anthropological Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Punctuated Equilibrium
confirmed facts
Highly dexterous hands
"toughing it out"
Non-Zero-Sum Mutualism
No losers
Specific evolution. Ecological approach. Culture=adaptation
study of human language
lesser degree
Inequality? - Maya
a language's meaning system
Inca Empire as complex civilization
Cultural Universal, but defined culturally family love
anthropologist-- created the inlaw avoidance theory which reduces conflict in the society
discovered heredity determined by discrete particles or units, dominant and recessive traits
relative dating technique using comparison of fossils from different stratigraphic sequences to estimate which layers are older and which are younger
the commercial activity of transporting and selling goods from a producer to a consumer
The first stone tool technology.
biological classification of different subspecies
framework for muscle attachment, allows movement at the joints
The tools and techniques of manufacture and production (including both ideas and material objects).
Annual movement of a pastoral herd.
A unilineal descent group whose members are all descended from teh same recent ancestor through males (patrilineage) or females (matrilineage).
etic approach
focus on anthropologist & anthropological interpretations
A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
sound with significant constriction of air. It is stopping the flow of air but we release it immediately; that is why we do not notice.
evidence gathered to help answer questions, solve problems, and fill gaps in scientific knowledge
molecular anthropology
genetic analyses to assess evolutionary relationships among ancient and contemporary populations and among species
adaptive strategy to describe a society's system of economic production
Marriage with one spouse exclusively for life
how words are pronounced differently, study how languages change over time
identify culture: must marry outside their own clan, and can have multiple wives.
Cultural Landscape
distinct geographical areas or properties uniquely representing the combined work of nature and of man.
San Jose Mogote
Formative/preclassic city in Oaxaca.
proportion of phenotypic variation due to genotypic variation
the representation of objects as having human form or traits
forensic anthropology
an applied anthopological approach dealing with legal matters.
applied anthropology
Using anthropology to solve contemporary problems
Cultural history
-domestication of plants and animals-development of state societies characterized by urban centers and social stratification
lack of vitamin D in children
goods such as leather chests, tables, stools, cosmetics, housewares or clothing. From the wife to the groom
Ethic Group
One among several culturally distinct groups in a society or region
Unilineal descent rule in which people join the father's group automatically at birth and stay members throughout
In science, an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data.
Patrilineal Descent
Traces descent through the father's side.
given to people of colonial Spanish descent in the United States who retained a predominantly Spanish culture
A basic form of plant cultivation using simple tools and small plots of land
-only human power
-fields not permanently cultivated
-slash and burn
Author's Suggestion
Keep passing on the knowledge.
Man should be more like the leavers and protect our environment
smallest unit of language that has meaning
Yanomamo housing placement is based on kinship and family ties.
Patrilateral - means kin on fathers side
Matrilateral -means kin (relatives) 'on the mother's side'
The tendency to judge other people's beliefs and behaviors from the perspective of your own
Diviner with the ability to contact the spirit world
Where members of a culture are formally questioned about their behaviors and activities and why they do them
Social capital
Intangible resource existing in social ties, resource, and cooperation
ecological anthropology
study of cultural adaptations to environments.
The violent eradication of an ethnic group's collective cultural identity as a distinctive people; occurs when a dominant society deliberately sets out to destroy another society's cultural heritage.
Homologous Chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure
the widespread sharing of goods and services in a society
the process of acquiring a "second culture" usually as an effect of sustained and imbalanced contact between two societies. Members of the "weaker" society are compelled to adopt aspects of the dominant society.
the branch of biology that conducts comparative studies of the social organization of animals (including human beings) with regard to its evolutionary history
(T/F) Chimps use different types of tools in different areas
allows a larger number of people, surplus of food...but causes pollution, land degradation, poor health poor diet lacking nutrition causing more cavities smaller body size, etc.
Nayar of India
-alternative to the nuclear family
-traditional kinship system-matrilineal
-lived in matrilineal extended family compouds=tarawads--residential complex, headed by senior woman
-young woman-marriage ceremony then man lives with her at her tarawad then returns to his own tarawad
-women-many sexual partners
-children-members of mother's tarawad, not considered relatives of father
focal vocabulary
set of words describing particular domains of experience
Migrating to New Zealand to escape environmental disaster. Upon returning home from New Zealand, some people like the "old" life, some miss the luxuries of the westernized world. Atolls are at serious risk because of climate change.
Founder Principle
Small group recently derived from larger pop. migrates to isolation
->if a particular gene is absent just by chance in the migrant group
->descendants unlikely to carry gene.
Assimilation vs Multiculturalism
Assimilation is when the minority group assimilates and loses its culture to the majority group, whereas multiculturalism is the view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable.
Linguistic Nationalism
the attempt by ethnic minorities and even counties to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms
one of two basic subdivisions of a tribe
Gradual increase or decrease of a gene from one end of a region to another.
Indigenous (people)
Those that claim their lands because they were the first or have occupied them since time immemorial.
The very common notion that what is normal within one's own society should be normal in all human societies. "Emotional attitude that one's own culture is superior to all others." (Is both emic and etic)
arboreal hypothesis
hypothesis for the origin of primate adaptation that focuses on the value of grasping hands and stereoscopic vision for life in the trees
capacity to command the resources of a person
The "Fertile Crescent" is a broad arc of land stretching through Mexico.
cultural consultants
people who teach an ethnographer about their culture
A subunit of a nucleotide that makes up the DNA and RNA molecules: adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine.
witches - thought to use 2 primary principles of magic:
1) imitative principal - the premise that like produces like (voodoo doll)
2) contagious principle - assumption that power comes from contact
a belief that nature is enlivened or energized by distinct personalized spirits beign separable from bodies
universal grammar
human brain has a blueprint for learning language
A range of kin-ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture, language, and territory. Typically, the tribe has an economy based on some form of crop cultivation or herding, and therefore yields more food than the food-foraging band, allowing a larger membership. Each tribe consists of one or more self-supporting and self-governing local communities that may form alliances with others for various purposes. Political organization is informal and temporary, and based on cooperation when needed. The organizing unit and seat of political authority is the clan, compromised of people who consider themselves descended from a common ancestor. Within the clan, elders or headmen regulate members' affairs and represent their clan in interaction with other clans. Clan organization facilitates joint sanction with members of related communities when necessary. Leadership among tribes is relatively informal. Example: The Kapauku of Western New Guinea have tribal leadership through the Big Man, or tonowi. The Big Man combines a small amount of interest in his tribe's welfare with a great deal of calculation for his own personal gain. The tonowi acquires political power through loaning money and hiring young male apprentices who receive business training, food, and shelter. The tonowi's wealth comes from his success at breeding pigs. Age sets, age grades, and common-interest assocations link members from different lineages and clans. Example: The Tiriki of East Africa organize through age sets and age grades, while the Chyenne organized through common-interest associations.
Intersexual selection
A form of sexual selection. Selection for traits that make males more attractive to females.
Pedra Pintada
A site in Brazilian Amazon that demonstrates that there were groups contemporary with the Clovis that were living in South America in a rain-forest environment
cultural adaptation
adaptations that allow people to adapt to environment and thrive (ideas, activities, or technology)
Wrestling with Manhood (WWE)
-Happy and escalating violence- violence shown as harmless fun w/ no repercussions
-glamorizing bullying=gender role, real men expected to be physical (bully), reinforce weakness of others through physical and psychic domination
normalizing gender violence=scenes of violence and humiliation against women, violence presented in a way that arouses men, gender stratification=men's violence against women normalized, justified, rationalized
**soap opera for males
**role models for males (how to be a man)
**no consequences, only rewards
Relative dating
Establishing a time frame in relation to other strata or materials.
The contemporary of Darwin who formulated a theory of evolution much the same as his
Alfred Russell Wallace
Psychic Unity of Mankind
all human beings, regardless of culture or race, share the same basic psychological and cognitive make-up; we are all of the same kind.
Common Interest Associations
An association that results from an act of joining based on sharing certain activities, objectives, values, or beliefs.
cultural anthropology
the study of living people and their cultures, including variation and change
Rules of descent
rules that affilate you with certain people
Ambilocal Residence
A residence form in which a couple chooses to live with either the wife's or the husband's family
Czar Alexander Assassination
1881 - caused by peasant revolution; led to retaliation of Jewish communities
Great Plains Environmental Gradients
The Great Plains experiences the greatest extremes in temperature and climatic conditions of any region in the US. Winters are cold, with frequent snowy blizzards, while summers bring hot, dry winds
Angular Torus
a thickened ridge of bone at the posterior inferior angle of the parietal bone.
Shaman/medicine person (chapt. 12)
a part-time religious specialist who has unique power acquired though her/her initiative
cultural behavior
A behavior that anyone in your culture can participate in. ex. reading
Bride Wealth
A payment in the form of money, property, or other valuable asset that is made by or on behalf of a prospective husband to the bride's family in certain cultures or societies
what is the idea that language shapes the way we view and think about the world around us; sometimes called the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis after its originators Edward Sapir and his student Benjamin Lee Whorf?
linguistic determinism
Why Do Commodities Matter?
Are often objects, and thus carry social meanings, markers of gender, class, sexuality, ect
Unifacial tool
A tool worked or flaked on one side only.
According to Malinowski
The task of the ethnographer is "to grasp the native's point of view, his relation to life, to realize his of his world
Consanguineal kin
relative by birth or blood. EX: me and my sister
nuclear family (chapt. 8)
marrie or common-law couple and their dependent children
a distinguishing feature of the "new immigration" is
all of the above
Natural Nonfacit Satham
nature does not make leaps (no gaps in nature) continuously organized, simple kinds of living things are no different than other living tings
Gender vs. sex
sex is anatomy of a human, gender is the mindset
Gran Dolina, Atapuerca
A cave in Spain where stone tools and hominin remains dated to 800k years ago were found. These artifacts are the oldest reliable evidence of human occupation of wester Europe
False (there is little consensus on these matters, and thus far apes have shown rudimentary linguistic ability)
Within the scientific community, there is an overwhelming consensus that primates have great potential for learning our language. True or false?
Aristotle and the great chain of being
First attempt to categorize living organisms in writing, anthropocentric view of the world (Gods, humans, birds, mammals, lower organisms)
Any use of the knowledge and/or techniques of the four subfields to identify, assess, and solve practical problems.
What best describes the breadth of applied anthropology?
Verses showing Traduciansim is right:
Ex. 20:11 - God created in six literal days. We have no proof that He has created since. Acts 17:26 - All human life goes back to Adam and Eve.
Systems of all other animal species are ?
1. Can only be used for specific subject matter concerning immediate time and place
2. Parts cannot be recombined in a creative way
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