Anthropology Exam 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Naïve Realism
residential unit
Economy and Government
urbanized, state-level society
muslim sufi ritual
Homo neandertalensis
-very heavily built
-europe, asia, middle east, n. africa
Belief in Mana
Power, authority
new Guinean domesticated plant
zygomatic arches
a cheek bone
evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies, evolution on the smallest scale—a generation-to-generation change in the frequencies of alleles within a population.
- legally/socially sanctioned pair bond
- regulated by laws, rules, customs, beliefs
- procreation/sex, division of labor, economics, status, companionship
different symbol-based patterns and traditions associated with particular groups in the same complex society
testable statement that potentially explains a specific phenomena observed in the natural world
consanguineal kin
biologically related relatives, commonly referred to as blood relatives
Bushman people studied by Diamond
hunter gatherers (foraging) are typically ___. they move around in small bands in typically the same kinship
hermaphrodites. both ovarian and testicular tissue.
you will see mediation involved
- Physiological Trait
- Developed across generations
- Environment can affect expression
- Ex. Skin Color
the theory that explains economic development in terms of the inherent sociocultural differences between the rich and the poor
multiple male mates for one female
artifact analysis types
style and type analysis
Allele frequencies
calculate the expected genotype frequencies
requires fieldwork to collect data, descriptive, group/community
gene drift
random effects on small populations
health-care systems
consist of beliefs, customs, specialists, and techniques aimed at ensuring health and at preventing, diagnosing, and curing illness.
900 cc
brain size of Homo erectus
Genealogical method
Procedures by which ethnographers discover and record connections of kinship, descent, and marriage, using diagrams and symbols.
Trace descent through only one side
League of united Latin American Citizens
Set 1
Basal Hominids- small brains, bipedalism, primative dentition
include visual arts, literature, and performance arts
Language and symbolic actions filter our view of the world
A picture or drawing representing words or ideas
The study of cross-cultural health systems.
- similarities b/w organisms based strictly on common evo descent
gibbons, siamangs
2 types of lesser apes
modern synthesis
mutation, the production, and distribution of variation and natural selection are both at work (influence of environment

Goods whose value comes from human labor, which is invested in their very form
Communication about the process of communication itself.
Provides information about the relationship between communicative partners.
a cultural stage marked by established farming.
involve one segment of one chromosome breaking off and attaching to another chromosome
policy aimed at seizing and ruling foreign territory and peoples
Mendelian Genetics
Studies ways that chromosomes transmit genes across generations
Warm-blooded (can survive in a variety of environments)
Stratified societies
people are hierarchically divided and ranked into social strata and do not share equally in basic resources that support survival, influence and prestige
Intensive Agriculture
Being permanently linked to the land.
The residence practice of living with or near the husband's family after marriage.
a reliance on domesticated animals as the primary means of subsistence beginning
Sectorial P3
1st premolar (mandibular)-It is the first premolar in the mandible. Usually it is elongated and will have posterior cusp and a sloping biting surface. Seen in canines
The chemical responsible for dark skin pigmentation
Problem with Innatist
There is no universal grammar
social darwinism
interprets conquest of an inferior society by a superior one as the result of the action of natural law, not only moral but interpretive
Paintings on rocks; 99% of the depictions at the Pyrenees
where the ideas and practices of western European culture eventually displaced many of the ideas and practices of the indigenous cultures of the colonies (pg. 182)
large ancient city of the Indus civilization, located in present-day Pakistan
What is a solitary structure?
individuals live alone
The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
the ability to exercise one's will over others
the way we transmit culture through symbols that seem natural once learned. serves to condens meaning and unify diverse meanings and merge knowlege and emotion and influence behavior
a unilineal descent group (matri or patri) whose members trace their descent to a common ancestor
economic foundation of a society; the mode of subsistence
biological anthropology
the study of human biological variation in time and space;includes evolution, genetics,growth and development,and primatology
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production. where cellular respiration occurs.
generic term to describe new world monkeys
Vocabulary; all the morphemes in a language and their meanings
to play our roles effectively, we need to be taught the proper behavior. we learn this from education.
blood mixed with milk goes to
everyone else
Cultural text
A collection of symbols or words. Revealed a character of it's own.
Modes of Production
A way of organizing production.
A specific set of social relations that organizes labor.
Anthropology & Colonialism
gov't sends anthropologists to get info
Tool use (Simple flakes at 2.5 MYA; spears at 1.5 MYA; much more efficiency at 200,000 YA and what is termed the 'creative explosion' at 50,000 YA)
the process by which more and more people come to live in cities
Homo Habilis Traits
2.3- 1.6 mya
Louis and Mary Leakey
some facial prognathism
reduced browridge
increased cranial capacity
domestic violence
violence that occurs in homes, in nuclear family settings
cultural relativism
the attitude taht customs land beliefs in a particular culure should not be judged by teh standareds of another
Only source of new variation in a species. It is a change in one or more DNA bases
the complete and total domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time.
Bride service
Designated period of time where the groom works for the bride's family.
Cultural Loss
Wagons used in northern Africa and southwest Asia prior to 1, 500 years ago replace by camels.
Grinding Gear
Clear evidence of the importance of Plants Increases Palatability and Nutrition of Plant Foods Outer shells of seeds must be broken for digestibility Makes some food more edible Makes small animals more edible (paste) Enables Mass Storage
What are 2 types of worldviews?
Naturalistic and Western/Modern
Balanced polymorphism
The ability of natural selection to maintain stable frequencies of at least two phenotypes.
Linguistic Divergence
Development of different lang from one lang.
New World Monkeys
Broad habitat range, most quadrupedal; small body size, 3 premolars, arboreal
Define Cultural Relativism
An approach in anthropology that stresses the importance of analyzing a culture in terms of that culture, rather than in terms of the anthropologist's culture. (This does not mean, however, that all cultural behavior must be condoned.)
molecular anthropology
The anthropological study of genes and genetic relationships is known as ________ .
swinging by the arms from branch to branch
religious pluralism is
a condition in which incoming religions and local religions coexist as separate traditions
commodity fetishism
the belief that value inheres in commodities instead of being added to them through labor. This is the root of Marx's critique relating to conditions surrounding fetishism—that capitalists "fetishize" commodities, believing that they contain value, and the effects of labor are misunderstood.
Group of people with same ideas; a large aggregate of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular country or territory;
Cultural anthropology
A look beyond the world of everyday experiences to discover the patterns and meanings that lie behind that world.
was named after the site at st acheaul france
culture affects behavior
During his artic fieldwork what does Boas learn about the relationship between culture and behavior?
mythical ancestor
a ficitive kin, that multiple claim to be realted to, and example is the irish who claim to be decedents from som god...
elite level, Ubaid pottery
7000-6000 B.P, southern Iraq, advanced chiefdoms and maybe earliest states in southern Mesopotamia
Liminality (Transition)
rite of passage: in college life in US: dependent of parents financially, but not entirely
daughter isotope
the isotope produces as a result of radioactive decay or parents isotope
___ ___- an ecobomic system in which goods and services are bought and sold at money price determined primarily by supply and demand
market exchange
the moving of people from one group to another area when their population begins to increase and food or other resources become scarce.
a male who took on a female role usually as a lover for one of the braves it is common among the native Americans, sticks around and takes care of house hold like women
religious syncretism
merging of elements of two or more religions traditions to produce a new religion; hiding beliefs of one behind the other
Louis Henry Morgan
1818-1881. He studying the culture of the Iroquois and he lived with them. He read Darwin and became fascinated with the evolution of humans and cultural diversity. He wanted to know if culture was an evolutionary scheme. Uni-linear anthropology. He argued tht alll human societies evolved through stages of savage, barbarianism, and civilization. They all have increasingly more complex modes of production. As the modes became more complex, so did the human society.
how many chromosomes are in humans?
46 chromosomes; 23 pairs
rite of passage
ritual that marks an important stat in an indiv's life cycle (birth, marriage & death)
Writing System
A set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way.
Darwin's Model for bipedalism
bipedalism is seen as the adaptation resulting when a quadrupedal ape is forced to assume a terrestrial adaptation. Bipedalism occurred for hunting so that people could carry weapons.
III. Species and Populations
a. Species - a reproductive community of populations that occupies a specific niche in nature.
b. Population - Groups of a particular species that are separated and isolated from one another. The key here is separation. Evolution happens at the population level, not at the individual level.
sexual selection
--- --- leads to an increase in the frequency of traits that lead to greater success in acquiring mates
Infants related to self by __ and mothers by __
1.0 and .5
anthropological perspective on religion:
all the same and all answer the questions the same on life. dont judge religions, but compare them. none are better than another.
Franz Boas: Primitive Art (1927)
book drawing on non-western art to critique cultural evolutionism and expound cultural relativism.
What is allele frequency?
The percent of alleles at a locus within a population.
four year old skeleton of Neanderthal
-lower jaw very projecting chin area (modern human)
-lower legs very short for individual
-24 and a half thousand years old- long after last of Neanderthals had died
-showed mating and hybrid children
Painting Les demoiselles d' avignon
picasso loves women and he was also afriad of sexual diseases
"Darwin's Nightmare" (What did the filmmaker mean?)
The survival of the fittest to the extreme. The perch has wiped out all of the other species.
The Cows of Dolo Ken Paye: Resolving Conflict Among the Kpelle: Film
In Liberia, there is tension b/t poor farmers who have to fence their fields against cattle and the rich cattle owners. Dolo was chief, some men attacked one of his blls that had been ruining their gardens. They were tried and fined for it. Bribing, Hot knife
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