Animal Structure Function Flashcards

Terms Definitions
‘appears’ stratified 

elastic fibers predominate; provides flexible support of the external ear and epiglottis
cardiac muscle
-striated-contractions are involuntary-one or two central nuclei-elongated branched (vs. parallel) cylindrical fibers-intercalated disks-muscle contracts, heart pumps blood

semifluid ground substance; all three fiber types loosely interwoven; contains a variety of cells; forms a soft packing around body organs and lamina propria

firm ground susbatnace containing collagen fibers; high resistance to wear; found in fetal skeleton, at articulating surfaces of bones, and trachea; most abundant type.

Senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of the animal to another.
-have homeostatic mechanisms that regulate body temp w/in a narrow range
group of similarly specialized cellsassociated to perform one or more functionsEx. skin (warmth, keep water out), pancreas (maintain sugar levels in blood, help in digestion)E
adaptive hypothermia (in small endotherms when surrounding temp drops)
stratified epithelium 
-two or more layers
-for protection 
-outer layer of skin

Animal tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, having a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix. Derived from the mesoderm (or mesenchyme)
*function: support, protection, binding, insulation, and transportation (blood).

A small enucleated blood cell important in blood clotting; derived from large cells in the bone marrow.
*epithelial membrane 
epithelial tissue + underlying connective tissue
ex) mucous membrane and serous membrane
*endoncrine gland
- lacks ducts 
-release hormones into intersititual fluid or blood 

embryonic form of connective tissue that gives rise to other cells (fibroblasts, chondroblast, osteoblast, hemocytoblast)
(fibroblasts gives rise to -> connective tissue proper, chondroblast -> cartilage, osteoblast -> bone, hemocytoblast -> blood)
blood and lymph
-connective tissue-circulating tissues with fluid intercellular substances-help parts of an animal communicate with one another
11 organ systems
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, digestive, cardiovascular, immune (lymphatic), respiratory, urinary, nervous, endocrine, reprodcutive
-a type of connective tissue-forms adult support skeleton in vertebrates-consists of osteoclasts & osteoblasts, collectively called osteocytes-osteocytes secrete and maintain body matrix-are found in lacunae-are vascular
A specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues.

Covers the whole surface of the body; inside and outside. Sheets of tightly packed cells that line organs and body cavities; the layers or cells separates organism from environment (ex esphagous, stomach etc lined with epilthelim, ‘for something to get into body, it must cross epithelium’.)
*Function: protection, absorption and secretion
*Classifications: (squamous, cuboidal, columnar)- refers to shape
(simple, stratified, pseudostratified, transitional)- refers to layers
-one or more epithelial cells that secrete
ex) sweat, milk 
- goblet, sweat and salivary
Adipose tissue

A specialized form of loose connective tissues that store fat in adipose cells distributed throughout the matrix.

A type of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
Collagenous fibers

Tough fibers of the extracellular matrix. They are made of collagen that are nonelastic and do not tear easily when pulled lengthwise

Long threads made of the protein elastin. Elastic fibers provide a rubbery quality to the extracellular matrix that complements the nonelastic strength of collagenous fibers. Found in elastic ligaments and blood vessels.
Dense Regular

dense parallel bundles of collagen fibers; few cells, little ground substance; high tensile strength; forms tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses
organ systems
-organs and tissue working together-in mammals, 11 organ systems work together-each organ system functions to maintain homeostasis
Which type of dense connective tissue connects bones to bones?
2 types of epithelial membrane
mucous & serous
3 epithelial cell shapes
1) squamous, cuboidal, columnar
reticular connective tissue
-consists of interlacing reticular fibers-forms support framework for many organs

The flat, tile-like shape of a type of epithelial cell.
What disease is the result of elastic connective tissue in lungs breaking down?
four types of animal tissues
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
Smooth/Visceral muscle

Smooth muscle found in the walls of the digestive tract, bladder, arteries, and other internal organs. Propels, substances thought the organs
loose connective tissue
-consists of fibers running in various directions through a semifluid matrix (spaces b/w it)-flexible tissue forms a covering for nerves, blood vessels, and muscles
pseudostratified epithelium
-looks like it is stacked directly but actually offset-protects underlying tissues
epithelial tissue (epithelium) (simple def.)
-not just skin-continuous layer (sheet) of cells covering a body surface or lining a body cavity
connective tissue (simple def.)
-relatively few cells separated by intercellular substance-fibers scattered throughout a matrix-contains specialized cells
Stratified squamous epithelium
is a multilayered; cells at the free edge are squamous.  It is adapted to resist abrasion.  It lines the esophagus; its keratinized variety forms the skin epidermis.
Stratified cuboidal epithelium

is found chiefly in the ducts of large glands.
3 types of intercellular substance fibers
collagen fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers
connective tissue has what three types of fiber? 
- collagen, elastic and reticular
costs and benefits of ectothermy
benefits: very little energy used to maintain the metabolic rate (b/c heat of sun is used instead), can survive on less foodcosts: activity is limited by daily and seasonal temp conditions
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