Anthr101 exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
LAETOLI
WHERE:Tanzania
WHEN:3.6 mya
WHO:Mary Leakey 1976
WHAT:FOOT PRINTS in volcanic ash
Rain drops
Animals
HOMINIDS

3
Confirms fossil evidence that early hominids walked upright on two legs in a characteristically human fashion
Foot bones arranged like modern human’s with NO divergent big toe
 
HADAR
Where:ETHIOPIA

Who: Maurice Taieb and J. Kalb (1972 – 1977) 


Invited paleontologists Donald Johanson, & Tim White

What:  Australopithecus afarensis
heidelbergensis culture
Developed Levallois technique
Multiple tools from one core
Evidence of hunting; wooden spears
Possible use of language
Neanderthal culture
Levallois Technique
Mousterian tools
Points, scrapers, hand axes
Dressing hides, shaping wood tools, hunting large game
Care of elders & sick
Sharing resources
Burial practices
A. afarensis
3.7-3.0 mya
East Africa
Ape-like features
Small brain
Prognathism
Bipedal-no striding gait
knee joint
fossil footprint (Laetoli)

First Family
3.2 mya
200 skeletal fragments
MNI 7: 5 adults, 2 children
Located in what would have been lake shore & river basin deposits
All found together, no apparent disturbances
Hypothesis: Overcome, buried and preserved in a sudden flood
A. africanus
3.3-2.5 mya
Less prognathism
More gracile
Smaller teeth (still large compared to ours)
Bipedal- no striding gait
Human-like pelvis
Spinal curve more human-like
TAUNG CHILD Discovered by Raymond Dart
P. aethiopicus
2.5 mya
Ethiopia
‘The Black Skull’
Both primitive and derived traits
Hominid
Bipedalism
Reduced incisors, reduced canines, thin enamel caps on molars
Greatly increased brain size
Tool manufacturing and use
Oldowan Tool Industry
Cobbles
Sharp working edges
Transported from a distant source (6 miles)
**Requires forethought!!!!!
Small Cutting tools: fine grained stone
Heavy Chopping Tools: basalt and quartz
Olduwan pebble tools- both cobbles and flakes used
Homo ergaster
1.9-1.4mya
Modern body build
Large brain
Smaller teeth & jaw
Posture & locomotion like later Homo
Best candidate for human ancestor
Distinct from H. erectus?
H. heidelbergensis
850,000-200,000 years ago
Africa, Europe possibly Asia
Increased brain size
Rounded brain case
More vertical nose
Deliberate bone processing of hominids by hominids
BODO
Clifford Geertz studied the differences between western and non-western concepts of ____ and found they were quite different.
a. culture
b. psychology
c. sociology
d. self
d. self
P. boisei
2.4-1.4 mya
East Africa
Most robust form
Mary & Louis Leakey
proto-handaxes
simple pointed choppers and crude bifacial forms  (pointed and rounded ends)
Provisioning
The hypothesis proposed by Owen Lovejoy states that the advantages of males carrying food and bringing it to females and young could have contributed to the rise of bipedalism.
KOOBI FOR A
WHERE:Northern Kenya, Lake Turkana
WHEN:1.5 MYA
WHO:Glynn Isaac, 1977 – 1979
WHAT:LIVING FLOOR, tools, fossils
Lithic analysis indicate cutting was used on animals for butchering and wood working possibly creating other tools.
Behavioral
1. Increased dependence on lithic technology and cultural innovation
2. Increased population size worldwide
3. Migration into a variety of environments based on cultural innovation
Manuports
unaltered objects carried from one location to another before using
Alan Lomax and his co-researchers found that ____ seems to vary with cultural complexity
song style
_______ are generally full-time male specialists who officiate at public events.
a. shamans
b. priests
b. priests
how culture views health and illness is part of its
ethnomedicine
Members of the senior generation-set among the Karimojong of Uganada perform all of the following functions except:
a. administrative
b. judicial
c. priestly
d. agricultural
d. agricultural
Comparing Humans and Neanderthals
Larger brain
Cold adaptations
Larger nose
Large sinuses
More robust
Short & stocky
5-6in smaller than H. sapiens
Sahelanthropus tchadensis

The First Hominids Found in Sahel, Chad

Dates 7-6 mya
Skull
small teeth w/ thick enamel
short face, little prognathism
strong brow ridges
Combination not seen in fossil apes or later hominines
The yanomamo indians deal with aggressivemenss in their children by:
a. encouraging it
b. severely beating them if they become aggressive
c. encouraging boys to fight each other for self defense while encouraging girls to negotiate


a. encouraging it
The Karimojong of northeast Uganda use what type of system as the basis of their political organization?
a. age-set
b. ethnic association
c. regional association
d. unisex organization


a. age-set
many medical anthropologists now argue that the biomedical paradigm itself needs to be understood as part of:
a. biocultural synthesis
b. the society
c. the culture
c. the culture
Alan Dundes thinks that Native American folktales have characteristic structures. One is the movement:
away from disequilibrium
what is the main cause of china's hwang river floods?
deforestation
what legitimizes violence just as war seems to?
capital punishment
R. J. Rummel estimates that nearly _______ million people have been killed by governments in the twentieth century.
a. 50
b. 170
c. 35
d. 130


b. 170
According to Durkheim, when Australian Aborigines worhsip totems they are really venerating:
a. the natural laws of the universe
b. their parents
c. their clans
c. their clans
Multiregional Evolutionary Model
Modern human anatomy appeared in multiple locations
Piecemeal across the Old World, different places and different times
Modern humans arise through gene flow
Interbreeding possible between two populations
Ardipithecus ramidus (ground ape at the root) Ardipithecus kadabba
5.8-4 mya
Aramis Ethiopia
Ancestral (ape-like) traits
ape-size brain case
Derived traits
Reduced canines
Foramen magnum centrally located
Tim White
Homo erectus and fire
Fire: Expanding the Human World
Zhoukoudian cave site in China
Dated to 600,000–400,000 yBP
Evidence for controlled fire usage
Burned stone tools, plants, charcoal, etc.
Fire acted as an agent to ease chewing and initial digestion. 
Some argue that this increased the energy available to early humans.
Modern Human Dispersal
Africa: 200 kya
Middle East: 92 kya
Australia: 60-46 kya
East Asia: 60 kya
Europe: 46-30 kya
N. America: 20 kya
S. America: 13 kya
Early Archaic Homo sapiens in Asia
(350,000–130,000 yBP)
Ngandong (Java)
Early Modern Homo sapiens in Europe
(35,000–15,000 yBP)
Oase, Predmostí, Dolni Vestnice
Homo erectus in Africa

Footprints discovered at Ileret and dated to 1.5 mya provide evidence of fully modern walking
Homo habilis
The Path to Humanness: Bigger Brains, Tool Use, and Adaptive Flexibility
First discovered by Louis Leakey at Olduvai Gorge
Found in Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa 
Change took place 3.0–2.5 mya


2.4-1.8mya

Stone tools
Larger brain
Smaller teeth
Bipedal, able to climb
Small, ~4ft tall
Possible speech capability
Living People's Genetic Record
Genetic records
Rebecca Cann and colleagues found sub-Saharan populations more genetically diverse than other populations.
Two possible explanations
Populations have been in existence longer, so have more genetic mutations.
Large population sizes influence genetic diversity, where larger populations have more diversity than smaller populations.

Homo habilis and Australopithecus similarities
Immediate ancestor unconfirmed 
(Tim White suggests A. garhi)
Bigger brain, smaller chewing complex
Body plan similar to that of australopithecines
Which of the following is not generally an important role of chiefs?
a. coordinating labor
b. collecting taxes
c. supervising religious ceremonies
d. redistributing goods
 


b. collecting taxes
The ____ from Ancash, Peru moved to Lima and lived in slum-like dwellings called ____.
a. Serranos/barriadas
b. Michoacan/barrios
c. Nahuatis/ghettos
d. Quechua/urban housing
a. Serranos/barriadas
what is a cause of socialization for aggression?
a. homicide
b. child abuse
c. war
d. capital punishment


c. war
psychological anthropologists suggest that art
like religion, expresses the typical feelings, anxieties, and experiences of people in a culture
The _____ have merged the ancient Maya worship of the sun wiht the Spanish conquerors' Jesus and Mary.
a. Quechua
b. Nahuati
d. Chamulas
d. Chamulas
Homo erectus in europe
Homo erectus in Europe
Fossils dated to 1,200,000–400,000 yBP
Earliest evidence is from Sierra de Atapuerca site of Sima del Elefant
Partial human mandible and teeth
Animal bones showing cut marks

Other early evidence from Gran Dolina, dated to 800,000 yBP:
Stone tools, animal remains, hominid fossils
Stone-tool cut marks on animal and hominid fossils
Opportunistic Tools
existent in nature w/ little or no modification similar to that of contemporary pongidae . These are not identifiable in the fossil record (i.e., wood, pebbles, animal bones at sites) 
Early Modern Homo sapiens in Asia
(90,000–18,000 yBP)
Skhul, Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian
African Replacement Model
Modern humans emerged as a new species
Spread throughout Old World
Replace pre-existing Homo populations outside of Africa
Any other Homo species become extinct and are not part of ancestry of living humans
Which was the first species to use tools?
Homo habilis
David McClellands's research suggests that societies that develop high levels of achievement motivation in individuals will likely experience:
a. high rates of economic growth
b. an economic decline
c. an incapacity of the greatest achievers


a. high rates of economic growth
what is the mode of subsistence for chiefdoms?
a. horticulture
b. shifting agriculture
c. food collecting
d. intensive agriculture
d. intensive agriculture
according to _____, illness may be due to something out of order in one's social life.
a. biomedicine practitioners
b. personalistic practitioners
c. Hausa ethnomedicine
d. Maya ethnomedicine


b. personalistic practitioners
A. Anamensis “Southern Ape of the Lake”
Discovered by Meave Leakey, 1994
4.2-3.9 mya
Both ancestral and derived traits
Canines with long robust roots
Enamel thickness and molar width intermediate between Ar. ramidus and afarensis
Bipedal characteristics 
singing is most likely to involve soloists in which type of society?
a. an elaborately stratified society
b. a society wiht a leader who gains his position through demonstration of abilities


a. an elaborately stratified society
Cross-cultural evidence best supports which theory about age-set systems?
a. the theory that age-sets help people mature emotionally
b. the theory that age-sets replace kinship sies in societies with weak organization
c. the theory that age-sets occur
d. the theory that age-sets supplement kinship ties in societies where warfare is frequent and local groups change in size and composition.
applied anthopology in the United States developed:
a. out of anthropologists' personal experience with disadvantaged people in other cultures
b. with the creaion of the society of applied anthropology


a. out of anthropologists' personal experience with disadvantaged people in other cultures
Associations are groups based on:
criteria other than kinship of common territory
which of the following is not more common among chilren who have received schooling?
a. greater ability to perceive depth in two dimensional drawings
b. inferential reasoning ability
c. display of formal operational thinking
d. greater ability to memo


b. inferential reasoning ability
The nupe king of what is now ___ had ultimate authority over his people by ____ them.
a. Nigeria/adjudicating
b. Nigeria/taxing
b. Nigeria/taxing
Which of the following associations is not based on universally ascribed characteristics?
a. the Shavante age sets
b. the Mae Enga bachelor's association
c. the Cheyenne military associations
d. the Karimojong age sets


c. the Cheyenne military associations
what may have an overall harmful effect on nutrition?
a. small village horticulture
b. foraging
c. intensive agriculture
d. comercial or cash crops
d. comercial or cash crops
Which term refers to the type of applied work required in connection with many programs funded by goverment or private agencies?
a. forensic anthropology
b. social impact studies
b. social impact studies
Malinowski argued that Trobriand boys:
a. are unusually hostile toward their fathers
b. do not feel hostility toward their fathers
c. do not feel hostility toward authority figures, as postulated by sigmund Freud
d. do not feel hostility toward any ad


b. do not feel hostility toward their fathers
classic tests of conservation in different cultures show that
older children are generally more likely to show conservation abilities than younger children
Evolution of Homo erectus
Increase in body size is one main difference between H. erectus and H. habilis.
The increase took place rapidly, perhaps in as little time as 2.0–1.7 mya.
Climate change and its impact on the food supply may be one reason for the change.
Most significant impact was likely increased access to animal food sources (protein) from hunting.

Not limited to genus Homo: dating of stone tools indicates australopithecines may have been able to butcher animals as well.
Tool manufacture and the development of social structures to facilitate group cooperation in hunting were critical.
Acheulian tool complex is represented by a variety of tools and tool materials.
Acheulian tools are more refined than the Oldowan tools.
Homo erectus and Patterns of Evolution
African fossils are the most robust and are similar to Dmanisi forms.
Earlier forms have smaller brains than forms dated later.
Cranial capacity ranges from 650 cc to 1200 cc.
Skull robusticity declined.


Reliance the use of tools changed structure of faces and jaws as a result of food processing.
Changes in social structure and dispersal patterns, and increasing reliance on culture for survival
animatism may best be defined as:
a. a abelief in impersonal supernatural forces
b. the worship of inanimate objects


a. a abelief in impersonal supernatural forces
which type of society is most likely to have severe adolescent initiation rites for boys?
a. patrilocal societies where boys sleep with both parents
b. patrilocal societies where infant boys initially sleep exclusively with their mothers
c. matrilocal


b. patrilocal societies where infant boys initially sleep exclusively with their mothers
which of the following is characteristic of state-level societies, but not of tribes?
a. leaders are wealthier than their followers
b. leaers have more positive feelings about their parents


a. leaders are wealthier than their followers
In the ranked society of Palau, the gods:
a. are associated with different clans and are ranked like the clans
b. have little to do with human beings
c. are not thought to be permanent, buty may die and be born again, just as the clans


a. are associated with different clans and are ranked like the clans
The executive positions of the Serrano regional associations of Lima, Peru are generally held by:
a. men who have achieved political power in their home towns
b. the oldest men in the community
c. men in a prescribed age-set
a. men who have achieved political power in their home towns
Evolution of modern humans began about and homo sapiens first appeared
Evolution of modern humans began about 350,000 yBP with emergence of archaic forms.
First modern Homo sapiens appeared in Africa, 200,000 yBP.
the fierceness of the Yanomamo and the timidity of the Semai:
illustrate some of the different kinds of personalities exhibited by people in different societies. 
In which kind of society are gods most likely to be viewed as aggressive and malevolent?
Societies with punitive or hurtful child rearing practices
Friendly socities differ from tribal unions in that their objectives:
a. are confined for the most part to mutual aid
b. are more commonly known to the community
c. cause less dissesion in the wider community
a. are confined for the most part to mutual aid
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