Anthro Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
-Problem/Hypothesis definition
-Background research
-Feasibility Studies (talking to local people)
Punctuated equilibrium
"Non-Darwinian" evolution
belief in spiritual beings
impersonal and scientific (usa)
vocab of a fad
Clyde Kluckholn
"Queer Customs"
values orientation theory
society-interact with each other
culture- way of life
environmental determinism
racial determinism
"because they wre brought up that way" - kluckhohn
cultural materialism
Idea(Harris) that cultural infrastructure determines structure and superstructure.
active only during the day.
Chipped stone
Stone formed by percussion
typically foragers. They have situational leaders, but no government or laws. Ex: the san and the Inuit, “Reciprocity”
Founding of communist party date
brother cares for deceased brother's wife/wives and children, able to keep property in family
gracile australopithecines
member of australopithecus possessing a more lightly built chewing apparatus; likely had a diet that included more meat than that of the robust australopithecines
language ancestral to several daughter languages
The most extreme, coercive, abusive, and inhumane form of legalized inequality; people are treated as property
Kinship Terms
Social meanings of intimacy, solidarity, or deference.
adjustments organisms make to their surroundings/environment
A small autonomous group, usually associated with foraging societies.
rely's more on labor of machines
-informal, ritualized gathering in the United Arab Emirates.-hostess brings guests tray of food, followed by coffee, followed by her "shandug" or glass box full of perfume and incense. Pass around perfume and dab onto hair, neck, behind ears, or cloak covering armpits, shoulders and chest. Finally hostess lights incense and wafts it under her cloak. -practiced for purification, islamic belief and to pleasure themselves and their husbands.
belonged to oldowan technology made by flaking
Gender stratification
unequal distribution of rewards (socially valued resources, power, prestige, and personal freedom) between men and women, reflecting their different positions in a social hierarchy
wife lives with husband, husband lives with mothers brother
Richard Borshay Lee
"Eating Christmas in the Kalahari"
subsistence strategy: foraging (hunting/gathering)
low population density living in small bands
egalitarian society
trade relations
reciprocity (getting ox)
point: anthropologist in position of relative power
cultural template: belittle hunter's results
agency- criticizing ox=opportunity to humble arrogance lee could gain by giving
The ability to compel the supernatural to act in a certain way
The amount of brain mass exceeding that related to an animal's total body mass
several gods and goddesses of a people
The situation in which, in the heterozygous condition, both alleles are expressed in the phenotype.
stereoscopic vision
the condition whereby visual images are, to varying degrees, superimposed on one another. This provides for depth perception, or the perception of the external environment in three dimensions; party a function of structures in the brain
Adaptive Strategies
A group's system of economic production. Key factor in shaping all other aspects of the culture. Dependent on the relationship between environment and technology.
A primitive portion of the brain involved in self-preservation behaviors such as mating, aggressiveness and territoriality.
an association between two or more variables such that when one changes (varies), the other(s) also change(s) (covaries); for example, temperature and sweating
Afeature of human language that allows people to talk about events in the past and future.
Pueblo Agriculture
Had to develop special farming techniques for the arid environment. Sandy soil was placed on top, so when it rained the water would be stored in lower soils. Maize was the most important food source for the S.W Indians and was involved in many religious ceremonies and rites of passage. The women would mill the soil using a "metate" and was an important social activity.
Kinship Classification
1. Sudanese2. Hawaiian 3. Eskimo4. Iroquois5. Omaha6. Crow
SEIR Model
Susceptible (agents at risk of infection)Exposed (agents are infected, not infectious)Infected (agents who aer infected and infectious)Recovered (agents who have recovered)
Marriage between people of the same social group
study of genes and how traits are transmitted from one generation to the next
cells= basic fundamental unit of life
ambilineal descent
Descent in which some members of society may affiliate with either the mother's or the father's descent group.
Ancestral rituals
rituals performed to worship or please a kinship group's ancestors
The part of the brain that controls higher cognitive function; the cerebrum
vertical mobility
Upward or downward change in a person's social status
metaphorical systematicity
metaphors the can be linked together that appear cohearant , not because they are logical but because there is a underlying root for this.
Phenotypic matching
a mechanism for kin recognition in which animals assess similarities between themselves and others.
polychronic culture
A culture in which people typically perform a number of tasks at the same time and place a higher value on nurturing and maintaining social relationships than on punctuality for its own sake.
2+ groups live in harmony with one another while retaining own ethnic heritage, pride, and identity
Franz Boas
Father of American Anthro, sought to show differences actually due to cultural learning. Psychic unity of mankind. Psychic unity of mankind
The Pass Laws Act
-1952-required all black South Africans over age 16 to carry passbooks- law determined where, when and for how long a person could remain in a given area. (regulated by passbooks)-Passbook without valid entry=arrest and imprisonment
the belief that people are related to particular animals, plants or natural objects by virtue of descent from common ancestral spirits.
pyramid texts
- religious texts from old kingdom period
- reserved only for the pharaoh and were not illustrated
- spells are concerned with protecting the remains of the deceased, reanimating his body after death and helping his ascend into the heavens
- carved into walls and sarcophagi
- oldest religious texts in the world
Direct Historical Approach
going to the known to the unknown
Indian Peasants of Zumbagua
agriculturalists ||| Andes in Ecuador, rely on llamas, before '64 a large collection of acres belonged to one family - called a hacienda. Government broke these up, chasqui huasi = leg house, Staple Foods
- barley  least demanding
- potatoes
- fava beans |||||||| Feast of Corpus Christi
Eastern N. America
Ohio River Valley, 5 kya; domesticated sunflowers, the goose-foot plant, amaranth (grain)
Part of the group moves w/ the herds. often practiced in conjunction w/ horticulture
Trobriand Islands
- Small islands in the west indies, film Trobriand Cricket
A woman is married to more than one man at the same time
Sworn virgins
never get married or have sex, wear men’s clothing, third gender in Albania until wwII, still exist in Albania and Africa, defended family honor, responsible for revenging family, took care of men’s agricultural tasks, rewarded by receiving inheritance.
influence and authority
influence: power to get people to act as you suggest
authority: power to command people to do as you suggest
Postmarital Residence Pattern
Where a newly married couple go to live after their marriage
Paper and Coins
Which of the following is not a critical characteristic of money?
Transported Easily
Paper and Coins
Easily and Universally recognized
Edmund Leach's Functions of Marriage
1. Establish legal parents2. Gives either/both sexual monopoly3. Establish joint fund for children4. Creates new type of relationship between all parties involved
K vs R reproduction
fast, many offspring with little to no caretaking vs very few offspring with long gestation and in between periods and lots of postnatal care
What art are the people of the subarctic known for?
quilting bark and hide
how did black artists use depictions of tortured animals?
a sign of the way forward
Over the past 60 year the world population has grown from what to what?
2.5 billion to more than 6.6 billion
attack and slaughter
Failed reciprocity
negation of relationship.
Affinal Relatives
Related by marriage
evolutionary branch/ creation of branch
information transmitted from one generation to the next
Imagining tourism
-Decolonization and Jamaica’s incorporation into the World System after WWII
-Examples: Milk, Bananas, “The Kingston Free Zone”
Indo-Pakistan region
Ramapithecus from late Miocene sediments found here
small stone tools usually produced from narrow blades punched from a core; found especially in Africa during the latter part of the Pleistocene
Gebusi ideals and values, their culture, summed up in a single word. The word's parts, kog-way-yay break down into the words for "togetherness," "friendship," and "similarity."
In the Field
Living conditions, transportation, dress, food, language, other.
common but not universal
particular cultural variation
worshipping or believing in more than one god
Gregor Mendel
father of genetics, experimented with pea plants
species dating between 4 and 2.5 million years ago, providing the first evidence of being bipedal; famously named "Lucy"
an animal order including lemurs and tarsiers and monkeys and apes and human beings
When lineage is traced from the wife's/mother's side of the family.
Gloger's Rule

The rule that populations of birds and mammals living in warm, humid climates have more melanin than populations of the same species living in cooler, drier regions
a flexible, rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. It is composed of cells derived from the mesoderm and defines the primitive axis of the embryo
communication, call systems
use of specifically designed signals by actors in order to modify the behavior of reactors; i.e. call systesm- depending on monkey call, the look in certain directions to fight against predators
Biological Anthropology
The study of humans as biological organisms, including their evolution and contemporary variation.
Oldowan tools
oldest known stone tools, in Ethiopia, Olduvai Gorge, found with hominids
Max Weber
Human behavior is determined by our search for our meaning of life
Primate showing cultural behavior
taught and transmitted over generations
Physical Anthropology
Also known as biological anthro. The systematic study of humans as biological organisms.
Linguistic Anthropology
study of how people use language to relate to each other and how they develop and transmit culture
boxgrove site, england
good evidence of big game hunting, multiple tools with multiple remains, tool cut marks underlay carnivore tooth marks, projectile wound in scapula of horse with a hole similar in diameter to what the Schoningen spear would produce, animals were in their prime
Why not eat more bugs?
-Large body,relatively less energy needs (absolutely more, however).
Sexual orientation vs. gender
-Sexual orientation - a person's habitual attraction to, and sexual activities with, people of the same sex, the opposite sex, both sexes, or nobody
-Gender - roles based on sex
Balanced Reciprocity
a mode of exchange in which the giving and the receiving are specific as to the value of the goods and the time of their delivery
Jacques Boucher de Perthes
1841 A.D., excavating in deep stone quarries in France, finds stone hand axes with remains of extinct animals in deep strata, and argues for great antiquity of humankind.
What is Natural Selection and its 3 Main components?

Variation, Heritability & Differential reproductive fitness
Traits that enhance survival and reproductive success increase in frequency over time
No supermarkets in the rainforests
Food availability is scarce and varies in space and time; can be patchy and unpredictable.
1. In "Patterns of Culture," Ruth Benedict states, "[Different cultures] are traveling along different roads in pursuit of different ends and these means in one society cannot be judged in terms of those of another society, because essentially they are in
* benedict- Cultural relativism
* “good enough anthropology”
* Question our assumptions.
* Malanowski- “grasp the native’s point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world.”
* linear vs. non-linear
* sapir Whorf hypothesis
* Linguistic relativity
* overcome ethnocentrism
* ethnographic present
* Hijras, fafauini
* Mead and bateson
* Zuni vs. plains
* virginity of the taupo
* applying judgement to this brings the ethnographer no closer to understanding
* Carnival in Spain.
* Salamanders
* Moral judgments are footnotes in an ethnography.
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