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breeding out unwanted races
100% Americanism
call of KKK
Nomadic conquers of West Africa/Western Sudan. Some disputes have erupted throughout the years on the origins of these lighter skinned, straighter haired African; whether they're of North African or Arabic origin. These people were the first to convert to Islam through the jihads (holy wars), which allowed them to establish themselves as economic and political forces and religious group in the Western part of Africa. They established new trade routes throughout West Africa with their nomadic lifestyle. The cows are their sign of wealth. They launched a revolt in 1804 under Usuman Dan Fodio against the Hausa kingdoms. They also established Sokoto as the state center.
first radio stations
installment plan & installment buying
Sinclair Lewis
satirized small town life
As slaves were converted to Catholicism by the Spaniards and Portuguese, the African origins and religions of these slaves didn't die out. The African slaves did not hesitate to show their devotion to their origins regardless of the unfair accusations of witchcraft by the Inquisition. This was the African religious ideas and practices in Brazil which were particularly famous among the Yoruba people. Despite the attempts to suppress these beliefs, they continued to flourished and still remain today.
important forts and trading post. These often contain merchants that live there. Most of the initial factories depended on having the consent of local rulers and in return they help out in wars. These stations were very important in trading gold and spices from Africa and India back to Europe. And later on they became more slave oriented. These were essential in the formation of trade routes.
a Portuguese factory, where many spices were held until they could be shipped, and an important naval base. Later, the Dutch took over Malacca in 1620, building a base in Java. This reflected the Dutch idea that they would concentrate on monopolizing certain spices instead of the whole trading system like the Portuguese tried to do.
a landlocked African state that survived the mfecane and adapted to the Zulu model. They are also closely allied with the Zulus by culture, language, and history. Its inhabitants, ethnically part of the Nguni People group, are Bantu-speaking people and are religiously diverse and tolerant. The powers are held in the hand of a male ruler or his mother, often affecting the ruler greatly. Polygyny is the traditional ideal, with marriages often involving a "bride-price."
the northern-most island of the Philippines in which most of the Filipinos speak the Tagalog variant of the Filipino language. Luzon is the region where the Spanish had the most influence and success in converting the natives to Catholicism, as compared to the predominantly Muslim population of the southern-most island, Mindanao. At the time of Spanish conquest, Luzon's people were organized in small states, making the Spanish invasion easier. As Spanish colonization was further established, the Philippines subjected to Spanish administration, with the capital on Luzon at Manila, and regional Spanish missionaries governing those outside the capital.
African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean Islands (pg. 499). Men and women knowledgeable in these practices were held in high regard within the community. These practices involved sorcery and witchcraft.
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on Western India coast, 16th century site for forcible entry into Asian sea trade network. Its history stretches back to the 3rd century BC, when it formed part of the Mauryan Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Asoka. Panaji is its state capital and Vasco de Gama is their largest city.
Volstead Act
small enforcement force, often corrupt
won 1920 election, not actually intelligent, ran with Ohio Gang
Charleston Dance
popular dance, made phonograph popular
associative state
gov would promote voluntary cooperation
culture of consumption
buying up newest gadgets
A city-state formed in 14th century under Ewuare the Great (1400-1473). It's control extended from the Niger River to the coast near modern Lagos. It was a large and powerful kingdom of West Africa near the coast (in present day Nigeria). The city-state came into contact with the Portuguese in 1485, however, remained relatively free of European influence. At the time of European contact, Benin was at the height of its power. It established well-developed political and artistic traditions, especially in the casting of bronze. They also limited the slave trade as early as 1516, and kept away from depending on trade with Europe. They remained an independent, well developed African state with important commercial and political entities until the 19th century.
As the Portuguese trading empire grew weak and declined, the Dutch, one of its rivals emerged as the new trading empire. After 1620, they built Batavia, the Dutch fortress located on the island of Java as they captured the critical Portuguese port and fortress at Malacca and built a new port there. The location which was much closer to the island sources of key spices reflected the improvement of the European knowledge of the Asian geography. In addition, this demonstrated the Dutch decision to concentrate on the monopoly control of certain spices rather than on Asian trade more generally.
Saltwater Slaves
slaves that were transported from Africa and were thus invariably black (by European standards), unlike Creoles and Mulattos who were their American-born descendants. This was one way that the inhabitants of American slave based societies were distinguished from one another which also discloses how color and race played an important role in the Americas that was not present in Africa. Saltwater slaves had the lowest status of anyone else in their society. Saltwater slaves usually had the hardest labor tasks, working among the fields and mines.
religious fundamentalism
focused on evolution in schools, response to churches focusing more on community and not Bible
President Calvin Coolidge
"Silent Cal" all for business
popular form of media, smaller size, popular with the uneducated
mass culture
brought together by movies and radios
Border Patrol
made crossing more difficult with tests and taxes, led to more illegal crossings
Al Capone
Chicago, led to Valentine's Day Massacre, convicted for tax evasion
scientific racism
Madison Grant, new immigrants reason for failure of country
Harlem Renaissance
Langston Huges, Zora Neale Hurston, black culture awareness
Groups of Boer farmers who moved north in Africa due to various government measures, the accelerating arrival of English-speaking immigrants, and the lure of better lands. Voortrekkers moved into lands occupied by the southern Nguni, eventually creating a number of autonomous Boer states. After 1834, when Britain abolished slavery and imposed restrictions on landholding, Voortrekkers staged a Great Trek far to the north to be free of government interference. This movement eventually brought them across the Orange River and into Natal on the more fertile east coast, which the Voortrekkers believed to be only sparsely inhabited by Africans.
Boer Afrikaners
The Dutch settlers of Cape Colony, specifically Dutch farmers. These Dutch settlers posed conflict for native Africans. They fanned out occupying the most fertile farmlands, enslaved natives, clashed with local hunting groups, and openly fighting for control of land. As the Dutch spread northward, the Bantu spread southward, causing outbreaks of violence. Afrikaners emerged as a political party composed of the "pure-white" race in Southern Africa. These peoples pressed for apartheid, or complete separation of the races.
a mass movement or migration of a group of people. Here the word is referring to the African Diaspora. Up to twelve million African Americans were brought to America starting around the beginning of the 16th century. The ones that survived transportation were used as slaves. This population of Africans affected the culture of many places in the Americas for years to come.
the first emperor and founder of the Ming Dynasty. Originally known as Zhu Yuanzhang, he came from peasant origins and worked his way to be a military commander. His family died in a plague under Mongol rule, so Zhu survived by begging and living in Buddhist monasteries. When rebellion sprang in the 1340s, Zhu joined the outbreak, using his skills as a fighter and leader to become a prominent rebel warlord in the rebel cause. His armies soon controlled most of China, and he became Emperor Hongwu. He launched reforms immediately banning all Mongol influence, shunning Mongol dress, names, and buildings, also in effect driving the Mongols behind the Great Wall. Hongwu also reinstated the civil service exam system, inadvertently giving power to the Scholar-Gentry class. Within the imperial bureaucracy, Hongwu severely punished corrupt officials in public, discouraging any infidelity among the nobles. Hongwu also attempted to remove corruption by women, exiled all enemies to the throne, and edited the examinations by removing content that displeased him.
Island port in Nagasaki Bay. It was the only port to opened to non-Japanese after closure of the islands in the 1640's. Only Chinese and Cutch ships were allowed to enter. In the centuried after the 18th, the Japanese elite followed developments in the west by contact wit this small dutch community.
Indies Piece
the term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade and is referred to as the value of a healthy adult male slave. Because women and children were considered inferior to men (-sigh- when will these people realize how awesome we are??), they were priced at fractions of that value. The Indies piece also set prices for other commodities.
Tokugawa Hideyoshi
one of Nobunaga's most able general. He acted swiftly in order to punish those who betrayed Nobunaga and renewed the drive to demolish the power of the daimyos not submitted to him. Although Hideyoshi was of peasant origin, he matched his master in military bravery but was much more skillful in international relationships. He won many victories over the last of the resisting daimyos. He later earned the title of the military master of Japan by 1590. He envisioned conquering China and even India and started by attacking Korea. His first campaign ended in defeat and the second was still in progress when he died in 1598.
The third emperor in the Ming dynasty. Launched the expedition of the seven major overseas and sends Zhenghe as the leader. Orders the expeditions in order to explore other lands and proclaim the glory of the Ming empire to the wider world. Successor did not continue his interest and the overseas expedition died out.
a Zulu chieftain born in 1785. After the previous chieftain died, Shaka became the new chief of the Zulus in 1818. His first acts were to revamp the army and develop new military methods. He built up a huge, nearly invincible army that would later conquer much of southern Africa. He was cruel and bloodthirsty, nearly exterminating any clan that dared to resist him. His armies threw the whole southern tip of Africa into chaos. Peoples were slaughtered and refugees fled anywhere they could. In fact, when the Boer Great Trek passed through the area in the 1830s, they wondered why the rich, fertile lands where so empty of people. Shaka's brutality and insanity was further shown when he ordered that 7,000 men be executed in honor of his late mother. In 1828, he was murdered by his brothers. However, the infrastructure and reforms he had made would stay in place until the end of the century.
an African state, created in the 19th century in resistance to the ongoing Zulu mfecane wars. During this time, Zulu armies would raid neighboring establishments and leave them in the remains of their chiefdoms, but the combined efforts of Sotho and Nguni speakers helped defend Lesotho from Zulu onslaught. Lesotho developed its own kingdom free from Zulu example that was less committed to military organization, as well as having a leader that was influenced well by the people.
John Wesley
Church of England cleric and Christian theologian, credited as founder for the Methodist movement at around 18th Century. Wesley was also a keen abolitionist, he spoke out and wrote against slave trade and published ''Thoughts upon Slavery.'' He was also friends with William Wilberforce who was also an influential abolitionist of slavery at that time.
Andrew Mellon
Secretary of Treasury, one of richest men in America, Coolidge looked to him and other richies to lead country, big tax cuts for rich and businesses, undid liberal tax breaks of Wilson
"return to normalcy"
couldn't hapen because 4 mil unemployed, postwar depression, factories shut down, cost of living doubled and unemployment increased as a result
Sheppard- Towner Act
first federally funded wellfare act, for maternity and childcare
opened up in response to 18th, very hard to close, had to know someone to get in
"new era" Republican Party
business/gov relationship, strong fed gov, Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover, conservatives, laissez-faire
written by the Lynd's, a social look at the impact of the automobile
national trade associations
cooperation of like industries to increase efficiency and reduce competition
Treaty of Gijanti
Signed in 1757, this treaty reduced the remaining Javanese princes to vassals of the Dutch East India Company. It also allowed the Dutch to monopolize the production of coffee in Java.
Adam Schall
As part of the succession of Jesuit scholars during the 1580s, Adam, along with Matteo Ricci, spent their time in the imperial city correcting faulty calendars, forging cannons, fixing clocks, and astounding the scholar gentry with their accuracy to predict eclipses (basically, just sharing western knowledge). Most court officials viewed them as "barbaric" but they still won a few converts. After the Ming Dynasty was overthrown by nomads, (again!!!) the Jesuits held even stronger positions in court.
Macao and Canton
: Many Arab, European, and Asian traders arrived with increasing numbers at Macao, and later Canton. These were the only two places where they were officially allowed to do business in Ming China. Many of China's products like silk textiles, tea, and porcelain were in high demand throughout Asia and Europe. It caused a large economic boom. However, most of the merchant's wealth came from having land and not commerce- which was the best route to a high social status in Ming China.
control of the market by a few large producers
Dawes Plan
aided Germany, paid them so that they could pay off the Allies who would pay us off
Amos n Andy Show
first national radio hit, black minstrel show
Empress Ma
born in 1333 in the city of Suzhou Cit, and died in 1382. She married Zhu Yuanzhang, a leader of rebels who were at war with the Yuan dynasty. She supported the war effort, and helped to make political decisions when Zhu Yuanzhang asked her for help.
Royal African COmpany
A company chartered in the 1660's for establishing a British merchant monopoly over the slave trade. It was necessary for supplying enough slaves to the growing British colonies of Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia. It granted the British merchants certain rights and privileges that were bound by obligations found in the company's charter which was given to it by the state. The French made similar arrangements, but the British still dominated the 1660's as a major carrier of slaves till the 18th century. However, only ten percent of the employees of the company ever returned to England, the majority dying in their first year in Africa, including the crews of slave ships. They mostly died of tropical diseases.
election of 1928
Al Smith & H Hoover, Smith too urban and Cath, set trend for dem in cities and minorities, machine style, progressive
School of National Learning
a new ideology of Japan in the 18th century that laid emphasis on Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture with the help of China, importing their idea of Confucianism. Many thinkers proved their influence through this new ideology and it paralleled with the revival of neo-Confucian philosophy. As centuries followed, the Japanese elites also started following Western developments, which prepared them for the second push by Western powers in the 1850's.
industries that didn't prosper
coal mines (oil and gas more imp), RR (b/c of automobile), and textiles (overcapacity moved south)
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