Animal Nutrition 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
the act of eating
an appetite-regulating hormone that triggers the sensation of hunger
vegetable materials Alfalfa, clover, silage (fermentated)Hay rye grass, timothy, bermuda
adenosine, ribose, and phosphatesmay form from AMP or ADPbreakage of phosphate bonds by ATPase releases energy
One of the small intracellular globules composed of fats that are mixed cholesterol and coated with special proteins
An organism that eats only plants.
proteins in animal products are _________ amino acids, meaning they provide all essentials in proper proportions
produced in north central (spring) high plains (winter)expensive 3200-3300 kcal ME/kg11.5-14.1% proteinground or cracked by product for animals
Direct Calorimetry
animal confined in well-insulated chamber and heat losses by:radiation, convection, and conduction from body surfaceevaporation of water from skin and lungsevaproation of water and feces by increase in temp. in known volume of water and electrical current generated as heat passes across thermocouplesMost accurate method of measuring heat production of animals, but EXPENSIVE
maintenance needs reflect AA pattern of the ___
Gastric Juice
Digestive secretions of the stomach glands consisting chiefly of hydrochloric acid, mucin, and the enzymes pepsin, rennin, and lipase
A circular muscle that surrounds a tube such as the urethra and constricts the tube when it contracts
essential nutrients
materials that an animal's cells require but cannot synthesize; include minerals and preassembled organic molecules--amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals
when food is broken down into molecules small enough for the body to absorb
this connects the pharynx to the stomach; contains striated muscle at the top and smooth muscle further down to help peristalsis
Compartments of Smaall Intestine
duedenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum
small intestine
enzymatic digestin of food, secreted from intestinal brush bladder
1. Endergonic: energy must be added, can end up with more energy2. Exergonic: give off energy*both types of reactions often occur together (coupled)
Animal Nutrition: food being taken in, taken apart, and taken up.microorganisms are an unavoidable \"supplement\" in every animal's diet 41.1An animal's diet must supply chemical energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients Animals need to obtain organic carbons (sugars) and organic nitrogen (amino acids from the digestion of protein) From these materials animals can make organic molecules needed to surviveEssential Nutrients: materials animals require but cannot makeAn adequate diet satisfies 3 nutritional needs:chemical energy for cellular processesorganic building blocks for carbohydrates/macromoleculesessential nutrientsFour Classes of Essential Nutrientsessential amino acidsessential fatty acidsvitamins minerals Essential Amino AcidsAnimals need 20 amino acids to make proteinsMost animals can make half of these amino acids as long as they obtain nitrogen The remaining must be obtained from food and are essential amino acidsProteins in animal products are complete while most plant proteins are incomplete Essential Fatty AcidsAnimals can make most but not all of the fatty acids they need Essential Fatty Acids are those they cannot make--unsaturated (containing one or more double bonds) Vitamins Vitamins: organic molecules with diverse functionsrequired in the diet in very small amounts13 essential vitamins have been identified in humansVitamins are either water-soluble or fat-solubleWater-soluble vitamins include:B complexfunctions as co-enzymesVitamin Crequired to produce connective tissueFat-soluble vitamins include:Vitamin Ahelp visual pigments in the eyeVitamin Kfunctions in blood clottingVitamin Daids in calcium absorption and bone formationwe synthesize this vitamin from other molecules when the skin is exposed to sunlightExcesses of water-soluble vitamins are excreted in urineExcesses of fat-soluble vitamins are deposited in body fatover-consumption may result in an accumulation of toxic levels of these compounds. MineralsDietary minerals are inorganic nutrients--usually required in small amountsEx: zinc & potassiumcalcium & phosphorus help build and maintain the bonescalcium is necessary for nerves and muscles to functionphosphorus is an ingredient of ATP and nucleic acidsIron is a component of the cytochromes that function in cellular respiration and of hemoglobin, the oxygen-binding protein of red blood cellsMagnesium is present in enzymes that split ATPDietary Deficiencies Undernourishment: result of a diet that doesn't supply as many nutrients as the body requires.Malnourishment: long-term absence of one or more essential nutrients from the diet. UndernourishmentWhen an animal is undernourished:the body uses up stored fat and carbohydratesthe body begins breaking down its own proteins for fuelmuscles begin to decrease in sizethe brain may become protein-deficienteventually leads to death MalnourishmentWhen an animal is malnourished:deformities arisediseases arisecan lead to deathIn Humans Vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness or deathAssessing Nutritional NeedsMany insights into human nutrition have come from epidemiology, the study of human health and disease at the population level.By tracking the causes and distribution of a disease among many individuals, epidemiologists can identify potential nutritional strategies for preventing and controlling deseases and dosorders. 41.2Food processing can be divided into four distinct stagesingestiondigestionabsorptioneliminationFour Main Feeding Mechanisms of Animals Suspension Feedersusually aquatic animalssift small food particles from the waterSubstrate Feeders animals that live in or on their food sourceFluid Feederssuck nutrient-rich fluid from a living hostBulk Feederseat relatively large pieces of foodadaptations include: tentacles, pincers, claws, poisonous fangs, jaws, and teeth that kill their prey or tear off pieces of meat or vegetationIngestionIngestion: the act of eatingDigestionDigestion: food is broken down into molecules small enough for the body to absorbA cell makes a macromolecule or fat b linking together smaller components; it does so by removing a molecule of water for each new covalent bond formedChemical digestion by enzymes reverses this process by breaking bonds with the addition of waterThis splitting process is called enzymatic hydrolysis Absorption and EliminationThese last two stages occur after the food is digestedAbsorption: the animal's cells take up small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugarsElimination: undigested material passes out of the digestive system. Digestive CompartmentsAnimals are able to digest food without digesting their own cells and tissues by the evolutionary adaptation which involves the processing of food within specialized compartments. These compartments can be intracellular, in the form of food vacuoles, or extracellular, as in digestive organs and systems.Intracellular DigestionFood vacuoles--cellular organelles in which hydrolytic enzymes break down food--are the simplest digestive compartments.The hydrolysis of food inside vacuoles, called intracellular digestion, begins after a cell engulfs solid food by phagocytosis or liquid food by pinocytosis. Newly formed food vacuoles fuse with lysosomes, organelles containing hydrolytic enzymes.This fusion of organelles brings food together with the enzymes, allowing digestion to occur safely within a compartment enclosed by a protective membrane.Sponges digest their food entire by this process.Extracellular Digestionextracellular digestion is the breakdown of food in compartments that are continuous with the outside of the animal's body.allows animal to eat larger pieces of food many animals with relatively simple body plans have a digestive compartment with a single oping.This pouch, a gastrovascular cavity, functions in digestion as well as in the distribution of nutrients throughout the body The tissue layer that lines the gastrovascular cavity is the gastrodermisEx: The carnivorous hydra uses its tentacles to stuff captured prey through its mouth into its gastrovascular cavity.Once this happens, special gland cells of the gastrodermis secrete digestive enzymes that break the soft tissues of the prey into tiny pieces. Once the hydra is done digesting its prey the undigested part escapes through the mouth Most animals have a digestive tube extending between two openings, a mouth and an anus. This tube is a complete digestive tract or an alimentary canalAn animal with an alimentary canal can ingest food while earlier meals are still being digested. 41.3In mammals, the digestive system consists of the alimentary canal, and various accessory glands that secrete digestive juices through ducts into the canalThe accessory glands of the mammalian digestive system are three pairs of salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver, and the gallbladder.Food is pushed along the alimentary canal by peristalsis: alternating waves of contraction and relaxation in the smooth muscles lining the canal. Peristalsis allows us to digest food even when we're laying downAt some of the junctions between specialized compartments, the muscular layer forms ringlike valves called sphinctersSphincters act like drawstrings to close off the alimentary canal, thus, regulating the passage of material between compartments The Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and EsophagusIngestion and the initial steps of digestion occur in the mouth, or oral cavityThe teeth grind the food which makes it easier to swallow and increases its surface areaThe presence of food stimulates a nervous reflex that causes the salivary glands to deliver saliva through ducts to the oral cavitySaliva may also be released before food enters the mouth, triggered by a learned association between eating and the time of day, a cooking odor, or another stimulus.Saliva initiates chemical digestion while also protecting the oral cavityAmylase is an enzyme in saliva that hydrolyzes starch (a glucose polymer from plants) into smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose. Mucin also lubricates food for easier swallowingAdditional components of saliva include buffers, which help prevent tooth decay by neutralizing acid, and antibacterial agents (such as lysozyme) which protect against microorganisms that enter the mouth with food.The tongue aids digestive processes by evaluating ingested material and then enabling its further passageTongue movements manipulate the food helping shape it into a ball called a bolus.The pharynx-throat region, opens to two passageways: the esophagus and the trachea (windpipe). The esophagus connects to the stomach, whereas the trachea leads to the lungs. When you swallow, a flap of cartilage called the epiglottis prevents food from entering the trachea by covering the glottis--the vocal cords and the opening between them. Guided by the larynx- the upper part of the respiratory tract, this swallowing mechanism directs each bolus into the entrance of the esophagus. The esophagus contains both striated and smooth muscle. The striated is situated at the top of the esophagus and is active during swallowing.Throughout the rest of the esophagus, smooth muscle functions in peristalsisperistalsis moves each bolus to the stomach. Digestion in the StomachThe stomach is located just below the diaphragm in the upper abdominal cavityA few nutrients are absorbed from the stomach into the bloodstream, but the stomach primarily stores food and continues digestion The stomach secretes a digestive fluid called gastric juice and mixes this secretion with the food through a churning action.This mixture of ingested food and digestive juice is called chyme. Chemical Digestion in the StomachTwo components of gastric juice carry out chemical digestionHydrochloric acid (HCl)Disrupts the extracellular matrix that binds cells together in meat and plant materialThe concentration of HCl is so high that the pH of gastric juice is about 2This low pH kills most bacteria and denatures proteins in food, increasing exposure of their peptide bondsA protease, a protein-digesting enzyme, called pepsin.Pepsin attacks the exposed bonds Pepsin works best in a strongly acidic environment By breaking peptide bonds, it cleaves proteins into smaller polypeptidesFurther digestion to individual amino acids occurs in the small intestineWhy doesn't gastric juice destroy the stomach cells that make it?The ingredients of gastric juice are kept inactive until they are released into the lumen cavity of the stomachThe components of gastric juice are produced by cells in the gastric glands of the stomach Parietal cells secrete hydrogen and chloride ions, which form HCl.Using an ATP-driven pump, the parietal cells expel hydrogen ions into the lumen at very high concentrationThere the hydrogen ions combine with chloride ions that diffuse into the lumen through specific membrane channels.Meanwhile, chief cells release pepsin into the lumen in an inactive form called pepsinogen HCl converts pepsinogen to active pepsin by clipping off a small portion of the molecule and exposing its active site.Both HCl and pepsin form in the lumen of the stomach, not within the cells of the gastric glands.After HCl converts a small amount of pepsinogen to pepsin, a second chemical process helps activate the remaining pepsinogen. Pepsin, like HCl can clip pepsinogen to expose the enzyme's active site. This makes more pepsin, which activate more pepsinogen, forming more active enzyme This series of events is an example of positive feedbackThe stomach lining protects against self-digestion by secreting mucus, a viscous and slippery mixture of glycoproteins, cells, salts, and water. Cell division adds a new epithelial layer every three days, replacing cells eroded by digestive juicesDespite these defenses, damaged area of the stomach lining called gastric ulcers may appear. In 2005 it was discovery that the acid-tolerant bacterium Helicobacter pylori causes ulcers Stomach DynamicsChemical digestion of gastric juice is accompanied by the churning action of the stomachThis coordinated series of muscle contractions and relations mixes the stomach contents about every 20 seconds. As a result of mixing and enzyme action, what begins as a recently swallowed meal becomes the acidic, nutrient-rich broth known as chymeMost of the time the stomach is closed off at both ends The sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach normally opens only when a bolus arrivesOccasionally, however, a person experiences acid reflux, a backflow of chyme from the stomach into the lower end of the esophagus.The resulting irritation of the esophagus is commonly but inaccurately called \"heartburn\"The sphincter located where the stomach opens to the small intestine helps regulate the passage of chyme into the small intestine, allowing only one squirt at a time. The mixture of acid, enzyme, and partially digested food typically leaves the stomach 2-6 hours after a meal. Digestion in the Small IntestineMost enzymatic hydrolysis of macromolecules from food occurs in the small intestine The first 25cm or so of the small intestine forms the duodenum, a major crossroad in digestion In the duodenum chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder, as well as from gland cells of the intestinal wall itself. Hormones released by the stomach and duodenum control the digestive secretions into the alimentary canal Pancreas SecretionsThe pancreas aids chemical digestion by producing an alkaline solution rich in bicarbonate as well as several enzymes.The bicarbonate neutralizes the acidity of chyme and acts as a bufferAmong the pancreatic enzymes are trypsin and chymotrypsin, proteases secreted into the duodenum in inactive formIn a chain reaction similar to activation of pepsin, they are activated when safely located in the extracellular space within the duodenum Bile Production by the LiverDigestion of fats and other lipids begins in the small intestine and relies on the production of bile, a mixture of substances that is made in the liver.Bile contains salts, which act as detergents that aid in digestion and absorption of lipidsBile is stored and concentrated in the gallbladderThe liver breaks down toxins that enter the body and helps balance nutrient utilizationBile production itself is integral to another task of the liver: the destruction of red blood cells that are no longer fully functionalIn producing bile, the liver incorporates some pigments that are by-products of red blood cell disassembly These bile pigments are then eliminated from the body with the feces Secretions of the Small IntestineThe epithelial lining of the duodenum is the source of several digestive enzymes Some are secreted into the lumen of the duodenum, and others are bound to the surface of epithelial cellsWhile enzymatic hydrolysis proceeds, peristalsis moves the mixture of chyme and digestive juices long the small intestine. Most digestion is completed in the duodenumThe remaining regions of the small intestine, called the jejunum and ileum, function mainly in the absorption of nutrients and water. Absorption in the Small IntestineTo reach body tissues, nutrients in the lumen must first cross the lining of the alimentary canal. Most o this absorption occurs in the small intestineLarge fold in the lining of the small intestine have finger-like projections called villiEach epithelial cell of a villus has on its apical surface many microscopic appendages, or microvilli, that are exposed to the intestinal lumenThe many side-by-side microvilli give the intestinal epithelium a brush-like appearance--reflected in the name brush borderThe enormous surface area presented by microvilli is an adaptation that greatly increases the total capacity for nutrient absorptionDepending on the nutrient, transport across the epithelial cells can be passive or activeThe sugar fructose, for example, moves by facilitate diffusion down its concentration gradient from the lumen of the small intestine into the epithelial cells.From there, fructose exits the basal surface and is absorbed into microscopic blood vessels, or capillaries, at the core of each villus. Other nutrients, including amino acids , small peptides, vitamins, and most glucose molecules, are pumped against concentration gradients by the epithelial cells of the villus.This active transport allows much more absorption of nutrients than would be possible with passive diffusion aloneAlthough many nutrients leave the intestine through the bloodstream, some products of fat (triglyceride) digestion take a different path. After being absorbed by epithelial cells, fatty acids and monoglycerides (glycerol joined to a single fatty acid) are recombined into triglycerides within those cells.These fats are then coated with phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins, forming water-soluble globules called chylomicrons.These globules are too large to pass through the membranes of capillaries. Instead, they are transported into a lacteal, a vessel at the core of each villus Lacteals are part of the vertebrate lymphatic system, which is a network of vessels that filled with a clear fluid called lymph. Starting at the lacteals, lymph containing the chylomicrons passes into the larger vessels of the lymphatic system and eventually into large veins that return the blood to the heart. In contrast with the lacteals, the capillaries and veins that carry nutrient-rich blood away from the villi all converge into the hepatic portal vein, a blood vessel that leads directly to the liver.From the liver, blood travels to the heart and then to other tissues and organs This arrangement serves two major functionsit allows the liver to regulate distribution of nutrients to the rest of the bodybecause the liver can interconvert many organic molecules, blood that leaves the liver may have a very different nutrient balance than the blood that entered via the hepatic portal allows the liver to remove toxic substances before the blood circulates broadly the liver is the primary site for the detoxification of many organic molecules, including drugs, that are foreign to the body. Absorption in the Large IntestineThe alimentary canal ends with the large intestine, which includes the colon, cecum, and rectumThe small intestine connects to the large intestine at a T-shaped junction, where a sphincter controls the movement of material One arm of the T is the colon--which leads to the rectum and anusThe other arm form a pouch called the cecumThe cecum is important for fermenting ingested material, especially in animals that eat large amounts of plant materialCompared with many other mammals, humans have a relatively small cecumThe appendix--a finger-like extension of the human cecum--has a minor and dispensable role in immunityA major function of the colon is to recover water that has entered the alimentary canal as the solvent of digestive juices.Together, the small intestine and colon reabsorb about 90% of the 7L of water that enter the alimentary canal each day.Water absorption in the colon occurs by osmosis that results when ions, particularly sodium, are pumped out of the lumenFeces---The wastes of the digestive system, becomes increasingly solid as they are moved along the colon by peristalsisIf the lining of the colon is irritated--by a viral or bacterial infection, for instance--less water than normal may be reabsorbed, resulting in diarrheaThe opposite problem, constipation, occurs when the feces move along the colon too slowly. An excess of water is reabsorbed, and therefore the feces becomes compactedA diverse population of harmless bacteria resides in the human colon (E. coli) As by-products of their metabolism, many colon bacteria generate gases, including methane and hydrogen sulfide, which has an offensive odor (farts) These gases and ingested air are expelled through the anusSome of the bacteria produce vitamins which are absorbed into the bloodThe terminal portion of the large intestine is the rectum, where feces are stored until they can be eliminated. Between the rectum and the anus are two sphincters, the inner one being involuntary and the outer voluntary 41.4Evolutionary Adaptations of Vertebrate Digestive Systems correlate with diet Some Dental AdaptationsNon-mammalian vertebrates usually have less specialized dentition, but there are exceptions.Ex: poisonous snakes such as rattlesnakes, have fangs, modified teeth that inject venom into preySome fangs are hollow, like syringes, whereas others drip the poison along grooves on the surfaces of the teethOther teeth are absentCombined with an elastic ligament that permits the mouth to open very wide, these anatomical adaptations allow prey to be swallowed whole. Stomach and Intestinal AdaptationsLarge, expandable stomachs are common in carnivorous vertebrates,which may go for a long time between meals and must eat as much as they can when they do catch preyThe length of the vertebrate digestive system is also correlated with dietIn general, herbivores and omnivores have longer alimentary canals relative to their body size than do carnivoresVegetation is more difficult to digest than meat because it contains cell wallsA longer digestive tract furnishes more time for digestion and more surface area for the absorption of nutrients Mutualistic AdaptationsSome digestive adaptations involve mutualistic symbiosis, mutually beneficial interaction between two species Much of the chemical energy in herbivore diets comes from the cellulose of plan cell walls, but animals do not produce enzymes that hydrolyze celluloseInstead, many vertebrates house large populations of mutualistic bacteria and protists in fermentation chambers in their alimentary canals. These microorganisms have enzymes that can digest cellulose to simple sugars and other compounds that the animal can absorb The microorganisms also use the sugars from digested cellulose to produce a variety of nutrients essential to the animal, such as vitamins and amino acids.The location of mutualistic microbes in alimentary canals varies, depending on the type of herbivorecoprophagy: feeding on some of their feces and then passing food through the alimentary canal a second time to get more nutrients out of the foodruminants: deer, sheep, and cattle 41.5Energy Sources and StoresIn deriving energy from their diet, animals make use of certain fuel sources before othersNearly all of an animal's ATP generation is based on the oxidation of energy-rich organic molecules--carbohydrates, proteins, and fats--in cellular respirationMost animals \"burn\" proteins only after exhausting their supply of carbohydrates and fats.Fats are especially rich in energy; oxidizing a gram of fat liberates about twice the energy liberated from a gram of carbohydrates or proteinsWhen an animal takes in more energy-rich molecules than it breaks down, the excess is converted to storage molecules.In humans, the primary sites of storage are liver and muscle cells.Excess energy from the diet is stored there in the form of glycogen, a polymer made up of many glucose unitsWhen fewer calories are taken in than are expended--perhaps because of sustained heavy exercise or lack of food--glycogen is oxidizedThe hormones insulin and glucagon maintain glucose homeostasis by tightly regulating glycogen synthesis and breakdownAdipose (fat) cells represent a secondary site of energy storage int he bodyIf glycogen depots are full and caloric intake exceeds caloric expenditure, the excess is usually stored as fat.When more energy is required than is generated from the diet, the human body generally expends liver glycogen first and then draws on muscle glycogen and fat. Most healthy people have enough stored fat to sustain them through several weeks without food.Over-nourishment and ObesityOver-nourishment--the consumption of more calories than the body needs for normal metabolism, causes obesity, the excessive accumulation of fatObesity, in turn, contributes to a number of health problems, including most common type of diabetes (type 2), cancer of the colon and breast , and cardiovascular disease that can lead to hear attacks and strokes. Researchers have discovered several homeostatic mechanisms that help regulate body weightThe mechanisms control the storage and metabolism of fatSeveral hormones regulate long-term and short-term appetite by affecting a \"satiety center\" in the brain A network of neurons relays and integrates information from the digestive system to regulate hormone releaseObesity and EvolutionThe relationship between fat storage and evolutionary adaptation in animals is sometimes complexEx:the plump offspring of the seabirds called petrels, their parents must fly long distances to find food. Most of the food they bring to their chicks is very rich in lipids. The fact that fat has twice as many calories per gram as other fuels minimizes the number of foraging trips. However growing baby petrels need lots of protein for building new tissues and there is relatively little in their oily diet. To get all the protein they need, young petrels have to consume many more calories than they burn in metabolism and consequently become obese. This, helps them survive long periods when parents don't bring enough food
what is the biological dogma?
transcription then translation
Bulk Feeder
An animal that eats relatively large pieces of food
Large Intestine
The last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
a mixture of gastric juices and partly digested food; its HCl denatures proteins
Linseed Meal
produced in minesota and dakotas and texas 35% protien low lysine laxative effects diets contains vitamin b6
kills fast growing cells. made up of poly thenals which is a good antioxidant. FeSO4 will detoxify
Feather meal
Poultry feathers high in protien 80% low digestability add enzymes (keranase) to help
Photo- Autotrophs
depend on light to construct carbon containing biomolecules
what are deposit feeders?
eat organic material in soils...earthworms
proteins are like a pearl necklace where each pearl represents an ___ ____
amino acid
hepatic portal vein
the convergence of veins that carry blood away from the villi and to the liver, heart, and other organs; allows the liver to regulate distribution of nutrients
Examples of Monogastric animals
Human, pig, poultry, rabbits dogs etc
NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)
coenzymes functioning as carriers of hydrogens and electrons in same oxidation- reduction reactionscontains nicotinamide
what does pepsin do?
enzyme that hydrolyses protein. and produces polypeptides
what are the enzymes for pancreatic digestion in the int. mucosa?
aminopeptidases and dipeptidases
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated
Sesame Seed Meal
low lysine goood for ruminants high in Met and Try
where does hydrolysis that palce?
rthis enzymatic process takes place in specialized compartments, such as the astrovascular cavities through the breatching of covalent bonds by the additions of water
what is deamination and transamination?
breaks down carbon skeleton of non-essential aa. to change into essential aa. during starvation
Mineral sources in feed (p)
mostly phytate highly in steamed meat and bone meal dical phosphate 18.5%monocal phosphate 21.5%
what are bulk feeders?
eat large pieces of food in long interuals
what is the main objective in tissue protein synthesis?
to replace damaged proteins
Name the process that allows body tissues to synthesize nonessential (dispensensible) amino acids, and indicate the tissue in which it is most active.
Transamination, which is most active in the liver?
What is a nonessential nutrient?
A substance that the body can make sufficient quantities of it if it's lacking in the diet.
what does digestion do to polymer (proteins)
breaks polymers down to monomers (amino acids) by hydrolysis
how does a peptide bond form?
carboxyl group of aa1 condenses with amino group of aa2. loses a H2O molecule
Importance of energy in animal metabolism
1. required in larger amount than any other nutrient2. most often limiting factor in livestock production3. major cost associated with feeding animals*animal NOT EFFICIENT at transforming feed energy into its own body energy
how would someone determine amino acid requirement?
growth trial- growth rate, eggs, or milk production
Why is the rate of appearance of volatile fatty acids in portal venous blood less than their rate of ruminal production and uptake by rumen epithelial (papillary) tissue?
Because they can be converted and stored in the liver or adipose tissue?
what are 5 methods to feed NPN's?
1. add to silage or high moisture corn
2. add to mixed feed,or
3. LPS- liquid protein supplement
4. tank with lick wheel
5. put in vitamin mineral premix
what are 3 examples of NPN sources for ruminant diets?
1. urea
2. biuret
3. NH4 salts (e.g. lactate or phosphate)
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