ex-Brit, turned patriot Thomas Paine; outlines his reason why the colonies should be free from English control
Francisco Franco
Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death (1892-1975)
Oral history
One person interviews another person about a specific time period in the interviewee's life or a specific topic they can recall, interviewer takes the interviewee's responses and creates a text of the point of view of the interviewee (not an exact transcript, interviewer must edit the transcript, final piece of writing Captures The voice and spirit of the interviewee)
OK
All answers are from lessons 1-20 in 7th grade worldy wise book. ( TYPE IN "OK" FOR ANSWER)
William Pitt
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
Al Smith
The person who ran against Herbert Hoover in 1928. He was a living scandal, he drank during the prohibition period and was a Roman Catholic.
sugar act
colonists paid lower taxes on molasses becuse of this act
evolution
the gradual change in a species over time
William Penn
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
Corregidor de Indios
municipal officials deployed to native settlements- first, just like estate managers and then became governors who would adjudicate disputes among natives, etc; crown wanted effective representatives of its authority AND native labor for its own profit and, in many ways, the crown was the largest "encomendero"
commonwealth
a community founded on laws that would benefit the common good
civil rights act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
War Hawks
A term originally used to describe members of the United States Judiciary branch of the Twelfth Congress of the United States who advocated waging war against the United Kingdom in the War of 1812.
trench warfare
armies in trenches, fought for mere yards of ground
What was federalism?
belief in national government as well as state government
Joseph Smith
Led Mormons out of New York to Missouri. Was later killed.
Per curiam opinion
a brief unsigned statement of the Court's decision
Nuremberg trials
trials of Nazi leaders for war crimes; established individual responsibility for actions, even in wartime
37. writ of assistance
general warrant that gave British inspectors the right to search any warehouse or private home that might contain illegal goods
Stamp Act
A law passed by the British parliment in 1765 requiring colonists to pay a test on newspapers phamplets legal documents and even playing cards
Santa Fe
City in New Mexico, which was captured by Colonel Stephen W. Kearny's troops in the summer of 1846.
New England Confederation
A Union of four colonies consisting of the two Massachusetts colonies (The Bay colony and Plymouth colony) and the two Connecticut colonies (New Haven and scattered valley settlements) in 1643. The purpose of the confederation was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent intercolonial problems that effected all four colonies.
Free soil Party
Formed in 1848 to oppose slavery in the territory acquired in the Mexican War; nominated Martin Van Buren for president in 1848, but by 1854 most of the party's members had joined the Republican party.
Sieur de la salle
French explorer in North America who claimed Louisiana for France (1682)
Turning Point of Spanish Fortune
They created plantations of cash crops, sugar and pineapple, using slaves.
Proclamation Line of 1763
Order by the British king that closed the region west of the App Mountains to all settlement by colonists
stimulated growth in other industries related to car manufacture or use. It prompted a new sense of freedom and prosperity and altered residential patterns
how did the invention of the automobile change America?
Why did Chinese come to America?
-Originally came to labor in the gold fields and on the railroad
-after that ended they worked in menial jobs as cooks, laundry men, servants
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