Anthropology 37 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
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Edward Tylor
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post-modern influence
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Extensive Agriculture
*Shifting Cultivation
-"Slash-and-burn"
-Swidden
-Existing vegetation cut down and burned
-Ash fertilizes soil
-Highly productive and energy efficient
-Requires land replacement every decade
Ascribed
Assigned at birth
domestication
dealing with animals
Julien Steward
Created Multilineal Evolution.
Agriculture
Large scale farming enterprise
priests/priestesses
full time religious specialists
195,000 ya
Earliest modern human
Hamilton's
BLANK'S rule: rb > c
decomposition
the organic phenomenon of rotting
Radcliffe-Brown
- English anthropologist that pioneered the study of social relations as integrated systems.
4 subject fields of Anthropology
-Cultural
-Linguistic
-Archeology
-Biological (physical)
midden
deposit of prehistoric garbage, food
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and passed from one generation to the next
resource conversion
how resources are produced
particularities
unique to certain cultural traditions
Plasticity
ability to maintain homeostasis through grueling conditions
Generalized Reciprocity
families, hunting and gathering
upward mobility is better achieved through ___ rather than individual effort
group
Hardy-Weinburg Equilibrium
predicts genotype frequencies in future generations; assumes random mating an no evolution takes place
evolutionary forces
mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, selective breeding
Platyrrhine
New World monkeys, round nostrils separated by septum
Ceboids
Widespread in Latin America
Arboreal
Prehensile tail (ONLY in New World monkeys)
Diverse Diet
Capitalism
Economic system characterized by the following: private property ownership exists; individuals and companies are allowed to compete for their own economic gain; and free market forces determine the prices of goods and services. Such a system is based on the premise of separating the state and business activities. Capitalists believe that markets are efficient and should thus function without interference, and the role of the state is to regulate and protect.
matrilocal
daughter stays with family after marriage and son leaves (15% of marriages)
Branislaw Malinowski
proposed "practical anthropology" that focused on westernization
Horticulture
the science of gardening and planting
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Theory that different languages produce different ways of thinking.
Matralocal
Maintains bond among women; living near wife's family
overconsumption
acquiring goods and services in quantities and at rates that natural resources are depleted and waste disposal becomes difficult
Ancestors and Descendents
many different possibilities philogenies no right or wrong
expressive culture
Dancing, music, painting, pottery ect.
no, monarchy
Division of Power? - Khmer
Sedentary Communities
Settlement patter involving long-term, permanent settlements.
city-states
Urban centers that form autonomous sociopolitical units.
tempocentric
treating one's historical time period as "normal" or best, or as timeless; failing to conceive how the past or future might differ from the present
lemurs, lorises
2 parts of strepsirhini subgroup
Cenozoic Era
age of mammals and birds
ecology
study of organisms interaction with the environment
Andes
potatoes, quinoa, beans, guinea pig, camelids
Gathered plants
Did hunter-gatherers rely more on gathered plants or hunted animals?
Unilineal Evolution
Cultures progress through a single sequence of evolutionary stages - societies differ from one another because cultures are traveling their course at different points and speeds.
Cultural Control
Control through beliefs and values deeply internalized in the minds of individuals
Four Fields of Anthropology
Archaeology, Physical Anthropology, Linguistic Anthropology and Cultural Anthropology.
Historical archaeology
(typically cultures with writing ... writing develops around 3000 BC in China and Egypt and Sumer.... Even for cultures with no writing like the Inca, archaeologists use the writing of others who visited those places, such as the Spanish missionaries and conquistadors to help them analyze and find sites and artifacts)
Structural Violence
Physical and or psychological harm caused by impersonal, exploitative and unjust social, political, or economic systems
abnormal
reflection of our own cultural values in a culture with different values.
Mercantilism
An early modern European economic and political system in which wealth and power were determined by possession of gold and a favorable balance of trade with each other.
ethnicity
ethnic groups are cultures in a context- the nation state
Postcranial
part of the skeleton below the skull
participand obser
expierence the culture first hand instead of outside
Race as biological
explaining ADAPTIVE significance of individual traits that exist across ethnic groups
social race
people are mentally and physically different (inferior/superior) due to ethnicity
Venus figurines
Small, smmoth, shiny, depictions of women with muted faces, small hands and arms, no feet, and big secondary sexual characteristics that were probably stuck in the ground
alienation
Marx argued that life under capitalism separates workers from the means of production, from the goods they produce, and from other human beings. (pg. 143)
The Mesolithic
Recent addition to "Three Age System"
Genes
Portions of DNA molecules that direct the synthesis of specific proteins
Alfred Russel Wallace
-independently theorized concept of natural selection
dominant
describing a trait governed by an allele that can be expressed in the presence of another, different allele.
dominant alleles prevent the expression of recessive alleles in heterozygotes.
cultural presuppositions
we use background knowlege to understand meaning, and it can lead to a break down in communication. like the misunderstanding of newfoundland jokes
Status
A defined position within a structure of such positions. also associated with the recruitment principle.
development anthropology
the branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimension of, economic development
nuclear membrane
A highly-porous membrane that controls what goes in and out of the nucleus
genetic drift
changes in alleles through random events
Palynology
The study of disease and injury through analyses of osteological remains
boycott
the colonists boycott refused to sell American product in the market
relating group events, beliefs, values to the rest of the world (political views, 9/11, Kennedy shooting)
world view
Sigmund Freud
God is symbolic of the father figure
priest / priestess
full time religious specialists who serve in an official capacity as a custodian of sacred knowledge
homo erectus
first hominid speices to widely be distributed in the old world (asian population)
Biological definitions of race:
geneticaly and phenotypically distinct population below species (subspecies)
Acculturation
Process by which a group adjusts to living within a dominant culture while at the same time maintaining its original cultural identity
Ethnocentrism
is the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own.
provenience
location of an object in a space (x,y,z coordinates
Ascribed status
Social status that people have little or no choice about occupying
Balanced polymorphism
The ability of natural selection to maintain diversity in a population.
Totemism
Each clan has an animal, plant, or geographical feature from which they claim descent.
cultural anthropology
unique factors make up a particular culture
Morphological traits
skin color, body shape, hair, eyes, nose
Earth Mound
Mounds conical and linear in shape Mounds' primary function was Mortuary, Cross-culturally we see similar patterns with sedentism
Diachronic Analysis
the comparative study of social and cultural history in a specific culture area.
Occipital Torus
a thickened horizontal ridge of bone on the occipital bone at the rear of the cranium
Agricultural Intensification
The drive towards higher yields per unit area
Ester Boserup
Food production rises to meet demands of population growth
Dominance Hierarchy
organization of individuals in a group that occurs when competition for resources leads to aggression
natural selection
Charles Darwin proposed the theory of ________ .
Hemoglobin
Protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen.
Blood types
Alleles (a,b,o) code for antigens on cells- types are a, b, ab, o- a and b are codominate- a-(AA or AO) is recessive- AB is universal recipient- o is universal donor
pastoralism
Herders and can subsist in lands that are too dry for agriculture, supports low population density, and allows for mobility
Mode of Production
Karl Marx; a specific combination of:
 productive forces: these include humanlabour power and the means of production (eg. tools, equipment, buildings and technologies, materials, and improved land).
 social and technical relations of production: these include the property, power and control relations governing society's productive assets, often codified in law, cooperative work relations and forms of association, relations between people and the objects of their work, and the relations between social classes.
b. Communicative Competence:
i. Mastery of adult rules for socially/culturally appropriate speech. When the base was only men, people swore more often. When woman arrived, that didn't change. When several women arrived, the swearing and violence went down.
ii. Dell Hymes observed adults do more than just follow grammatical rules
1. Context highly important.
2. Code switching. Southern dialects being misunderstood, etc.
energetic efficiency
when food is more dispersed, travel is necessary. Bipedalism is more efficient than arboreality in going long distances (Rodman +McHenry)
Bride capture
A marriage custom in which the groom makes a great show and pretense of stealing the bride from her family
The imperatives for intercultural communication
Large amounts of immigrants, technology, the economy, peace, interpersonal communication
Mediate Creation means:
God used materials that were already made, Man was created from the dust.
imperialism
a policy of extending the rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign colonies
First Hominids
were found in Great Rift Valley of East Africa in lake sites, Timeline- late miocene to early pilocene (10-4 mya)
age set
group of people of similar age and same sex who move through some or all of life stages together
Linguistic Determinism
idea that lang. to some extent shapes the way in which we view and think about the world
Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism
Biological determinism seeks to explain why people do and think what they do by considering biological factors (i.e. genes), while cultural constructivism maintainst hat human behavior and ideas are best explained as products of culturally shaped learning.
principle of segregation
When gametes form, each pair of factors will separate, with one half of the gametes getting one factor and one half of the gametes getting the other factor, The separation of alleles for a single trait into different gametes
Enculturation
The process of growing up in a certain society and learning the cultural norms.
-the brides parents-groom doing duties for the parents
AZANDEHow did polygny work?
Gene Flow
Genes pass from the gene pool of one population to that of another via mating/reproduction.
HORUS & SETH
CHAOS & ORDER. Belief that this order could be balanced by the kings and the force of the sun. the kings were semi-divine. Its what structured the political power. It was the kigns duty to practice his rite.
Post and Rail Fence
Portable fence that leaves holes in the ground
Challenges in immigrant health care-
The medical establishment often does not understand the culture of the immigrants.
Ex: Khmer form Cambodia, Southeast Asia
Bronze Age
In the Old World, the period marked by the production of tools and ornaments of bronze; began about 5,000 years ago in China and Southwest Asia and about 500 years earlier in Southeast Asia.
1 Subsistence Strategy
Foraging - Hunting/Gathering
Berries, insects, small game, nuts. Still alive today. 25-30 in a group. 3 major patters: 1-Equestrian; from horseback hunting 2-Aquatic; rely heavily on fishing 3-Pedestrian; on foot most common and oldest form. Nomadic. Temp Homes. Carrying compacity. Women do all gathering. Children help. Do not accumulate food. Rely on food sharing.
upper paleolithic
the last part (10 to 40 kya) of the Old Stone Age, featuring tool industries characterized by long slim blades and an explosion of creative symbolic forms
Human Variation is also affected by:
*Behavioral adjustments: - Non genetic adaptations. - Cultural responses to environmental stresses. - Since they are behavioral, they are altered to meet new environmental situations. EX: Inuit Igloo ->Adjustment to meet conditions of environment. - Cultural (learned)
coronal and frontal planes
divides the body into front and back portions
Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, & States
What are the four types of political organization?
Why is DNA replication important?
It is important because by creating a blue pring of the original cell, other calls can continue supporting the organism. DNA replication will make the organism reproduce the genetic code and transfer it to the next generation
Patrilateral Cross Cousin Marriage
A man marries his FZD not his MBD and a woman marries her MBS not FZS
-homes built of mud and grass framed on wooden poles and thatched with grass.-many polygynous households surround a courtyard-monogamous households have own courtyard
Why do the Azande practice agriculture rather than cattle herding like the Nuer?
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