Anthropology Exam 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Reflexive turn:
ancestors; forefathers.
Sin begins...
in infancy
relatives by marriage
mammals having a placenta
rediscovered uniformitarianism and calculated the age of the earth in the millions of years
smallest unit or meaning
marriage outside the group
-hunters & gathers-sedentary-circular homes-possibly the first builders of a Neolithic settlement
borrowing between cultures either directly or indirectly or through intermediaries. Indirect: culture C sees culture B using something but they actually got it from someone else. Direct: culture A sees culture b doing something salsa and uses that.
When societies have permanent hierarchies
Scotts Act
1888, Further Restrictions
Reentry prohibited- so if a Chinese American returned to China they where not allowed to come back
No Wives from China- Not allowed to bring wife with them
Chinese Americans where not allowed to Marry White Women
Permanent Bachelors
International culture
Extends beyond national boundaries.
Natural Selection
acts on individual phenotype
Archaeological Anthropology
Reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains. The study of human behavior through material remains.
Zhou dynasty
3rd chinese dynasty, iron
form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state; kin-based with differential access ro resources and a permanent political structure
earliest recognized hominin genus, Ethiopia
capable of being conceived; imaginable.
degenerative changes of joints caused by variety of factors, especially physical activity and mechanical stress
owners of the means of production
family of mostly Eocene primates, probably ancestral to all strepsirhines.
comparitive perspective
compares biological and cultural variation between all human groups
Nation State
A politically bounded population within a clearly defined territory and centralized leadership
Absolute dating technique which counts tree rings to determine the age of a tree up to 11,000 years
Recent primate suborder
strepsirhines, haplorhines. Difference lies with the animal, tarsier
small blood vessels between the terminal ends of arteries and the veins
Ascribed Identity
Identity you are born with
membership determined by a combination of birth and achievement, broadly determined by occupation and wealth
study of organisms interaction with the enviornment and eachother
a system, or funtioning whole, composed of both the natural environment and all the organisms living within it
evolution is an agreed upon theory
The underlying rules that generate one's speech
the specialization in linguistics that focuses on grammatical structure of language
the process of learing a culture
Charles Darwin
Natural Selection
Survival of the fittest
Comparative discipline
must consider similarities and differences in as wide a range of human societies as possible before generalizing what it means to be human
All organic materials have been replaced by hard minerals.
alexanders baumgartner
greek word as "tene (teckne)" meaning "well done"-
1. juaida- mangbetu harp - instrument is regarded as person. to play is, the musician must place the base of the harp in his lap where the face on the harp opposes the musician. The two are said to be working "hang in hang" or "in convert as a duet" as to speak
the simplest or beginning aspects of culture as seen in nonhuman primates.
Lecture 27—The Inca: A New World Empire
Bilateral society
A group that emphasizes both matrilineal and patrilineal descent in its organization of subgroups
cell that results from a sperm's fertilization of an ovum.
the means by which human groups convert environmental resources to human use
Comparative Perspective
All forms of diversity, compares biological and cultural variation between human groups.
culture which you belong is superior to every other culture
Social stratification
common and powerful structuring force in many of the world's societies. classification of people based on economic conditions.
Study of disease and injury in skeletons from archaeological sites.
based on distant past before humans developed writing
Lewis morgan
proposed the unilineal theory that societies evolve through stages of savagery, barbarism, and civilization
A major division of living organisms, including Animalia, Planti, Fungi, Protista and Monera.
earliest form of religion; belief in spiritual beings
emergent infectious disease
newly identified infectious disease that has recently evolved
a situation in which the individual shares personal thoughts and feelings without addressing anyone else in the instance.
There is no slaver in the US
Paiute Prophet believed in a major cataclysm that would swallow all the whites.
cultural relativism 2
founding principle on which anthropology can function
One of the best-documented cases of natural selection in humans is the relationship between malaria and hemogoblin
Role of male as primary authority, males hold authority over women, children and property
In the Americas, the Mesolithic was called the _____.
macro evolution
how societies have changed through various stages of complexity- ex: archaic state-
Organic solidarity
social cohesion based on the dependence individuals have on each others due to division of labor increases; survival of society depends on their reliance on each other to perform their specific task
Psychologized individualism
stressing the cultivation of emotions as the key to undercovering one’s identity
A chemical substance secreted by an animal that conveys information and stimulates behavior responses
Where do the Kaluli live?
Papua new guinea
quantum evolution
evolution in response to a single radical change in environment
Black English Vernacular
a rule-governed dialect of American english with roots in southern English; BEV is spoken by African American youth and adults
anthropologist (2)
study the way human beings perceive, think and behave in many different parts of the world
Hand hammer
A technique of stone tool manufacture where one stone is used to knock flakes from another stone. Flakes produced through hard hammer percussion are usually large and erode.
homo habilis
handyman. the first fossil members of the genus homo "human" appearing 2.5 million years ago with the larger brains and smaller faces than australopithcines
genus of ape, later Miocen, found in Europe. thin tooth enamel, pointed molar-suspes, similar to fruit eater chimpanzee
Linguistic Relativity
The idea that distinctions encoded in one language are unique to that language.
segments of DNA that codes for a protein
lived among the Trobriand Islanders in the southwest Pacific, used "participant observer" techniques to collect data about Trobriand behavior, wrote the book entitled "The Sexual Life of Savages".
Bronislaw Malinowski:
John Lightfoot
Determined that the Earth was created on Sunday October 23 4004 BC at 9:00 am.
Nuclear Family
consist of a father, mother, and children (biological or adopted)
effects on relationships with others
phil 2, james 4
Age Set
A formally established group of people born during a certain time span who move through the series of age grade categories together
generalized reciprocity
when there is sharing without concrete expectation to get something back in a group. in our society - really only share with people who are close to them
Forced Labor
Often used in colonized zones, forcing a subculture to work for little or nothing.
In the second stage of trance, the process the brain uses when trying to "make sense" of entopic images.
an emic condition of poor health felt by individual
The people that the Bissu believe are helpers of ALlah
Maladaptive Culture
When an adaptation to the environment harms the individual.
a unit of cultural ideas, symbols or practices, which can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals or other imitable phenomena.
Social, smarter
BLANK models focus on the fact that life in a social group can be difficult and complicated. Individuals in a social group face competition, conflict, affiliation, cooperation, nepotism, and reciprocity. If you live in a social group, you need to remember who is who, what interactions have occurred, and deal with complicated social dealings. The larger the group, the more individuals to keep track of, so the expectation would be that primates in larger social groups would be BLANKER than those in smaller social groups.
adaptive advantage of agriculture
cultivation using land and labor continuously and intensively; long-term yield is greater and more dependable and allow for denser populations
Three Theories Related to Gender Roles
1. compatibility- with-child-care theory: Women's tasks tend to be those that are compatible with child care. For instance, lactation and pregnancy also tends to preclude the possible of women being the primary hunters in foraging societies.
2. Economy-of-effort theory: It is more advantageous in terms of expendable energy for one gender to perform a set of tasks that are related in some manner.
3. Expendability theory: Men will do more dangerous tasks and go to war because they are more expendable in terms that the loss of men is less disadvantageous reproductively than the loss of women.
environmental anthropology
takes an active role in examining the realtionships between humans and their environment across space and time "domain of application"
Dos Pilas
List the super powers of the late Classic times on the Mayan political landscape.
Secondary Elaboration
Evans Pritchard said it was a process through which you rationalize; if ritual didn't work, there must've been a problem with the process
Gender identity
roles you take, how you act, how people treat you; feminine, masculine, and third genders
qualitative research
A type of research that refers to in-depth study using face-to-face or observation techniques to collect data from people in their natural settings.
Dominant (alleles)
an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
vacant center pattern
The model that sees the Hopewell earthworks as the empty core of a dispersed settlement system
Multiregional model
A theory that seeks to explain the transition from Homo erectus to homo sapiens by arguing that different populations of Homo sapiens are descendant from different populations of Homo erectus.
Q: Term for the processes that are making nations and people increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent?
A: Enculturation
Othering (social significance)
making others feel bad to make yourself feel good;
African replacement model
the H erectus that stayed in Africa evolved into H sapiens; left Africa and outcompeted the H erectus in Asia and Europe; two major migrations out of Africa; single origins hypothesis, earliest fossils of modern humans will be found onlt in Africa; no intermixing or interbreeding of modern humans and other species; to date the greatest genetic diversity is in Africa
gendered division of labor
men do less subsistence work than women do
Johann Blumenbach
one of the first to explore the study of mankind as an aspect of natural history, whose teachings in comparative anatomy were applied to classification of what he called human races, of which he determined five. caucasian, mongolian (yellow), malayan (brown), negroid (black), american (red) did this based on the shapes of crania he collected these were static (did not change overtime)
Define culture according to Boyd
Culture is information acquired by individuals through social learning that leads to regular behavioral patterns.
A property of culture is that it is cumulative.
It is possible to build more and more complex culture on top of a simpler foundation.
Corporate groups
a collection of humans who act and to an extent think as a single "body" in terms of such practical activities as production, distribution, consumption, ownership, decision-making, residence, inheritance, and ultimately "indentity" or "destiny"

Do you
think that mummies (either desiccated or frozen ones) from Egypt and South
America should be exhibited
and studied? 

is now known about how and why the earliest forms of writing came into
Heterogeneous societies
like our own with a lot of ways of making a living will have more heterogeneous personalities
Serial Monogamy
A marriage form in which a man or a woman marries or lives with a series of partners in succession
Autosomal dominant disease
A disease that is caused by a dominant allele, only one copy needs to be inherited from either parent for the disease to develop
Bridal Wealth (bride service)
A groom or his family are going to give goods or money to the family of the bride's family
biomedical medicine is surpassed by tribal medicine because...
although there are many medicines made in the wild, thousand of effective drugs are available today over the counter.
VII. Evidence of 'Modern' Behaviors in Neandertals
a. May have been building shelter
b. Burial for the dead
i. Pollen found in burials. High concentrations of certain flowers indicate flowers on the grave.
c. Evidence of social care; injured Neandertals weren't left to die
d. Evidence of early clothes
What is one warning about first and last appearances in the fossil record
That may not represent a full lineage.
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