and AP Psychology Vocabulary 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Wilhelm Wundt
structualism
Rorschach
projective inkblot test
glutamate
-major excitator neurotransmitter which is involved in memory
-oversupply can overstimulate brain- migraine or seizures
Ions
Electrically charged chemical particles.
Displacement
psychoanalytic defnese mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
psychanalysis
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams and transferences and the therapist is interpretations of them.
Chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable untis; often occurs automatically
accommodation
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
Clinical Psychologist
help with emotional problems
sensorimotor
(Piaget's stages of Cognitive Development)
-Birth- 2 years
-infants know the world in terms of sensory impressions and motor activities
Lobotomy
A now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
Prototype
An abstraction, an idealized pattern of an object or idea that is stored in memory and used to decide whether similar objects or ideas are members of the same class of items.
Spotlight Effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
Mean
arithmetic average of a distribution obtained by adding the scores and dividing by the number of scores
precognition
the ability to foretell the future
Generalizability
ecological validating - how feelings can be generalized to those in natural settings
Insomnia
Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
B. F. Skinner
Created reinforcement theory; behaviorist approach
Occipital lobe
processes visual input, this information crosses the optic chiasma
Kenneth Clark
social psychology; research evidence of internalized racism caused by stigmatization; doll experiments-black children chose white dolls
Alzheimer's disease
an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning
automatic proccesing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meaning
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks
Rogers, Carl
A humanistic Psychologist who developed Client-Centered Therapy.
Harry Harlow
Monkey experiment. Monkeys want comfort more than food.
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messenger that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, these travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
endorphins
family of chemicals that resemble opiates in effect that they emit a feeling of a high and painlessness
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
safety
the second rung of Maslow's hierarchy; refers to need for freedom from danger
consolidation
the process of changing a short-term memory to a long-term one
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
lesion
tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
token economy
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
pons
a brain stem structure that regulates the sleep-wake cycle
Naturalistic Observation
studying someone or something without their knowledge
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
MMPI
the initials of a long, detailed personality inventory
Flooding
lessens anxiety by exposing a client to a carefully controlled environment in which an anxiety provoking stimulus is presented harmlessly.
insight
the sudden realization of the solution to a problem
extrasensory perception (ESP)
the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition
hindbrain
the most primitive of the three functional divisions of the brain, consisting of the pons, medulla, reticular formation, and cerebellum
Theory X
assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and, thus, should be directed from above.
pupil
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experiment controls other relevant factors
Hypnosis
A social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
Fundamental Attribution Error
occurs when an individual overemphasizes internal causes and personal responsibility and underemphasizes external influences when observing the behavior of other people.
visible spectrum
part of the electromagnetic spectrum to which the eyes respond
Structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind (TITCHENER)
Standardization
making fixed conditions for taking a test.
Reticular activating system
Controls arousal (wakefulness and alertness)
Test Norms
Provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to others scores on that test. These tests tell you how you score relative to other people.
pitch
a tone's highness or lowness; depends on frequency
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below
Concept
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
electroconvulsive therapy
a treatment in which low level electric current is passed through the brain
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
Spearman's intelligence theory
argued that intelligence could be expressed by a single factor, used factor analysis to conclude that many different specific abilities (s) that people regard as types of intelligence is a single factor that he named g for general intelligence
Medulla Oblongata
An elongated structure at the point where the spinal cord enters the skull and joins with the brain. It helps keep us alive by entirely controlling the heart rate and largely controlling breathing ,swallowing, and digestion.
brainstem
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions
parietal lobes
the parts of the cerebral cortex, located on the side of each cerebral hemisphere, that process bodily sensations
Free Association
Let words flow freely to bring threatening unconscious material to consciousness
frontal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments.
SPECT scan
Inject a radioactive isotope into the blood and examine how the blood is moved in the brain
PET Scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
Eclecticism
Involves drawing ideas from 2 or more systems of therapy instead of committing to just one system. More than ½ of therapists consider themselves eclectic in approach. Includes theoretical integration and technical eclecticism.
Conjunction Fallacy
Occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone. Example: People say it is more likely for a person to be a college professor and a politician than just a college professor.
Recognition
_______ is a measure of memory in which one need only identify, rather than recall, previ­ously learned information, (p. 268)
transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses
intimacy vs isolation
Erikson's stage in which individuals form deeply personal relationships, marry, begin families
personal identity
the part of our psychological identity that involves our sense of ourselves as unique individuals
Social-cognitive perspective
Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context.
Self Actualization
The act of reaching ones full individual potential in a creative way. It is the highest on Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
personnel psychology
Subfield of I/O psychology focusing on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
Conditioned Response
given in response to the conditioned stimulus, same response as a UCR
Taste Buds
Openings in the tongue; contain taste cells.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
The neutral stimulus that becomes connected with the unconditional stimulus.
The teacher decides only Papermate red gel pens will be used. This is an example of an...
Operational Definition
retroactive interference
disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of the old information
double blind procedure
experimental procedure in which both the reserach participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the reserach participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
Extinction (operant conditioning)
The process by which the probability of an organism's emitting a response is reduced when reinforcement no longer follows the response
Place theory
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
Hunt's Orphanage Study/Cultural Comparisons
Indicate that the enviroment and learning are important determinants of intelligence
correlation coefficient
a statistical measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
industry vs. inferiority
Erikson's stage between 6 and 11 years, when the child learns to be productive
Concordance rate
The degree to which a condition or traits shared two or more individuals or groups
control group
in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
confirmation bias
-many studies show that we tend to look for evidence that supports our beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts what we think is true
Aptitude Test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
babbling stage
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor (0 - 2 yrs.)
Preoperational (2 - 7 yrs.)
Concrete operational (7 - 11 yrs.)
Formal Operational (11 - adult)
operant chamber
a chamber, also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research
Content Validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is at intrest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks)
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
Esteem Needs
This is the need to feel good about yourself, and will be sacrificed to obtain love or to be part of a group.
signal detection theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 199)
Clever Hans Experiment
This is the tendency to think animals are smarter than they actually are. There was a horse trainer in Germany that told everyone his horse, Hans, was super intelligent. The horse could tap out the date with his hooves, nod his head at the saying of the correct Prime Minister of Germany, neigh when he recognized the correct month, etc., etc. Everyone was amazed at Hans. Then we found out the Hans was merely associating certain nonverbal body language cues that the trainer would give after he asked a certain question. The trainer would touch his ear and the horse would neigh, adjust his cap and the horse would tap three times, etc. The horse didn’t understand anything, he was just trained to do certain things when he saw the trainer give certain subtle body language cues
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities
bystander effect
(Factors that influence it)
As the number of people in a group goes up, the chances that anyone will help a victim goes down.  Exceptions are if a person can relate to the victim and/or is in a good mood.
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