Animal development Flashcards

Terms Definitions
chorion
gas exchange
Archenteron
The endoderm-lined cavity, formed during the gastrulation process, that develops into the digestive tract of an animal.
Notochord
A flexible rodlike structure that forms the supporting axis of the body in the lowest chordates and lowest vertebrates and in embryos of higher vertebrates
Cytoplasmic Determination
Maternal substances causing early differentiation of embryonic cells
amnion
One of four extraembryonic membranes. It surrounds a fluid-filled cavity that cushions the embryo.
Cortical Granules
Particles formed in oogenesis that cause changes in the vitelline membrane that harden it
Vitelline Layer
The membrane, usually of protein fibres, immediately outside the cell membrane of the ovum and the earlier stages of the developing embryo.
fast block to polyspermy
depolarization prevents additional sperm cells from fusing with the egg's plasma membrane.
ectoderm
The outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; gives 
rise to the outer covering and, in some phyla, the nervous system, inner
 ear, and lens of the eye.
totipotent
capable of developing into all cell types of that species
Morphogenesis
The process by which an animal takes shape and differentiated cells end up in appropriate locations
Involution
The process by which cells at the dorsal lip of the blastopore begin to stream over the doral lip and into the blastopore
cell differentiation
the specialization of cells in their structure and function.
convergent extension
morphogenic movement in which cells of a tissue layer rearrange themselves so the sheet becomes narrorer while it becomes longer
Cadherin
A member of an important class of cell adhesion molecules that requires extracellular calcium ions for its function.
fast block
contact and fusion of sperm and egg membranes triggers depolarization of the membrane & vitelin
Animal Pole
The portion of the egg where the least yolk is concentrated; opposite of vegetal pole.
Apical Ectoderm Ridge (AER)
A thickened area of ectoderm at the tip of the bud, serving as a limb-bud organizer region
somites
primitive structure
Amniote
A vertebrate possessing an amnion surrounding the embryo; reptiles, birds, and mammals are amniotes.
zona pellucida
the ECM of the egg.
Fate Map
A diagram that traces the differentiation of cells during development from their origin to their final structure and function
acrosomal reaction
The discharge of hydrolytic enzymes from the acrosome, a vesicle in the 
tip of a sperm, when the sperm approaches or contacts an egg.
cytoplamic determinants
proteins, RNAs and other molecules affect a cells development though concentration
Extraembryonic Membrane
One of four membranes (yolk sac, amnion, chorion, and allantois) located outside the embryo that support the developing embryo in reptiles and mammals.
Neural Tube
A tube of cells running along the dorsal axis of the body, just dorsal to the notochord. It will give rise to the central nervous system.
cell adhesion molecules
a key group of proteins that contribute to cell migration
how the egg pervents polyspermy
triggers Na ion channels to open, chenging the polarity of the egg causing a fertilization envelope
differenciation
cells are specialized
mesoderm
red: reproductive system, notocord, circulatory
Gastrula
An embryonic stage in animal development encompassing the formation of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
acrosome
specialized vesicle at tip of sperm.
Yolk Sac
A membranous structure enclosing the yolk of eggs in birds reptiles marsupials and some fishes
Cleavage
The repeated division of a fertilised ovum
Holoblastic Cleavage
Cleavage of the entire zygote including the yolk sac.
fertilization envelope
resists the entry of additional sperm.
Cortical Reaction
The changing of the vitelline membrane into a hard fertilization envelope that further resists the entry of other sperm.
cortial reaction
fusion with the egg's plasma membrane of numerous vesicles lying in the egg's cortex.
cadherins
a CAM involved in the adhesion of cells, require calcium ions outside the cell to function, and involved in the formation of the frog blastula
Meroblastic Cleavage
Cleavage of just the embryo and not the yolk sac.
Vegetal Pole
The portion of the egg where most yolk is concentrated; opposite of animal pole.
Zone of Polarizing Activity (ZPA)
A block of mesoderm located just under the ectoderm where the posterior side of a limb bud is attached to the body; required for proper pattern formation along the anterior-posterior axis of the limb.
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