Anthropology 59 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Hilabi
...
Completely terrestrial
...
Stone Henge
England:
Globalization
Worldwide interconnectedness, evidenced in global movements of natural resources, trade goods, human labor, finance capital, information, and infectious diseases.
Cultural Indigenization
Adopted Culture
Fa'afafine
Samoan transgender term
creationism
biological similarities and differences originated at creation.
art
communicates information; usually public: exhibited, performed, evaluated, and appreciated in society
true
man is a mammal
A Woman's Curse?
Meredith Small
Menstruation
-Transition from adolescence to womanhood
-Continual reminder of female reproductive potential and role
-Customs take negative forms (taboos)
--No sex, cant cook or touch food, cant visit sacred place or attend ritual, can't touch men's items, segregate self from rest of family
--Effect: such taboos "set menstruating women apart from the rest of their society, marking them as impure and polluting."
**
Taboos
-Established by men
-Backed by supernatural forces
-belief that menstruating woman's contact w/alter brings calamity.
-Internalized and accepted by women until released from belief (e.g., religious conversion).
theory
has already undergone extensive testing
aust.. bahrelghazali
had a fragmentary jaw
Chimpanzees
Found in Equatorial Africa Knuckle-walking, brachiation, sometimes bipedal Less sexually dimorphic Omnivores, organized hunts: M and F group hunting effort Small - large mammals Share meat
etic
describes and analyzes culture according to principles and theories drawn from western scientific tradition
Naturalizing Discourses
-deliberate representation of particular identities (like gender) as if they were result of biology or nature, rather than historical or culture
-these deliberate naturalization makes identities appear as natural and unchangeable
city
City vs. Territorial - Shang
Gravettian
Second major Upper Paleolithic achaeological period in Europe
sex
biological differences between the vast majority of men and women
3 aspects of social stratification
-rank-class-caste
language
the unique system of communication used by the human species
Racism
Discrimination against an ethnic group assumed of have a biological basis
Sedentism
living in permenant year round contects.
[9/17/2010 10:45 AM] Facts about primates:
...
emic approach
native oriented, investigates how local people think and how they explain beliefs, practices etc., used in most classic ethnographies
Radical Pluralism
no similarities, culturally nor structurally; gov't protects dominant group, ethnic hierarchy (Spanish v. Indeginous Mexicans)
Religion
Beliefs and practices associated with the supernatural
What was the first writing called?
Cuneiform
empty vessel fallacy
ignoring preexisting cultural knowledge and behavior while attempting to conduct interventions
disease
an etic of scientifically identified health threat caused by a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasite, or other pathogen
Board fence
Like next door neighbor's fence
Marriage
 Socially approved sexual and economic union
 The idea is that it is permanent
 Reciprocal rights and obligations
stereotypes
Fixed ideas (often unfavorable) about what members of a group are like; members of the group will "act as they are supposed to act" according to their particular group
*True
Both Foragers and Pastoralism do marginal Environment? True or False
extended family
family consisting of parents, children, and other relatives living in the same residence
General Reciprocity
Principle that characterizes exchanges between closely related individuals. As social distance increases, reciprocity becomes balanced and finally negative
Periphery
weakest structural position in the world system
karyotype
The complete chromosomal complement of an individual; usually based on a photograph of the chromosomes visualized under the microscope
pastoralism
a food-getting strategy that depends on the care of domesticated herd animals
The presence of acknowledged differences in social status, political influence, and wealth among the people within a society
Social stratification
partial replacement
Modern African populations interbred with premodern populations in Asia & Europe
Ethnocentrism-
Tendency to see, interpret, and judge other cultures based on the values of one's own culture.
___- presentation of goods by the bride's kin to the family of the groom or to the couple
dowry
H neanderthalensis
lived 125-30kya, adapted to colder climates in Europe, some believe they evolved from H Hidelbergensis also found in Europe, bigger brains than AMH; cared for sick and invalid, buried their dead
Polyandry
rare. One woman, more then one man.
Catarrhini
old world monkeys, apes and homonids; live variety of places: rain forest, savannah, desert
Functionalism
View that cultural traits have social functions that contribute to the smooth operations of the whole society
Embodiment
giving concrete form to an abstract concept
fetish
religious item that an individual give significant meaning to
Quran
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Four Reactions to Repressive Change
--Syncretism, Revitalization movements, Rebellion, Revolution.
Clan
A named unilineal descent group, some of whose members are unable to trace how they are related but still believe themselves to be kinfolk
Brian Haden
came up with aggrandizer hypothesis that said a surplus in food from hunter/gatherer society, that aggrandizers take control and use surplus to increase social status, and domesticate in order to gain control over surplus
genealogical method
the ethnographic method of recording info about kinship relationships using symbols and diagrams
passive solar system
low technology, often ancient, techniques of capturing the sun's energy
Dendrochronology
Method of absolute dating , also called tree-ring dating, that is based on the study and comparison of patterns of tree-ring growth.
Shamanistic Cults
Cults in which certain individuals (shamans) have relationships with supernatural powers that ordinary people lack
Creole language
a language directly descended from pidgin, but possssing its own native speakers and involving linguistic expansion and elaboration
True or False
Sickle Cell Anemia and AIDS related research have demonstrated the utility of Darwin's Theory of Evolution
TRUE
Harappa
Indus River region: 1st cotton growth for cloth
Mutation
any novel genetic change that may affect both genes and chromosomes
reinterpretation
a culture change process involving the borrowing and t
homeobox genes
an evolutionary ancient family of regulatory genes that directs the development of the overall body plan and the segmentation of body tissues
Phonemics
Study of smallest significant units of sound
Plesiadapiforms
(Plesiadapis)
 
Primate like mammal from the paleocene epoch


small brain
long narrow snout
spiky teeth
no postorbital bar
diastema
claws not nails
imagined community
Proposed by Benedict Anderson in 1983
 
 
"It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members

The nation is imagined as limited because even the largest of them has finite, if elastic boundaries, beyond which lie other nations.

 
questionnaire
interview method that has a fixed number of questions and limited answer choices
lengthen
to make longer; make greater in length.
Nation
A group of people believed to share the same history, culture, language and/or physical substance.
gumnivore
they eat the sap of trees and gum
intensive agriculture
a form of agriculture that involves the use of draft animals or tractors, plows, and often some form of irrigation
division of labor
splitting a production process across multiple workers, each performing a different task
Relative age
A kinship system that uses this principle has different kinship terms for one's older and one's younger brother, for example
Sickle-cell Anemia
Blood disorder that affects the shape of redblood cells (Hemoglobin)
11,000 B.P
drier climate, zone of abundant wild grains shrank. Created vertical economy
Sexual Behavior
Every aspect of human sexual activity is patterned by culture & influenced by learning.
gracile australopithecines
Found only in south africa, aka australopithecus africanus - TAUNG BABY by Robert Dart, small skulls and jutting out faces
morpheme
smallest unit of sound that has its own meaning
holism
a way of looking at ideas and behaviors as interrelated elements best understood when seen in a broader context
Linguistic anthropology
the study of language and it's relationship to culture.
Cave painting techniques
Brush paint, finger paint, stamp, stencil, bas-relief, engrave, sculpt, perspective
societies that depend on ___ are not going to have large populations, b/c there isn't enough to go around
foraging
La Venta
Formative Olmec site (900-400 BCE) w/ colossal heads, greenstone figure and offerings, and altars. Locsted along gulf coast.
manioc
Cassava, a starchy edible root crop of the tropics.
Industrialism
An economic and social system based on the development of large-scale industries and marked by the production of large quantities of inexpensive manufactured goods and the concentration of employment in urban factories.
redistribution
A system of exchange in which wealth is reallocated.
synchronic
in time, one place to other, same time
political economy
the web of interrelated economic and power relations in society
tacit
makes up part of what we're unaware of, a level of unconsciousness that is still a taught practice
A social group consisting of people of similar age, have a common identity, and together pass through a series of age related statuses
Endogamy
Lower Paleolithic
first part of the old stone age spanning from about 200,00 or 250,00 to 2.6 million years
Participant Observation
Taking part in the events one is observing
A. afarensis; First Family
200 skeletal fragments, located in what would have been lake shore & river basin deposits. All found together, no apparent disturbances. Buried and preserved in a sudden flood.
intra generational
change in social status over a single lifetime.
evolution
changes in the genetic make up of a population over generations
social controls
diverse ways in which the behaviors of the members of a society are constrained into socially approved channels
idea that societal division is natural and right. as a result, members of the lower working classes come to think their position is natural and there is nothing they can/should do about it.
ideology of class
zygomatic arches
- cheekbone flared to make room for larger jaw muscles
factors that affect patterns of sexual/gender division
fertility maintenance (strenuous tasks), reproductive roles, physical strength, child care compatibility
Multiplicity of disparative plains of meaning
Lots of different interpretations
Globalization of production
Process in which companies move their production facilities to cut costs and be more competitive.
The molecule that, in two forms, translates and transcribes the genetic code into proteins
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
What are some reasons for Polygyny
Men marrying later than women
infertile wife
Inuit seal hunting partners
They rely heavily on meat (mainly seals). When a boy is born, parents arrange for him to have seal hunting partners when he is older. One boy may have as many as 5-15 partners. Basically, if one of your partners gets a seal and you don't, they will give you a piece of their seal. And if later you get a seal you will give them the same part of the seal that they gave you. This keeps the distribution of food almost equal throughout the Inuit.
society
is a member of a group or people who share a culture
Mode of consumption
The dominant pattern in a culture of using things up or spending resources in order to satisfy demand
Theory of Natural Selection
explains how a species changes over time;
observations that supported his theories on the Galapagos Islands
support for collective violence: defense
Yanomamo- protect not just resources, but women and children. men must be fierce in protecting their resources from other villages. men strive to acquire females from others which encourages waiteri (ferocity)
What is a benefit to exogamy?
it creates a wider social network
Tone Languages
A pitch or tone is said with a word (changes meaning of word)
What vertebral features are related to bipedalism?
The vertebral column and skull:
Vertebrae
Foramen magnum
Nuchal plane
Rise of States Hypothesis: Prime Mover "The Classic"
domestication and sedentism gives people free time and surplus needed to develop states
What type of environment did most hominids live in?
Mainly savannas but sometimes near woodlands
V. Yoga and Your Energetic Body.
The spinal column is part of our physical body, while the sushumna is the 'energetic' equivalent.
a. Seven Chakras. Chakras -energy centers.
In the medieval period, the system by which scholars classified the living animals by ranking them from the simplest at the bottom to the most complex at the top.
Ladder of life (Chain of being)
Why do a majority of societies permit, or at least tacitly accept premartial mating?
it is seen as a preparation for marriage
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