Anthropology 33 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
(http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/classification/Primates.html#Primates)
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external integration
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E.B. Tylor
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zygomatic arch
cheek bone
Neanderthal tools
mousterian tools
Meioses
produces sex cells
Race
Socially constructed; classifications of humans into relatively large and distinct populations or groups often based on factors such as appearance based on heritable phenotypical characteristics or geographic ancestry, correlate with traits such as culture, ethnicity and socio-economic status.
anthropology
study of human cultures
Complex Organization ("studying up")
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Swartkrans
- P. Rhobustus
- Broom
types of diffusion
Selectivity
selective in nature
Natufians
Widespread Middle Eastern foraging culture (12,500-10,500 B.P.)
Ethnicity
Biology, culture, behavior, basic values, language, and customs shared within a group. Members recognize other members of the group. Not strictly limited to color of skin. Example a person can be WHITE without being CAUCASIAN
Where is group marriage practiced?
Siberia
Hadar, Ethiopia
australopithecus afarensis "LUCY" Donald Johanson 3MYA
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
resource allocation
land plants trees animals
Culture
The learned, shared understandings among a group of people about how to behave and what everything means.
Successful Project
Go with the familiar
Racial Classification
Assigning organisms (purportedly) based on common ancestry.
___ system: a stratification system based primarily on achievement i.e. socioeconomic class
open
Cuvier
used presence of extinct fossil remains in quarries to argue for catastrophism
Pidgin
a simplified hybrid language developed to fulfill the communicative needs of people who have no common language
Hominoid
Humans (hominid), great apes (pongid), lesser apes (hylobatid)
Large brains, broad faces, Y-5 lower molar
Tribe
composed of a number of bands
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
grammatical categories of particular lang lead their speakers to think in diff ways (ex: portuguese-->future subjective)
max weber
3 dimensions of social stratification
Washoe
Early primate study. Gardner worked with this chimp in the 1960s. She learned 130 signs and researcher claimed she combined words such as "waterbird" for swan.
Lexicon
A dictionary containing a languages morphemes and their meanings.
forensic anthroplogy
applied subfield of physical anthropology that speacializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for leagal purposes
horticultural economies
farmers hand cultivate their crops
Apidium
2:1:3:3 dentition, predates old world monkey, probably an apidium-like primate gave rise to modern new worrld monkeys,looks like a south american monkey got to S.A. from rafting while water levels were low
Communism
political movement aimed at replacing capitalism with Soviet style communism
city
City vs. Territorial - Khmer (early)
broca's area
controls language expression-an aread of the frontal, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
millet
Small-grained cereal grasses native to Asia and Africa.
syncretism
a borrowing that rearranges elements and combines them with other features of the culture, perhaps selectively dropping elements and shifting emphasis
hominids/hominins
----- are the first/only bipedal primates
Phoneme
Smallest units of sound that distinguish the meanings of words.
Franz Boas

German Born Jew- discriminated against in Germany
Studies physics in germany-leads to anthropology
Meets eskimo (inuit) while conducting his physics research
Sensitive about the european claim that non-europeans were inferior

Comes to U.S. in the 1880s and is confronted witht h fact that racism is flourishing in the U.S.Incoming immigrants not liked by the anglo-americans
believed that they are "less intelligent" and have smaller brains; however this difference was because of malnutrition

Boas studies the craniums of children immigrants and compares them over time.
1896 "On the Growth of Children"- no signigicant differences between anglo and Immigrant children
Opposed unilineal evolution- multilineal- starting point and everyone developed in different directions
Physical anthropology-human races equally intelligent
Archaeology-Boaz and his students study "past history"- they all change and develop over time
Linguistic- all have highly developed, complex forms of communication
Cultural- all cultures are complex
Unilinealism=Nazi ideology
Sedentism
The process of increasingly permanent human habitation in one place
Chimpanzee gestation period
Eight and a half months
morphology
a system of creating words from sounds
Aegyptopithecus
one of the propliopithecids and the most likely ancestor to the catarrhines (OWM)
Cultural Knowledge
Information that enables people to function in their society and contributes to the survival of the society as a whole.
Genetic data and fossil data suggest that chimpanzees and chimpanzee ancestors should now belong to the grouping 'hominid' because we are so closely related; and that hominine will now be the name referring to only humans and human ancestors.
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Commodification
Grouping people in a certain sphere. Can be brought or sold like other service or goods. Ex. Domestic labor article seeing people as only means of labor
hand ax
modified core of rock, more complex
Self-determination
The concept that groups with a distinct culture and identity have a right to choose their own political arrangements and their own collective destiny.
adaption
process by which organisms cope with environmental stresses
Ruth Benedict
wrote "Patterns of Culture," saw different cultures as Dionysian and Apollonian
social structure
2. social/political org kinship power relation
Unstructured Interviews
learning about someone through regular conversation.
skin color
change in melanonin content, develops over time (i.e. people in Africa are darkest because they have been there longest), protection against sun exposure
complex societies
large and populous societies with social stratification and central goverments
Hegemony
When one entity has a disproportionate amount of influence over another
tonality
In music, scale systems and their modifications.
Genotype
The alleles possessed for a particular trait
Non-disjunction error
the failure of homologous chromosomes (chromatids) to separate properly during cell division. when it occurs during meiosis, it may lead to the formation of gametes that are missing a chromosome or have an extra copy of a chromosome.
polygenic
refering to traits that are influenced by genes at two or more loci.
examples of such traits are stature, skin color, and eye color. many polygenic traits are also influenced by enviromental factors.
differential access
favored access to resources by superordinates over subordinates
Ethnocentrism
Judging another culture in terms of one's own. Not appreciating that there might be another point of view.
shaman
generic term for part time normaly exist in small society. have ability to harness supernatural power because connection to supernatural. often medical practitioners at same time. sometimes women
paleopathology
study of disease and injury in skeleotns from archaeological sites
open class system
individual achievement and personal merit determine social rank
3 families within Hominoidea
Hylobatidae [gibbons & siamangs]Pongidae [gorillas, chimps, and orangutans]Homindae
Balanced Polymorphism
Alleles maintain a constant frequency in a population over time
genocide
the genocide of septenbar 11 was horrible day and million of people were lost their lifes and their properts too.
you must get permission from govt, university, scholars, with full disclosure
fieldwork
b. Symbolic
learned meanings [of words] , unique in their own respects
i. Spoken & written
ii. Did not evolve out of call systems
iii. Coevolved. Multiple parts of the brain were used in its development.
dependent variable
a variable whose value changes when the value of the independent variable changes.
Piltdown hoax
Discovered by Charles Dawson in 1912. had large brain and ape teeth. actually chimp teeth, orangutan jaw, medieval skull.
somatic cells
Diploid cells that form the organs, tissues, and other parts of an organisms' body.
Linguistic Relativism
language reflects our culture and our way of thinking, ex. Technology terms (internet, e-mail), vast array of colors
Immigrant Inspections
Usually for 2nd and 3rd passage level
acquired characteristics
Lamarck's incorrect idea on how an organism's offspring can aquire the individual traits they develop during their lifetime
Sororate
Custom by which a widower marries the sister of the deceased wife
Phenotype
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype
Linguistics
The study of language across space and over time.
pastoralism
raising herds of animals for food and clothing
holism
the whole of the human condition past, present, and future; biology, society, language and culture
secular change
change in the average pattern of growth of development in a population over several generations
Social Status
a person's level of prestige in society.
Nuchal Plane
flattened bony area of the occipital posterior to the foramen magnum, to which neck muscles attach.
Tell
A mount formed over time through the build-up of human settlements and the accumulation of trash
what is UNESCO's Cultural program?
communicates heritage, customs, beliefs, and language
Stability
the quality of being free from change or variation
existance of culture
What separates humans from other evolving animals?
transfer RNA(tRNA)
RAN molecules that bind to specific amino acids and transport them to ribosome to be used during protein synthesis.
Activity patterns
diurnal - day active
cathemeral - day and night
nocturnal - night active
By-product Mutualism
Mutualism as a by-product of one's selfish behavior
c. Chromosomal sex
1. XX (Female)
2. XY (Male)
3. Other variations. Some argue that as many as 1/7 people have a chromosomal "deficiency".
a. X - Turner's Syndrome
b. XY - (androgen insensitivity) Male manifests female because of an insensitivity to testosterone.
c. XXY - (Klinefelter's Syndrome)
d. XYY
Bilateral Descent
a system of family lineage in which the relatives on the mother's side and father's side are equally important for emotional ties or for transfer of property or wealth. It is a family arrangement where descent and inheritance are passed equally through both parents
Polygamy
A system of marriage where a person of either sex can have more than one mate
Deism
The form of theism or belief in god(s) which posits a creator god that does not take an active role or moral interest in human affairs.
God created man as an ___ being.
Immortal (Revelations 4:11)
Bifurcate collateral kinship terminology
A system which differentiates the uncles and aunts both from parents and from each other.
Language acquisition
In an innate and abstract capacity for language in the human brain.
What are the 2 types of cladistics?
ancestral and modified
Microlith
A small stone tool make from a blade, usually geometric in shape with retouched edges
Strategy of adaptation
the set of behaviors permitting a species or culture to survive and change in response to environmental stimuli
solar nebula theory
Planets form from the nebula around the proto-sun. When the star becomes luminous enough, the remaining gas and dust were blown away into space, leaving the planets orbiting the sun. This theory means that planets should be fairly common objects in the universe around some stars
Contact and Dispersion
Look at how different societies have shared and dispersed language.
Mbuti and Bila
Mbuti: forest foragers, trade meat or laborBila: agriculturalists, trade bananas, beer, tobacco
The Edge and The Center
talks about gated communities and compares two gated communities, one in New York and one in San Antonio, Texas.
What did Mayan glyphs portray?,
i. Yuri Knosorov demonstrated phonetic and syllabic base ii. Dynastic histories decoded at Palenque and Tikal iii. Inscribed on pots, buildings, and deer skin • Hieroglyphics and their use a. Carved inscriptions perhaps reserved for rulers b. Carved inscriptions lose prestige value (771 A.D.) c. Carved inscriptions proliferate throughout lowlands.
Example of microevolution
the presence of one S allele changes the blood cells so the malaria parasite doesn't have as bad an affect
Clifford Geerttz
1973 A religion is a system of symbols which act to establish powerful, pervasive and long lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such and aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic.
gene flow
movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
British moths, houseflies, and bacteria are examples of what?
These are observed examples of evolution.
State terrorism
The use of force and terror by a state government against its own people - either a particular group or minority within the state or the entire population.
Street of the Dead
NW axis of Teotihuacan with temple of sunions. the inscript, moon, and feathered serpent.
Homo Habilis and Homo rudolfensis
Early hominids classified in our genus homo, are generally divided into two species habilis and rudolfensis. primarily from the western parts of Kenya and tanzania, but remains have been found elsewhere in eastern and southern Africa. Both lived at the same place at the same time as the robust australopithecine and may have lived at the same time as homo erectus. Habilis is the earlier of the two species
human geneticists, primatologists, human paloeontologists
Which of the following is a type of physical anthropologist
Sex and Gender examplePapua, New Guninea
-large island with 800 languages and cultures-Margaret Mead studied the Arapesh, Mundugamor, and Tchambuli-Mead's fieldwork has been challenged because people thought she was just trying to satisfy her mentor Franz Boas with her findings.-she ended up in a territory by the Sepik River
Which of the following can result in reproductive isolation
A. A populations activity pattern
B. A species courtship behavior
C. An individuals appearance
D. all of the above
E. None of the above
Answer: D All of the above
what happens over time with metacommunication?
- over time the power of the message gets stressed further and further in relationship to the original indicative statement
- how far can you push that image in relationship to what it signifies in that image?
- possible to push the meaning to the point of meaningless- what do things really mean if you keep transforming to mean what you want them to mean
ex) what is the hokey pokey is what it is all about?
Drimolen
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Civilization
Distinct society
DNA replication
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Kowtowing
Bowing to ancestors.
irrigation
Irrigation/terracing? - Egypt
Niche construction
changing the environment
Ethnicity Definition
Shared cultural heritage
Peasant mode of production:
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ethnology
crosscultural comparison; the comparative study of ethnographic data, society, and culture
Transvestism
relating to cross dressing
State
Stratified society with formal, central government
Ferraro, Gary. Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective. Belmont, CA:
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stratigraphy
relative method
oldest on bottom, newest on top
assumes that no disturbances shift strata
sacrifices
give gift to supernatural beings
Contd.
iii. Resource utilization
iv. Tool use. We know today that many primates use a variety of tools. Again, this is learned behavior.
v. Longer lives. Some chimps live into their 70s.
"Nothing means on its own"
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environmental variation
phenotypic defferences between individuals that exist because those individuals developed in different environments
Harmony
blending of tone and rhythm
orrorin tugenesis
a pre-australopitcheine species found in east africa that displayed some of the earliest evidence of bipedalism.
bioarchaeology
-studies human remains & burial practices
Secondary Refuse
Archaeological artifacts and ecofacts that were removed by the people who made, used, or produced them from the place where they were made, used or produced, to a designated refuse area or areas; for example, a trash pile or pit
Gender
A cultural construction that makes biological and physical differences into socially meaningful categories that seem reasonable and appropriate.
Oracle
A religious specialist (or any religious object or process) with the power to forecast the future or answer questions through communication with or manipulation of supernatural forces.
Agriculturalist
Intensive farming permeate land, plow, irrigation, socially complex surplus of food
Descriptive Linguists
study tiny differences within languages
revisionist ethnography
Marshall Sahlins- less ethnocentric, affluence=having nothing, hunter-gatherer groups have a lot going to them, rich, fun-filled lives
Cultural evolutionism
early ethnological or anthropological position or theory that culture started at some moment in the past and evolved from its "primitive" beginnings through a series of stages
Alfred Kroeber
leading fathers of American Antrhopology "most scientific of the humanities, most humanistic of sciences"- are humanistic aproach in coming up woth hypothesis etc.
Magic
Use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims.
extended family
adding relatives to nuclear family
Nuclear Family
household, wife, and unmarried children
homologies
traits that organisms have jointly inherited from a commono ancestor.
chiefdoms
form of political organization in which permanently allied tribes and villages have on recognized leader who holds an office
Liminality
The critically important marginal or in-between phase of a rite of passage.
protection
protects vital organs (ribs-lungs and heart)
Industrialism
the major shift to large industry corporations and a large increase in the work force due to industrialization.
vasoconstirction
decrease in blood vessels diameter due to action of nerve or of drug, occur in response to cold temperatures.
band
a loose association of people or groups
Global Circuits
where things (commodities, ppl) travel continuously on a same path, like a circuit
Honorifics
Terms of respect; used to honor people.
brideservice
groom will render service to bride's family
stereotypes
fixed ideas about certain types of people, often with little or no basis in reality (deny individuality)
Facial Affect
emotion communicated through the face; there are only 7 that are universals created by Paul Etman?; the same muscles for each culture and person are always the same for each emotion
1) Happy
2) Sad
3) Anger
4) Surprise-Confusion (the muscles are the same in any culture)
5) Fear
6) Disgust
7) Contempt
Pliocene
geographical epoch 5.2 million to 1.6 million years ago during which the earliest definite hominids appeared
Neolithic
The New Stone Age; prehistoric period beginning about 10,000 years ago in which people possessed stone-based technologies and depended on domesticated plants and/or animals.
Bible does not teach...
Probation, Purgatory, Annihilation, Universalism
bands
small groups (fewer than 100 ppl), members related by kinship/marriage, may split during part of year
Sociolinguistics
how languages is used in social contexts
Epigenetics
the study of how certain experiences effect genes. how these genes' switches are either turned on or off, thereby altering gene expression.
cargo cult
A spiritual movement especially noted in Melanesia in reaction to disruptive contact with Western capitalism, promising resurrection of deceased relatives destruction or enslavement of white foreigners and the magical arrival of utopian riches.
sociality
the preference for living in groups and interacting regularly with members of the same species
Displacement
Referring to things and events removed in time and space
ethnic groups
categories of people who see themselves as sharing an ethnic identity that differentiates them from other groups or from the larger society as a whole
verbal, material, acts
Religious symbols may be (3)
patrilineal
descent and inheritance are carried by the male line
Applied anthropology
to identify, assess and solve contemporary social problems. Examples: Medical Anthropology, Cultural Resource Management (CRM), Forensic Anthropology, and Non-government Organizations (NGO's)
Food production
the cultivation of plants and domestication of animals
parallel cousins
same sex sibling. father's sister's kids
Forms of power
Three:
Legal/ Rational: impersonal/ offices/ positions
Charismatic: personality/ persuasion (more readily available to "non-elites."
Traditional: slow to change/ old/ lineage (religious leaders/ kings)
Call Systems
call systems are communication systems of non-human primates.
 
Process of learning a culture. Also known as enculturation
Socialization
Potlatch
Culture that gives away excess for free. Often used to show power and wealth
Scientific medicine
A health care system based on scientific knowledge and procedures, encompassing such fields as pathology, microbiology, biochemistry, surgery, diagnostic technology, and applications.
Cultural relativism
Approaching a culture on its own terms, in light of tis own notions of worth and value.
family of procreation
nuclear family established when one marries and has children
Descent Group
any kin-ordered social group with a membership in the direct line of drescent from a real (historical) or fictional common ancestor
Replication of a DNA strand results in ____ DNA strand(s).
2
bride service
grooms gives labor to bride's family instead of material goods
Culture Patterns
conditions that contribute to the way ppl live, think, perceive etc.
Rank Societies
some may have social prestige through inheritance but no difference in access to resources.
Communication
Primary way that culture is shared & translated, not limited to spoken language
Linguistic fieldwork
laptops and recorders are used to study language
Iroquois System
Kinship reckoning in which a father and father's brother are referred to by a single term, as are a mother and mother's sister, but a father's sister and mother;s brother are given separate terms. Parallel cousins are classified with brothers and sisters, which cross cousins are classified separately but not equated with relatives of some other generation.
Menhirs
Stones on the ground from Wales with carved "nipples" on the top, upright monumental stones standing either alone or with others, as in an alignment, with "nipples" on top
serial marriage
when a person has multiple monogamous relationships throughout one's lifetime
Core Values
Key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture and help distinguish it from others.
polygyny
a rule permitting a husband to have more than one wife at a time
II. Adaptation
a. Phenotype - physical traits & outcome of evolution must affect survival and reproduction
secondary ethnocentrism
adopting the prejudices of our hosts and their views because of spending so much time with your informants. you may find yourself judging other cultures based on the prejudices that your secondary ethnocentrism has created
Morbidity
the frequency of a disease in a population
rites of reversal
rituals featuring inversions of the culturally normal and proper
pluralistic society
a society which consists of several distinct cultures and groups
Cultural Anthropology
The study of human cultural variation among living populations
sumptuary rules
in state societies where only certain people get certain privileges.
The study of the meanings of words, especially as they relate to folk taxonomy
Ethnosemantics
culture trait
any trait of human activity acquired in social life and transmitted by communication.
Ecological characteristics of partoralists habitats
semi arid, seasonal movement, not conductive to horticulture/agriculture, turns inedible plants to edible animal products
in-group pick up out-group differences
Southern accent v. Northern English
Redistribution
A form or exchange in which goods flow into a central place, where they are sorted, counted, and reallocated.
What traits distinguish primates
hand dexterity, dental, brain changes, vision, longer development, upright posture, foramen magnum
African origins of hominids
darwin thought humans evolved in africa; supported fossils found in the 1920s
What is one of their main staples as far as food goes?
Yams
identity struggles
A term coined by Wallace and Fogelson to characterize interaction in which there is a discrepancy between the identity a person claims to possess and the identity attributed to that person by others.
Intellectual Property Rights
concept that says that a particular group may determine how indigenous knowledge and its products may be used and distributed and the level of compensation required
The Gebusi
The society where wives don't care if their husbands have sex with teenage boys but are angered if husbands are interested in other women
Bride Price
payment of money or goods by the grooms kin to the brides kin
molars in gorillas are...
high crusted for rough tough foods
-pitted to distribute force
Gestalt in communication is
a term that has many different meanings; it is the whole that is more complete than the sum of its parts (Anthropology definition); taking the pieces and putting them together and making a whole; giving meanings to something that is not there
Dental Microwear
• Looking at the wear of teeth under the microscope based on grooves and scratches made
o Ex: leaf eaters - lots of scratches
o Fruit - mixed lines of grooves
• Ouranopithecus - hard fruit eaters
• Oreopithecus - leaf eaters
Who is Diane Fossey?
studied mountain gorillas, most of our understanding of them is thanks to her; she was a little crazy
broad spectrum adaptation
Exploitation of a wide range of plant animal resources characteristic of many hunter-gatherer societies that preceded the shift to agriculture
Social Facts
Emile Durkheim. We come to know who we are through our interactions with other people. The social environment in which we find ourselves changes our behavior. Our personal identity is established in a social environment.
Funerary gift exchange among Trobriand women
Woman exchanged cloth. The funeral exchange 1) reaffirms the integrity and status of the matrilineage passing out the gifts. 2) Dramatizes the links between the dead person's mother's and father's matrilineages. 3) The exchange places the women at teh very center of Trobriand social and ritual life at least for the duration of that ceremony. 4) The ceremony is frankly competitive, but unlike the men's competition that Malinowski described, it occurs between woman.
Two spirit (Berdache)
born 1 sex (male) and have a gender (female) thats opposite, dress feminine and do feminine work.
What are Mendel's principles of segregation and independent assortment?
• Principle of Segregation: Genes (alleles) occur in pairs because chromosomes occur in pairs. During gamete formation, the members of each pair of alleles separate, so that each gamete contains one member of each pair. During fertilization, the full number of chromosomes is restored, and members of gene or allele pairs are reunited.
• Principle of Independent Assortment: The distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes does not influence the distribution of another pair. The genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another.
What were some main trends of body evolution from Australopithecus to Homo heidelbergensis?
brain size increased; facial robusticity and prognathism decrease; mandible/tooth size decrease; height increases
How are primates distributed based on even resources
females map onto resources
males map onto females
acheulean tools - who, what, where
1.5mya - 200 kya, africa, middle east and europe, core tools and flake tools, cleaver and handaxe, associated homo erectus, levallois technique
A famous saying about the Tax collector comes from?
Uruk, a sumarian proverb found in a ziggurat
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