ANS Pharmacology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Pralidoxime
 
aka?
use?
2PAM
 
cholinesterase reactivator -- used to treat sarin gas poisoning, acts at all 3 cholinergic receptors
Prazosin
Selective alpha1 antagonist
Nicotine
nicotinic cholinergic Agonist
Yohimbine
alpha2 antagonist***
 
But alpha2 is mostly inhibitory
 
results in increased cAMP in the brain (cocaine-like), and peripheral vasodilation
Curare
nicotinic (m) cholinergic antagonist-use as anesthesia (prevents skeletal muscle contractions)
Cholinoceptor activating drugs are ___.
agonists
Lebetolol
non-specific beta and alpha antagonist
 
phenylephrine
alpha-adrenergic Agonistused to dilate pupil
Cholinesterase inhibiting drugs are ___ ____.
indirect agonists
ALHPA 2 ARE PREGANGLIONIC AND AUTORECPTORS AND DECREASE RELEASE OF NE
Dopamine
beta agonist at moderate levels
high dose -->  alpha agonist
Hemicholinium
Inhibitor of the Na-based transport channel that brings Choline into the nerve terminal.Ach cannot be formed without the action of choline and Acetyl-CoA in conjunction with Choline-Acetyl Transferase (ChAT).
with sns stimulation, blood glucose increases via __ _ receptors.
beta 2
GANGLIA ON VENTRAL SIDE, PAINTED CAT GANGLIA WITH NICOTENE SOLUTION > ACTIVATED SYMPTH NERVOUS SYSTEM> BP OUT THE ROOF, SWEATING GOES UP
Parasympathetic stimulation does not affect the ___ or ___ ___.
ventricles blood vessels
Parasympathetic effects:
Slows heart rateStimulate GI movements and secretionsAids absorption of nutrientsProtects retina from excessive lightEmpties the bladder and rectumMediates erection in reproductive organs
Paragyline
Inhibits the action of MAO. Increases levels of all catecholamines (Epi, NE, Dopa) due to the decreased degradation of these Neurotransmitters.
What is both diagnostic and therapeutic for atropine poisoning?
Ach-E inhibitor
If nerve is exciting the spinal cord, it is releasing ___ and the receptor is ___.
acetylcholinenicotinic
Cutaneous, visceral, pulmonary blood vessels have __ _ receptors. Sympathetic activation of these causes ____.
- alpha 1- constriction
malignant hyperthermia can be induced by what two drugs?
halothane and succinylcholine
Properties of ANS drugs:
Most ANS drugs have peripheral effects.Some cross the blood brain and modulate CNS receptors (i.e. have central effects).Some drugs act at the neuromuscular junction.
Most sympathetic post ganglionic neurons release NE. What is the exceptipon.?
sympathetic post ganglionics acting on sweat glands release Ach.
CANNOT TELL A BETA 1 FROM A BETA 3, EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE DIFFERENT RECEPTORS, THEY HAVE A VERY SIMIARLAR ACTIVE POCKET,
what are the beta 1 selective antagonists?
metoprolol, atenolol, esmolol, acebutalol
Parasympathetic and sympathetic systems often oppose each other. Give exceptions to this:
- salivary and sweat glands (both para and symp input cause secretions)- ciliary muscle (both cause contraction)- male sexual response (erection is parasymp, ejaculation is sympathetic)
what receptors does phentolamine antagonize and what is the effect?
it is a competitive alpha antagonist. It reduces peripheral resistance and thus BP
Sympathetic signals going to the renal vasculature smooth muscle will release ___ from the first order neuron and it will bind ___ receptors. Then the second order neuron will release ___ onto ___ receptors causing ___.
- acetylcholine- nicotinic- D- D1 receptors- vasodilation
clonidine acts on what receptors?
it is an alpha agonist that mainly acts on alpha 2's in the brain, thus it is good for hypertension with renal disease since there is no decrease in blood flow to the kidneys
Beta 1 receptors are on the ___. Sympathetic innervation here causes:
- heart- increased heart rat- increased contractile force- increased conduction velocity
So nerves that release NE are ___ nerves, and receptors activated by NE are ___ receptors, these include __ and ___ ___ receptors.
- adrenergic- adrenergic- alpha and beta adrenergic
Insulin secretion is monitored by sympathetics and parasympathetics. Insulin secretion is monitored by both __ _ and __ _ receptors. Initially sympathtics activates __ _which cause ___ insulin secretion, but as sympathetics increases __ _ receptors are ac
- alpha 2 and beta 2- beta 2> increase- alpha 2> decrease- parasymp> increase
If a patient is on aminoglycosides or tetracycline, how should dose of NM blocker be adjusted?
it should be decreased bc they enhance the effect
What do high doses of Epi do to heart rate and BP?
They stimulate alpha receptors to predominate bc there are more of them than the beta receptors. This causes increase in the BP.
what are the side effects of atropine?
hot as a hare, dry as a bone, red as a beat, blind as a bat, mad as a hatter.
Entacapone
COMT inhibitor.Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a vital portion of the Reuptake-2 system which takes catecholamines into the postsynaptic cell and degrades them.Very little exists in adrenergic neurons.
Albuterol
selective B2 agonist
another name for adrenaline:
epinephrine
List 5 indirect-acting sympathomimetics
Tyramine
amphetamine
cocaine
dopamine
ephedrine
 
Tyra and Coco do Everybody!
Phentolamine
alpha-adrenergic antagonist-to treat Raynauds disease
Preganglionic sympathetic neurons are cholinergic (ACh)Postganglionic sympathetic neurons are adrenergic (NE)Exception is sympathetic neurons to sweat glands – these sympathetic neurons are cholinergic, i.e., release AchException is specialized neurons
Terbutaline
another beta 2 agonist
 
relaxes smooth muscle to slow and prevent premature labor
d-Tubocurarine
Competitive inhibitor of Ach attachment at the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction.* Neuromuscular blocker (Nm antagonist)
The ANS has afferent/efferent neurons that comprise a reflex system and controls the ____ control largely the ___ and ___.
CNSbrainstemhypothalamus
Botulinum toxin
neuromuscular blocking drug (inhibits Ach release)
what is our model competitve antagonist of the NMJ?
tubocuranine
So frightened or angry you shake> releasing so much epinephrine> striated muscle stimulated> twitch> get the shakes (same thing with shivering)
Botulinium toxin
Inhibits the exocytosis of the Ach-loaded vessicle at the nerve synapse.Degrades the SNAP receptor on the internal surface of the cell membrane at the terminal.
What is the major catecholamine metabolite in the CNS? in the peripheries?
MOPEG, VMA
sympathetic system causes:
Heart rate increases, blood pressure risesRBCs poured into blood from spleen to carry more O2Blood flow shifted from skin and splanchnic region to skeletal musclesBlood glucose rises; blood insulin decreasesBronchioles and pupils dilateBrain receives signals to facilitate purposeful responses & to imprint the event in memory
oxymetazolone
 
brand name drug version?
Danger/side effect?
Alpha agonist
 
Afrin nasal spray, its alpha 1 agonist affects cause vasoconstriction of BV's in nose, allowing for an increase in the size of the nasal passageways
 
Because its also an alpha2 blocker, if a baby accidentally drinks a whole bottle, its going to have decreased NE release and extreme hypotension
what are the nonselective antagonists?
propranolol, nadolol, timolol, pindolol, labetol, carvedilol
both para and sympa cause salivation. Para causes ___ saliva, while symp causes ___ saliva.
- watery- viscous
Parasympathetic stimulation to the eye via muscarinic receptors causes contraction of the ___ muscle resulting in ___ or ___.
- circular- constriction- miosis
what are our two model depolarizing agents of the NMJ?
succinylcholine and decamethonium
What are the major ways to inactivate NE? Ach?
reuptake, acetylcholinesterase
Parasympathetic stimulation to the heart via muscarinic receptors causes:
- decreased heart rate- decreased conduction velocityparasympathetics does not effect contractility
as sympathetics kick in first the ___ receptors are activated, but as sympathetics increase ___ receptors take over.
- beta- alpha
where are nicotinic Ach receptors found?
in the sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia as well as at the NMJ.
The parasympathetic nervous system comes out of the ___ region of the spinal cord. Its first neuron releases ___ onto ___ receptors, causing the second neuron to release ____ which binds ___ receptors on the cardiac or smooth muscle or gland.
- cranial- acetyl choline- nicotinic - acetyl choline- musarinic
Patiens in CHF on diuretics or digitalis, or pt's with extensive soft tissue trauma should only use NM blockers that are competitve antagonists; why?
Potassium electrolyte imbalance is off, thus prolonged apnea; therefore, depolarizing agents cannot be used.
the trigone sphincter has __ _receptors so that when stimulated by symp it ___. When stimulated by parasympathetics it ____.
- symp> alpha 1> contracts- parasymp> relaxes
what is the major antimuscarinic used for diagnostic purposes in opthamology and why?
cyclopentolate is used becauses it causes mydriasis for examination and cycloplegia for measurement
The blood vessels to the heart have only ___ innervation, no ___ innnervation. These vessels have ___ _ and __ _ receptors. Initially when sympathetics kicks in __ _ receptors cause ___, but as sympathetics gets stronger ___ _ receptors take over and cau
- sympathetic innervation- no parasympathetic innervation- alpha 1 - beta 1- beta 1 > dilation- alpha 1> constriction
how does NE effect heart rate and BP?
It increases both systolic and diastolic due to lack of beta 2 stimulation. heart rate DECREASES due to reflex bradycardia from the increased blood pressure
Beta 2 is only affected ____ not ____
- only epinephrine activates beta 2- norepinephrine does not
why does the vagus not contribute to contractile force?
b/c the vagus does not innervate the ventriclesso only the sympathetic affects contractility
Skeletal muscle has ___ _ and ___ _ receptors. Sympathetic activation causes ___ . Parasympathetic stimulation causes ___.
- alpha 1 and beta 2- constriction- dilation
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