Anthropology 16 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Rank
...
Sumun
Old Left:
...
forebear
ancestors; forefathers.
survey/questionaires
gives number data
Consanguieal Relative
"blood" relative
strepsirhine trait
tapedium lucidium
rhinarium
long snout
post orbital bar
tooth comb and glooming claw
smaller brain to body size ratio
Exogamy
marrying outside one's group
Particularities
unique to certain culture
brachiation
arboreal locomotion
primates swing from tree limb to tree limb using only their arms
What is a "meal?"
.
___-links relatives through males only
patrilineal
sivapithecus
the earliest ancestor of humans
Laetoli footprints
fossilized footprints approximately 3.6 mya of a family of australopithicus aferensis found in Laetoli Tanzania shows bipedal ansestors
State
A centralized, multilevel political unit characterized by a bureaucracy that acts on behalf of the ruling elite
periphery
poorest, least privileged, least powerful; provide national resources, agriculture, human labor & agriculture produce to core & semi-periphery
globalization
the accelerating interdependence of nations in the world system today
Symbolic Communication
culture like a language
Hominid Characteristics
Bipedal and reduced canines.
Holistic
Encompassing past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture.
posit
to place, put, or set.
Burgess shale
very famous excavation site
-60,000 fossils found
gendercide
killing of members of specific sex
Locus
location of a gene in DNA
hypodescent
previous U.S. laws assigned children of mixed race ancestry to the race with the lowest status
polygyny
marriage to more than 1 woman
prehensile
adapted for grasping especially by wrapping around an object (monkey's prehensile tail)
Open-class system
Stratification system that facilitates social mobility, with individual achievement and personal merit determining social rank.
admixture
exchnage of genetic material between two or more populations
modernization
The process of political and socioeconomic change, whereby developing societies acquire some of the cultural characteristics of Western industrial societies.
period
length of time distinguished by material culture
ethnography
Fieldwork in a particular cultural setting; provides an account of a particular community, society or culture
Y-5
Hominoid's pattern of lower molar cusps
true
early plant and animal domestication was not widely scattered
gene flow
exchange of genes between populations
Gender
cultural meanings, values, and social roles assigned with respect to sex differences NOT BIOLOGICAL
Micro cultures
Systems of cultural knowledge characteristic of subgroups within larger societies.
Elman Service
Evolutionary theorist. Helped develop classification of inequality into 4 distinct social formations: band, tribe, chiefdom, and state.
Relative Dating
Stratigraphy - sediment patterns, layers
Index Fossils - Paleontological Research
Baldwin
view the object as confrontational. another argument is that is simply represents a god in the form of a man with his pith helment representing colonial power. The bicycle is the most important aspect of all for riding a bicyle designates a step up from going by goot
Homo sapiens
A parabolic dental arcade, smaller teeth/jaw, no diastemas, non-projecting canines and incisors implanted vertically are all dentition traits of the species BLANK BLANKS
superfood
cereal grains, rice corn and wheat that make up substantial portion of human population's diet today.
Colonialism
the policy or practicing of acquiring full or particle political control over another country, occupying with settlers, and exploiting economically.
Cross-cousin marriage
The marriage of children of opposite-gender siblings
Transfer RNA
Molecules that are responsible for transporting amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis
place names
may give info about societies, history, beliefs, and values
Primary Code
Informants come before all other codes-annouce to everyone at all times that you are an anthropologist
We classify society based on (3 things)
wealth
power
prestige
traditional society:
customary ideas and practices passed on from generation to generation.
Affiliation
If individuals are frequently in close spatial association, we can say they have a tolerant and probably affiliatiave ("friendly") relationship; prosocial.
Maximum parsimony rule
because homoplastic masquerade as synapomorphies (shared derived), we use maximum parsimony as a rule: fewest number of evolutionary steps to resolve a family tree; the simplest answer is most likely to be correct.
Using maximum parsimony and increasing the numbers of traits used in the cladistic analysis can help us identify homoplasies and reconstuct the most likely phylogenetic relationship
nomads
people that are always on the move
Animatism
A force inherent in all living things
Arboreal quadrupedalism
branch running/walking on top of branches. (think monkeys)
Define anthropology
the scientific holistic study of humans, seeks to explain how and why people are different, includes comparative study of human societies (ppf) focuses on study of culture
Franz Boas
Father of American antrhopology- 1. feildowork 2. historical particularism-culture has own history- should be understood on own terms
Cultural Patrimony
the protection of cultural behaviors and strategies.
negative reciprocity
expectation of return exists, gift giving done to gain power or advantage over the other people
Natural Selection
NOT RANDOM! Advantageous traits stick around, Changes based of environment, Disadvantageous traits die off
Diffusion
borrow ideas from one society and apply it to ours
*Accounts for 90% of culture change
Ex: Sami- reineer herders- transfered ideas of using snowmobile to heard
dispersal
An event where a single species dramatically expands its range
binocular vision
Vision with increased depth perception from two eyes set next to each other allowing their visual fields to overlap.
convergent evolution
in cultural evolution, the development of similiar cultural adaptations to similiar environmental conditions by different peoples with different ancestral cultures
Gender stratification
the ways gendered activities and attributes are related to the distribution of resources, prestige, and power in a society
Taboo
A strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom that is sacred and forbidden.
________ studies the sound patterns of language in order to extract the rules that govern how sounds are combined.
phonology
What is DNA?
a double-stranded, double-helix shape that contains genes of genetic makeup
Hemoglobin
A protein molecule that occurs in red blood cells and binds to oxygen molecules
___- rule that states you must marry within your group
endogamy
Double Descent
- a system that affiliates an individual with a group of matrilineal kin for some purposes and with a group of patrilineal kin for other purposes
- usually exercises the rights of membership in each group separately and situationally
Behavioral Ecology
Study of the evolutionary basis of social behavior.
enculturation
process by which child learns his or her culture
Transmutation
The change of one species to another, term evolution assume its meaning until the late 19th century
post-orbital construction
constricted area of the cranial vault behind the eye orbits
Bipedalism
A special form of locomotion in which an organism walks upright on two feet - characteristic of humans and their ancestors.
Tuma
where the baloma spirit lives for 80 years and rejuvenates
Ethnicity
A group of people who share common traits
Matrilocality
a married couple lives with or near the relatives of the wife's mother
irrigation
the pouring on huge amounts of water from underground aquifers to soil
matrifocal
social groups centered on one or more adult female
Food Production
An economy based on plant cultivation and/or animation domestication.
Uniformitarianism
process that affected the earth in the past still operate today
bilateral descent
line of descent traced through both the maternal and paternal sides of the family
Animism
a belief that spirits begin thought to animate nature.
Systematic Relationship
a web of feedback interactions among parts in a system
communism
a social system in which property is owned by the community and in which people work of the same common good
percussion method
a technique of stone tool manufacture performed by striking the raw material w/ a hammerstone or by striking raw material against a stone anvil to remove flakes
Lesbi
Term in the Bugis society that is rarely used and is seen as emphasising sexuality above other at attributes of calalai subjectivity
Age of Prosimians
54-38 million years agoProsimians and AnthropoidsAnthropoids were dominantProsimians survived by becoming nocturnal
the infamous MOMA exhibit
museums and what they signify
polytypic species
species that consist of a number of separate breeding populations, each varying in some genetic trait
Green Belt Movement
attempted to make a link between women's economic problems and environmental problems (Wangori Maathi)
Expendability theory
Men will do more dangerous tasks and go to war because they are more expendable in terms that the loss of men is less disadvantageous reproductively than the loss of women.
16. Social Class
a category of people who have generally similar educational histories, job opportunities, and social standing and who are conscious of their membership in a social group that is ranked in relation to others and is replicated over generations.
directional selection
traits proved to be the most adaptive in an environment will be selected from generation to generation
Tangible Power
Something that is real that you can manipulate (population, wealth, tools, and technology). This can be used in coercive situations like forced labor.
Hawaiian System
Uses a single term for all relatives of the same sex and generation. A person's father, father's brother, and mother's brother are all referred to as father.In EGO's generation, the only distinction is based on sex -male cousins are as brothers, female cousins as sisters. Nuclear family members are roughly equivalent to more distant kin.
rites of passage
The term suggested by Arnold van Gennep for rituals that mark a person's passage from one identity or status to another.
Old and New Immigration eras
(Old) 1820-1880; Mostly immigrants from Northern or Western Europe (New) 1880-1920 Mostly Eastern and Southern Europeans
radiation
A period in which there is a rapid increase in the diversity of a single lineage. During this period between 4 million and 2 million years ago, there was radiation in the hominin lineage
new world monkeys
located in the Americas, 2133 dental structure, includes Spider, Howler, Capuchin, Squirrel Monkeys, Tamarins, and Marmosets
Autosomal Recessive Disease
A disease caused by a recessive allele; one copy of the allele must be inherited from each parent for the disease to develop
what is culture
ideas, values and beliefs group of people hold in common
Biological Factors in Mate Selection
choose mate based on reproductive fitness, pheromones, sex
What is brain size correlated with?
Body size (large animals=large brains)
Norm of reaction
The range of phenotypes produced by a single genotype, due to environmental influences.
Upper Paleolithic industry, 4 year old boy
Abrigo do Lagar Velho
What are the 4 fields of anthropology?
1. Physical Anthropology
2. Archaeology
3. Linguistics
4. Cultural Anthropology
problems with phenotype classifications
94% of variation within group only 6& between groups
in which book do we find the argument that the various american "races" have differing degrees of intelligence based on immutable genetic factors?
the Bell Curve
MM Video: How have people’s explanations for the mounds in N. America changed over time? Why? Can you give an example from the film of cultural bias influencing interpretations?
- Different cultures living there, inhabiting it- Native Americans- Left out certain American Indians that existed- Racial bias against the knowledge and abilities of Native Americans- Disbeliefs of a mass race that was as knowledgeable and able as the white race
What must happen for natural selection to work? (3 things)
Trait must be inherited.
Trait must show variation between different individuals.
Environment must exert some pressure in order for natural selection to occur.
displacement is the feature of human language that allows people to
speak of future and past matters
I. Early Hominins: Walking Upright. Look at Chapter 5
a. How do we know a fossilized organism was bipedal and thus a hominin
b. What sorts of selective pressures favored bipedalism? Why was it evolutionary advantageous?
c. Who were the Australopithecines?
What is a culture war? Provide an example of a present day counterculture.
A culture war is an internal disagreement in a society about cultural models or about how society or the world should be organized. An example of a present day counterculture would be the tea party movement. It's the tea party movement vs. the GOP.
ego
Self
ch'uño
dehydrated potatoes
James Frazier
the
cladistic
strepsirhines and haplorhines
Civil Rights Act
1964
prophets
receives divine revelation
Subcultures
Different cultural traditions associated with subgroups in the same nation.
Heterozygous
having two different alleles
Genotype
An organism's hereditary makeup.
Process Commodities Go Through (PDC)
-Production
-Distribution
-Consumption
chiefdoms
form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state; kin-based with differential access to resources and a permanent political structure. a ranked society.
Lexicon
dictionary containing all language's morphemes and their meanings
examples of hominids
apes and humans
Popular culture
Creative, stylized, expressice behavior in mass-mediated contexts.
Field methods
participant observation, interviews, genealogies, surveys, and collaboration
sanction
An externalized social control assigned to encourage conformity to social norms.
archaeology
studying pact human life forms
Kpelle
rice, patrilineal inher, brideservice children, male concubine, divorce blame
Center-periphery
referring to global Nation-state.  Dividing across world and having a hierarchical relationship with producers and consumers.
 
Also it refers to the fact that the urban large cities is better off than the rural villages part of Marxism
0/0
The coefficient of relatedness between nonrelatives is BLANK/BLANK
band
basic social unit among foragers; fewer than 100 people; may split seasonally
Etic
The research strategy that emphasizes the ethnographer's rather than the locals' explanations, categories, and criteria of significance
Evolution
change in frequency of particular genetic variants in a population over time
national culture
beliefs, learned behavior patterns, values, and institutions shared by citizens of the same nation
Religion
Beliefs and behaviors that mobilize supernatural powers. ALSO, funerals are facilitated by this.
Animatism:
some kind of divine source surrounding. Nature is energized by impersonal spiritual power.
Rebellion
--Organized armed resistance to an established gov., authority in power.
--Often triggered by repressive regimes imposing new taxes on the already struggling farmers.
--E.g. Zapatista Maya Indians in S. Mexico.
Homozygous
Possessing two identical genes or alleles in corresponding locations on a pair of chromosomes.
domestication
altering the genetic material of plants or animals to suit their needs
Three aspects of historical political economy:
...
buddhism
o started by Siddartha Gautama (566-482 BCE) in northern India; he is now revered as "the Buddha"
o spread to China, Sri Lanka, SE Asia, and Inner Asia at early date but faded in India
o no single text authoritative
o some worship Buddha as deity, others do not
o all have potential for reaching 'nirvana'
o good deeds allow one to achieve better rebirth with each incarnation, until 'samsara' is achieved (release from cycle of rebirth, reincarnation, death, etc.)
o strong tradition of monasticism
nationalism
created set of cultural experiences, beliefs, learned bahavioral patterns
The scientific method
empirical observations of phenomena
hominid
African hominoid family that includes humans and their ancestors
classification
the basic cognitive process of arranging into classes or categories
patrilocality
married couples (and their children) live in husband's community
Environment
Is one's total surroundings, both geographic and cultural
communication
the conveying of meaningful messages from one person, animal, or insect to another
In a matrilateral cross-cousin marriage, a man marries the daughter of his
mother's brother.
Black English Vernacular
dialect of American English
racism
a prejudicial belief that members of one ethnic group are superior in some way to those of another
recognition species concept
most inclusive population of biparental organisms which share a common fertilization system
General Anthropology
Four main fields of anthropology: sociocultural, archaeology, biological, and linguistic
No.
Is culture passed on genetically to future generations?
nation states
governments and territories that are identified with culturally homogeneous populations and national histories
foraging
the acquisition of food by hunting, fishing, or the gathering of plant matter.
Development policy
The general priorities and decisions set by a state or by development agencies to achieve economic, political, and social goals.
Pastorialism
a subsistence strategy based on the maintenance and use of large herds of animals
Both Pastoralist and Foragers live in...
Marginal areas
Phoneme
A sound contrast that makes a difference that differentiates meaning /p/ and /b/ are phonemes in English
feminist anthropology
A theoretical perspective that focuses on describing and explaining the social roles of women.
Mutation
the only source of new genetic information and new alleles
Sociolinguistics
study of the social context of language
magical attitude
feeling that supernatural can be controlled in certain instances; if magical formula is followed to letter, desired ends will be reached (supernatural has little choice in matter)
informal economy
network of proudcing and circulating goods or services that escape governmental control (Black Market)
peasants
rural people who produce food for their own subsistence but who must also contribute or sell their surpluses to otheres who do not produce their own food
Telophase
the final stage of mitosis during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
Decolonization
What occurs when the dominant invasive culture leaves, often creating as many issues as there were when it first invaded.
Biological Anthropology
The sub-field of anthropology that studies human physical variety, maturation, the primates, environmental adaptation, and human evolution.
Chiefdom
a form of political organization based on membership in descent groups such as lineages or clans, whose leaders are arranged in a hierarchy of power and authority such that some chiefs have inherited substantial influence over their kinfolk and other chiefs
ultimate problems
these emerge from the universal features of human life and include life's meanings, death, evil, and transcendent values. people everywhere wonder why they are alive, why they must die, and why evil strikes some individuals and not others
Public Spheres
-From Meneley
-Within a society, there are different spheres of influence/power, or publics in which people operate; there are male and female public spheres, the home is not private, the hospitality requirements are public and agonistic, women operate in their own public as men too operate in their own public
-World of total prestations (mauss)
Laguerre
studies of haitian immigrants in the Us show that they mobilize to deal with the discriminatory structure of American society
logograph
a symbol that conveys meaning through a form or picture resembling that to which it refers
Four Mechanisms of Genetic Evolution
Natural SelectionMutationRandom Genetic DriftGene Flow
australopithecus africanis
first australopithecus found in south africa. 3-2.5 million years old. 490 cubic centimeters brain size. south africa
shift
to put (something) aside and replace it by another or others; change or exchange:
Percent of Polygamy in the world
70% Polygyny
~1% Polyandry
Daughter languages
Languages developing out of the same parent language. Ex: French and Spanish are daughter languages of Latin.
Near east time periods
Kebaran, Natufian, Early Neolithic, Late Neolithic
In the past, 'hominid' referred to a human or human ancestor but not ape ancestors. In other words, these are species that are recognized as clearly in the human line and not apes.
...
Cultural Relativism
The position that values and standards of cultures different and deserve respect.
Ethnocentrism
the idea that one's own culture is better than other cultures
Tough Guise
Guns, bodies of toys increase size over years
Follivore
a primate that relies most heavily on foliage
Folklore
a broad category and refers to the oral transmission of culturally important stories over time. oral and not written down.
unisex association
type of association that unifies its membership to one sex, usually male; make them separate from the other sex
Marriage
a relationship between one or more men (male or female)and one or more women (female or male)who are recognized by society as having a continuous claim to the right of sexual access to one another.
H. Spencer
in middle of 19th century- great britian exploring- "sun will never set"- growing area of sociology- social anthropology- wrote the "study of anthropology
modal personality
the body of character traits that occur with the highest frequency in a culturally bounded population
Anthropology
The study of human beings and human diversity across time and space
Linguistics
a branch of anthropology. the study of languages.
Class, caste
a category of people who have approximately the same access to power and resources
Neolocal
a couple establishes a new place of residence rather that living with or near either set of parents
primate paleontology
the study of the primate fossil record
chain migration
population movement in which a first wave of migrants comes and then attracts relatives and friends to join them in the destination (characteristic of Dominican migration to the United States)
______ determines what is normal in a society
culture
Cultural Evolution
Changes over time in learned beliefs or behaviors that shape human development and social life
balanced reciprocity
value is calculated, time of return is more or less calculated; gifts
Fluted point
Point that has channel carved into its middle for hafting and aerodynamics.
problem-oriented ethnography
focus on one specific area and how that affects all others in a culture, identify a specific problem and collect data relevant to it, do not just use people's answers but also gather information relating to the environment, diet, and land use. Ex. Disease, industrialization, change in food production
household
a kin group of one or more nuclear families who live in the same physical space
fetishes
A course of action to which one has excessive and irrational commitment.
Bergman's rule
body size depends on climate; the body mass of an animal increases with latitude (i.e. the colder it is, the more body mass an animal will have)
soft power
the ability to obtain what one wants through cooperation and attraction as well as discourse and persuasion
cultural resource management
A branch of archaeology tied to government policies for the protection of cultural resources and involving surveying and/or excavating archaeological and historical remains threatened by construction or development.
Clifford Geertz & Mary Douglas
Leading proponents of the interpretivist/symbolic view.
Economic Anthropology
the study of the way that economic ideas and practices are linked to the rest of a culture
Neanderthals relationship to modern humans
1. Neanderthals interbred with anatomically modern humans
2. Neanderthals were killed off by anatomically modern humans
3. Neanderthals were driven to extinction by competition with anatomically modern humans
polyandry
a woman has two or more husbands at the same time
shared ideas about what kinds of things really exist (god, ghosts, dragons)
classification of reality
Human Relations Area Files (HRAF)
A vast collection of cross-indexed ethnographic and archaeological data catalogued by culutural characteristics and geographic location. Archived in aboiut 300 libraries (on microfiche and/or online)
Neolithic period
The period in a given region where the first signs of domestication are present. Earliest Neolithic period around 10,000 BP.
Emic vs Etic
An account that comes from a person within a culture vs. an account from an outsider
Primordial Model
In order to be apart of an ethnic group one must be born from one in the ethnic group. Born with culture.
middle paleolithic
the middle part of the old stone age characterized by the development of the mousterian transition of tool making and the early levalloisian traditions
Bilateral (Cognatic) Descent
Both sides of the family count, both sides attend important events (lineage is traced on both mothers and fathers sides)
 What Happened to Neandertals?
 They were bred out - Interbreeding
• Not much evidence
 Genocide
• No evidence
 Outcompeted by Homo Sapians
I. Human Variation
a. How do the forces of evolution act on human populations? "Populations" is the key here; we aren't talking about individuals.
b. How does natural selection act on sickle cell anemia through the malaria parasite and the environment? Case study based on a genetic analysis.
form
 of language that gives greatest access to political and economic power.
 Standard American English will produce more societal goods than Black 
English Vernacular.
acceptance of the authority and correctness of a prestige dialect. ex. Queens english. changes over time
Hypotheses for evolution of dark skin
-near the equator to protect against skin cancer
-protects against sunburn in areas of high uv rays
bumper stickers- having fun with metacommunication. ex)
- through the sticker, people are trying to make statements about themselves
-- themes of identity, anxiety, and cynicism
- but in doing so they open the door to commentary and criticism
- indicative statement: "my child is an honor student at UPITT!"
- metastatement: "your kids an honor student, but youre a moron"
How is RNA different from DNA?
RNA (Ribonucleic acid) - is a single stranded molecule, contains the sugar Ribose, and utilizes Uracil because it does not contain Thymine.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) - double stranded molecule, contains our genetic code, uses the sugar Deoxyribose and contains Thymine rather than Uracil.
culture as a living organism- A.R. Radcliff-Brown
to keep the entire social system in a steady state, or to maintain a social equilibrium
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