anthropology final 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
work based
tree people
Consanguieal Relative
"blood" relative
Bonobo sex
alliance formation
tension reduction
aggression reduction
Esteem, respect, or approval
ethnic group
different because language,religion,geography,history,ancestry, or physical
study of ancient diseases
theoretical represents of sound
Voice quality
our: individualisticsimpler: competition, aggressiveness, raspy
Similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor.
Studying relationships between humans and primates giving insight into behavior and evolutionary relationships
Temporal context, abstract thought, ability to displace oneself from the present to project one's thoughts
Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie fallow for varying lengths of time
Japanese declared ineligible for citizenship during this year
movement after modernism in architecture ; now much wider
taxanomic division superfamily within the Old World primates including gibbons, siamangs, orangutans, gorillas, chimapnzees, bonobos, and humans
examines, interprets, analyzes, and compares the results of ethnography
physical anthropology
Same as biological anthropology
come together (african american groups)
Barrel Model
• Adaption
• Superstructure
• Social structure
• Infrastructure
rounded end of a long bone
Holistic Perspective
A fundamental principle of anthropology: that the various parts of human culture and biology must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their connections and interdependence.
Provides energy for cellular functions by extracting energy from the nutrients and oxygen that the cell absorbs.
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
unlineal decent group based on stipulated decent
Firsthand, personal study of local cultural settings. Extended period of time in a given society or community.
Founder:Bronislaw Malinowski
-Holistic approach-attempt to understand the totality of a particular culture.
Sexual selection
natural selection for mating success
linguist who suggested that children have an innate capacity for language acquisition; distinguished between the surface structure and deep structure of a sentence; studied transformational rules that could be used to transform one sentence into another
Individual who enjoys a special relationship with the divine/supernatural an is endowed with supernatural powers. Uses powers on behalf of others, either as a public service or in exchange for fees
Incest Taboo
Prohibits sexual relations between close relatives.
Finding Sites
Pedestrian surveys; Aerial surveys; Geophysical methods; Excavations; Word of mouth; Documentary sources
independence training
Child-rearing practices that promote independence, self-reliance, and personal achievement on the part of the child.
Alternate forms of a single gene
Thomas Malthus
Father of Demography. Population increased faster than food supply thus many suffer in poverty, and conditions of famine, war disease to offset lack of food.
ancient Greece/ Rome many deities. start to personify supernatural beings and attach to beings
Implications of European Policy
Loss of flexibility
Durkheims View on religion
society is God
- Foreman magnum moved central
- Opposable toe went away
- Pelvis broadened out - particularly women
- Femers lengthened and came into angle to help support pelvis
- Decrease in prognathicism
- Decrease in sagittal crest
- Increase cranial capacity
Structured Interview
a quantitative research method commonly employed in survey research. The aim of this approach is to ensure that each interview is presented with exactly the same questions in the same order.
social stratification
societies in which people have differential access to valued resources (land+property), social prestige, wealth, and political power
looking at the other cultures through your culture lense
o Ethically centered
o Understanding what other people using your own norms
o Misinterpreting behavior - values beliefs
o To think of your own culture is better / superior
o Cultural absolute
physical/biological anthropology
studies human biological diversity in time and space- evolution
Edward Tylor
created the famous definition of culture. Armchair Anthropologist. Cultural Evolution representative. levels of civilization. Wanted to make the study of culture scientific. 1832-1917
Natural Selection
Process through which organisms with certain features that enable them to adapt to the environment are able to survive and readily reproduce
a ranked group, determined by birth, often linked to a particular occupation and to South Asian cultures
Population Pressure
Hunter-gatherer isn't that bad, unless food shrinks or population grows. Agriculture is more intensive.
A DETAILED description of a particular culture.
Primarily based on fieldwork.
a unilineal descent group composed of a number of clans whose members feel themselves to be closely related
*Particular Traits
Those Unique to certain cultural traditions.
-less and less common due to globalization
(Pork BBQ w/mustard in S. Carolina, regional food)
patterned differently in different locations (McDonalds, M-TV)
Marriage into a social class or cultural group that is LOWER than the one born into.
sexual orientation
a person's habitual sexual attraction to, and activities with persons of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both sexes (bisexuality)
In music, scale systems and their modifications
Gender Stereotypes
Oversimplified but strongly held idea about the characteristics of males and females.
Clovis Police
Clovis authorities agree that Monte Verde is real and appears to pre-date North American Clovis
Encephalization Quotient
Cranial capacity to body weight ration. Cranial capacity/[(0.12) x (body weight, grams)^(2/3)]
process of Natural Selection
1) variation
2) differential reproduction (survivability)
3) heritability
Papa New Guinea; women are separated when on their period (unclean), patrilineal
having two copies of the same allele
Middle Paleolithic
Cultural period that began about 200,000 ya and ended around 30,000-40,000 years ago. Roughly the same period in sub-Saharan Africa is called the Middle Stone Age.
the practice or condition of being married to more than one wife at the same time
A sugar that is the primary constituent of fresh milk.
cultural features
nonportable remnants from the past, such as house walls or ditches.
noted the prevalence of poor health and unusually high rates of early mortality. 20 years younger life expectancy for indigenous people versus the rest of south america
Around what year did agriculture start?
8,000 BC
Here, the period after birth during which offspring require the care of adults to survive
identification with an ethnic group & exclusion from certain other groups b/c of this affiliation
-Made of up 9 islands
-Long history of colonization
-Held approximately 600 inhabitants during Mead's visit
emic view
an insiders view that emphasizes what participants consider meaningful and their reasons behind why something is important also known as the participants perspective
what makes us human
culture, language, hands, bipedal, large brains
Common-Interest Associations
Associations that result from an act of joining based on sharing particular activities, objectives, values, or beliefs
group of people related by blood or marriage
an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
the bones of your cranium are held together by
South African Caves
Sites of important fossil evidence about the early stages of hominin evolution, fossils formed in sediments (i.e. limestone rocks)
regulation of resources
how natural recourses are controlled and allocated
refers to members of a species that produce offspring
Reasons for marriage
pair bonding, sexual division of labor, common ban on incest, constrains and limits male behavior and avoid conflict, continuity of clans, socialization of children, way to regulate inheritance rights, minimizes sexual competition
theory of social hierarchy that says it is necessary for the smooth functioning of society. as society grows, more hierarchy is needed to make infrastructure and support society. everyone has their own role, of some complexity
integrative theory
The smallest units of sound that carry a meaning in language. They are distinct from phonemes, which can alter meaning but have no meaning by themselves
yes, kings, priests, nobles
Division of Power? - Shang
market exchange
exchange of goods where supplies of food regularly exceed the need of food producers. There are many labor specialists who need what others have to offer for food.
bride wealth
where wealth is giving from groom's family to the wifes family
The last major culture of the European Upper Paleolithic period (about 18,000 - 12,000 years ago); named after the rockshelter La Madaleine, in southwestern France. Artisans crafted intricately carved tools of reindeer bone and antler; this was also the period during which Upper Paleolithic cave art in France and Spain reached its zenith.
Matrilineal Descent
unilineal descent rule in which people join the mother's group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life
an organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock, especially offspring produced by breeding plants or animals of different varieties or breeds or species; "a mule is a cross between a horse and a donkey"
anthropology professional organizations have addressed such questions by
establishing codes of ethics and ethics committees such as the code of ethics of the AAA
what is RNA
single stranded nucleic acid that performs critical functions during proten synthesis, comes in three forms
archaeology anthropology
artifacts, look for what people who are no longer around left behind
a declaration to a god to attest to the truth of what a person says
cultivation: horticulture & agriculture
a primary reliance on domesticated plants to meet subsistence needs
Population Regulation
In the case of the Yanomamo, the population is growing fast for horticulturalists. Infanticide is common - females more often.
What is participant observation?
Learning a people's culture through social participation & personal observation.
Includes: interviews and discussion with individual members of the group.
Seperates Humans from Apes
Culture, Brain Size, Bipedality. These 3 did not happen at same time
Carl Swisher
idea that h. erectus went into Java around 1.8-1.6 mya instead of 1 mya
Participant observation
How much does the presence of the anthropologist affect the groups studied?
Matrilocal Residence
A residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the wife's mother's place of residence
VII. Homo erectus
a. This is the first species subsequent to Homo habilis. Evidence of bipedalism.
b. 1.8 MYA - 50,000 MYA
c. Africa, W. Asia, Java
i. Geographic variation in phenotype. Broad geological and phenotypical distribution.
ii. African form is sometimes called Homo ergaster
mountaintop removal mining
literally takes the tops of eastern mountains and ridges to get at the underlying coal
food foraging
is the oldest most universal type of human adaptation involves geographically mobility which began around 8000 B.C. and it consists of small group, carrying capactiy, egalitarian populations with few possesions
cargo system
a ritual system common in Central and South America in which wealthy people are required to hold a series of costly ceremonial offices
Arranged Marriage
Need to marry someone from same cast (or above). No divorce. "Much too important decision for the young". Economic.
Physiological adaptation (acclimatization)
a systematic response in order to keep homeostasis
Disease of Poverty
A disease that could be prevented if proper medical access were available
Ex: Tuberculosis
Who was Ruth Benedict?
A student of Boas
each element of culture and how it is "configuiationalism" how each is different.
Out of Africa=RAO
-AMHS evolve in Africa and then spread to Europe and Asia
Why did salmon specialization work so
effectively as a staple subsistence
Alternatives available
Age grade
a category of people of the same sex and approx. the same age who share a set of duties and privileges
"Dead Birds" - Please describe the Dani People of New Guinea in terms of type of society and territoriality.
-Expressed through fighting and a scrimmage line.
Asian Homo erectus characteristics (5)
1. Smaller face and jaw
2. less pronounced brow ridge
3. long legs and short arms
4. increasing brain size
5. decreasing teeth size
Solar Radiation - skin pigmentaion
melanin - protection- need for vitamin d made lighter skin
What is the SOCIAL STRUCTURE of the barrel model of culture?
Rule-governed relationships that hold members of a society together
These include:
Households, families, associations, and power relations (including politics)
What are the two functions that surround the rites of death?
Seperation of spirit and and realization among the survival
What is some evidence that childcare constraints explain why women in hunter-gatherer societies gather rather than hunt?
Women nursing gather about 1/3 less food than women who are not nursing can gather-->the care of small children is a huge impact on labor
XII. Response to Altitude. Té de coca (cocaine tea helps to increase ventilation rates)
a. Oxygen saturation in blood drops
b. Initial Response:
i. Increased ventilation rate & depth, heart rate, and blood pressure
c. Several weeks:
i. Increased red blood cell production
ii. Breathing and heart rates lower
observer's viewpoint
working class
Study of language
Large Molars, Faces
marry outside social group
Visible trait example
skin color
occurs on a grade
Earliest civilization of Mesopotamia.
generalized intelligence permits language; any intelligent animal could speak; human languages highly diverse
eat both plants and animals
fishing, hunting, and collecting vegtable food
Subfield of biological anthropology; study human evolution as revealed by the fossil record
Archaeological Anthropology
Reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains
Difference between local and translocal:
political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time.
ALTERNATE TAXONOMY: suborder that inlcudes lemurs and lorises without the tarsiers
Archaelogical Anthropology
reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains
increase herd diversity
ensures against loss
Size of dwelling (labor investment); Burial Practices; access to materials
social, cultural, and behavior events that occur over a lifetime
Leveling Mechanism
A cultural obligation compelling prosperous members of a community to give away goods, host public feasts, provide free service, or otherwise demonstrate generosity so that no one permanently accumulates significantly more wealth than anyone else
The process whereby eukaryote sex cells halve their DNA for combination with the sex cells of another individual.
people's learned and shared behaviors and beliefs
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act; Native Americans have rights to the remains of ancestors and sacred objects; Repatriation of human remains and sacred objects
Major calamities caused species to disappear.
:species had to be created again
richard lee
"eating christmas in the kalahari"
male circumcision
removal of the penile foreskin
Hunting-and-Gathering (foraging)
The oldest, long-standing adaptive strategy, it relies on food naturally available. The "gathering" provides the majority of the food and is more reliable. The gathering likely inspired initial tool use.
was the religious and political capital of Upper Egypt at the end of the Predynastic period
In anthropology, a centralized polity involving large numbers of people within a defined territory who are divided into social classes and organized and directed by a formal government that has the capacity and authority to make laws, and use force to defend the social order.
What is applied primatology?
Research and Conservation
Radiometric Dating
Potassium-Argon dating (measurement of k-argon)
accepted/desired when you marry, have they're own place
Possessing different genes or alleles in corresponding locations on a pair of chromosomes.
filed under defense. women and children are valuable resources. they had to protect their resources and demonstrate their waiteri or ferociousness.
Lactose Intolerance
-Genetic (Sort of)
- Regionally patterned
-Political (Some would argue)
Kinship Diagram
Anthropological record of genealogical relationships
BLANK impact on fitness of both individuals: actor - recipient +
the subgroup of mammals that includes lemurs lorises tarisers, monkeys, apes and humans
the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products.
John Monaghan came to study Santiago Nuyoo. Mixtec lived here in Mexico.
galapagos finch
drought condition changed size of seeds and only made large seeds available, therefore, there beaks varied to open these seeds, food constituted a selective pressure
Carolus Linaneous
father of the taxonomic system, labeled all humans homo sapiens into black, red, darkish, and white
Linguistic Relativism
No one is intrinsically superior. Links between speech and social status.
HUMANS: -Femur has an angle (Brings knees inline with the body) -Legs longer than arms. -Knees lock to create greater stability. -Fibula: Greater stability in ankle joint (specialized) *Foot: (#7 on handout) -Toes are short, and inline with each other -No grasping big toe -Well developed arch in foot (absorbs shock, makes efficient at walking long distances, "strike off" with big toe (propels)
*Descriptive Linguistics
Scientific study of a spoken language
Scientific study of the processes by which organisms are preserved after death and of how these processes affect the fossil and archaeological records
The process of asexual reproduction in an otherwise mutlicellular animal.
Indian males that opt for feminine styles of dress; are androgynous and considered to be both male and female
the killing of an infant or child
the Lower paleolithic and other Oldowan tools are associated with:
Homo Habilis
yes, Harrapan and Sanskrit
Writing? - Indus Valley
Those who have favorable variations or traits have an advantage over those who are without these traits
Georges Cuvier (1769-1837)
Creationist believes species were created by God and didn't change
Theory of catastrophism
climatic maximum
Episode of higher average annual temperatures that affected much of the globe for several millennia after the end of the last ice age; also known as the altithermal.
Changed a lot of common beliefs/ helped protest Islam
action theory
The theory that self-serving actions by forceful leaders play a role in civilization's emergence.
A physical feature that is sticking out or pushd forward, such as the faces in apes and some hominid species.
is fueled by rapid population growth coupled with insufficient jobs
Studying another culture from its point of view without imposing our own cultural values
Cultural relativity
people united by a common ancestor
Leveling Mechanisms
Cultural Appropriation
The borrowing and use of another culture's symbols, images, or identity markers
allyu land is divided by family each person gets their own farming space which is distributed by families. They are monogomous but it is important to have a spouse due to the need for help at all times.
Lake Texcoco
In Mexico, association of mammoths and stone tools (butchering and hunting), NOT Clovis people, remember that mammoths are huge, so they will preserve in the record (could skew the record)
Genotype frequency
How offten a particular makeup shows up
koko, gorilla
"finger bracelet" 1st time given a ring
the custom in which a husband is required to spend a period of time working for the family of his bride
Core Values
Those values especially promoted by a particular culture.
settle in the actual household of the brides mother
Cultural Anthropology
studies the ways of thinking and acting that are customary with large groups of people.
Johann Scheuchzer
found bones near Zurich and considered it, "the bony skeleton of one of those infamous men whose sins brought upon the world the dire misfortune of the deluge". He labeled an illustration of this specimen "Homo diluvii testis". A century later Cuvier identified the remains as those of an extinct salamander.
Achieved status
based on one's voluntary actions, how hard one works
idea that the group that controls production also control societal rules. they elect the representatives, who pass laws that serve their own interests
political repression
The patterns or rules by which words are arranged into phrases and sentences
no, but sacred individuals
King as god? - Maya
Techniques of Horticulturalists
multicropping, slash and burn, forest fallow system
Patrilineal descent
unilineal descent rule in which people join the father's group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life
the view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable
Social Norms
The usual, expected ways of behaving in a society
Individuals have..
more than one group identity, wearing different hats
Having many, but not all properties in common. Marriage cross-culturally will have some things in common, but not all.
be aware of how one thinks and perceives others
16, harder
In kin selection, if an individual was a distant cousin with r = 16, the benefits must be over BLANK (#) times the cost to the actor. This is much BLANKER to fulfill.
Sidi Lahcen Lyussi
the village in which Rabinow conducted fieldwork
NOT by kinship but by the degree of access to valued resources in a society, namely, wealth, power and prestige. It is usually defined in economic terms. Marx recognizes 2 dimensions in class societies:
1. The Bourgeoisie = owns the means of production (knowledge and raw materials).
2. The Proletariat = working class, owns their labor power.
Linguistic determinism
The idea that language to some extent shapes the way (determines how) we view and think about the world around us.
native to a certain area, first to the land
Samuel George Morton
Viewed brain size as criteria for intelligence. Concluded that Africans and Native Americans were socially and biologically inferior races
mode of production
specific set of social relations that organizes labor
Neolocal Residence
A pattern in which a married couple establishes its household in a location apart from either the husband's or wife's relatives
a. A. afarensis
i. Gracile form
ii. Rift Valley, Afar region
Harappa (ha-rap´-pa)
A fortified city in the Indus Valley of northeastern Pakistan.
Sphere of influence
in European colonial practice, an area of foreign territory where territory where the power and authority of one European state was recognized
balanced reciprocity
the giving and receiving of goods of nearly equal value with a clear obligation of a return gift within a specified time limit
Bride Wealth/Price
Money or valuable goods paid by the groom or his family to the bride's family upon marriage; also called bride-price. (Dinka)
Gender vs. Sex
Sex is biological. Gender is the roles and sterotypes.
precision grip
precise grip in which the tips of the fingers and thumbs come together, enabling fine manipulation
Pluralistic society
A society in which two or more ethnic groups or nationalities are politically organized into one territorial state but mantain their cultural differences.
ex. boy with the pony story
Indus Valley, Egypt, Chavin
Which areas don't have an extensive military force?
cultural imperialism
refers to the spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others, or its imposition on other cultures, which it modifies, replaces, or destroys - usually because of differential economic or political influence
Model Cultural Personality
-taught to be the perfect citizen in that society (ex. Americans-hardworker, healthy, good education, wealthy)-perfect representation of your culture.-it's a process that goes on during socialization and it varies from group to group
what did they kill giraffes with?
small poisonous arrows,had to track for days
Monte Verde (southern Chile)
One of the earliest sites in South America — 14,300 BP,Mammoth bone structure; Wooden "tent" structure; Hearths; Stone tools; Remains of edible seeds, nuts, roots, & berries; Freshwater mollusks; Stored firewood; Wooden mortar; Three human footprints, Seaweed (9 species).
the apache use silence when
there is ambiguity in the social relationships involved
"Conversation Style" What does Tannen mean by conversation style? How does it differ from men & women?
It is the many factors (gender, culture, etc.,) that lead people to interpret the same conversation differently.
Men: What to get straight to the point now matter how they go about it.
Women: Concerned with others feelings
who is the bread winnners among the kung san? they gather about what percent of the food calories consumed by the band?
women are the bread winners.
The Law of Superposition states that:
The lower in sequence of strata layer is, the older it is
5 conditions of the Hardy - Weinberg Theorem
1. Random mating- everyone has equal opportunity to mate with anyone in a given population. No selective pairing.
2. infinitely large population size
3. no natural selection- everyone produces same number of offspring in their mating
4. no migration- no one enters from elsewhere
5. no mutation- no genes altered
Structural Explanation
learn -fulltime
Primum non nocere
Anthropoid adaptive radiation
Tuberculosis originated in:
- Biologically-related, blood relatives connected by birth (these ties cannot be broken)
ability to know numbers
Found in every culture.
Strength (symbolic/matieral)
How many cattle/children
Unmotivated Imitation
The act of imitating.
naturalization of something in society, how it is, can't be changed
patrilineal status
men have higher status
studying societies at one time
have super-human powers, invisible, intrusive, good/bad, found through trances/drugs, ancestors, reside near mountains/rivers/cliffs/whirlpools
culturally defined, symbolic, learned behavior, not biologically influenced
-Narod meaning people, populace, folk
-Employed in a variety of ways, I can refer to the citizens of a nation, an ethnic group, or simply people, or to mean, the Russian people
-One of the most common words (a key word) in Russian talk
-To say narod is to pronounce a metaphor, in that the word does not refer to any literal demographic entity as much as to a mythical conceptual one, it can refer to many different fields of encompassment
-Most often used to imply 'the people' as distinct from those who have power or have wealth, most commonly stands for 'the victimized people'
-The mere implication of the word can suggest various attributes such as faithful devout, brave, simple, modest, self-sufficient and it can suggest an uncomplicated lifestyle (including an unpretentious diet of potatoes, cabbage, bread etc)
-"During perestroika, the word was frequently articulated with a tone of wounded pride, signaling a sense that one again the people's suffering was being ignored"
-To say narod is to invoke an entire story, a sacred epic, and to invoke that saga is to claim one's own identification with the narod in that saga, an identification it thus seems disingenuous for foreigners to make
old people rule the society
descent group
ascribed status
members claim common ancestry
Early Evolutionists
Edwin Tyler, Louis Morgan (Civilization > Barbarianism > Savagry)
How does language differ from communication?
social conflict/ conflict between the classes
John Locke
British empiricist philosopher who argued that the mind is a blank slate at birth (Tabula Rusa)
Lamarckian Theory
organisms evolve from pre-existing organisms. use/disuse, inheritance of acquired characteristics. (Giraffe)
one male mates with several females
Study of relationships between social and linguistic variation; study of language in its social context
Evans Pritchard
Talked about secondary elaboration (rationalizing and ritual didn't work)
The process of economic change, whereby developing societies acquire some of the social and political characteristics of Western industrial societies. It features five key suprocesses: technological development, agricultural development, urbanization, industrialization, and telecommunication
Economic foundation of a society, including practices and tools and equipment used to make a living.
commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area
-the superfamily that includes apes and humans (hylobates, pongo, gorillas, pan, a.afarensis, homo spaiens)
-no tail
-broad thorax
-Y5 molars
- bunodunt cusps
data gathered through induction must be able to be tested and proven wrong or right by other scientists.
the kinship principle concerning where people live, especially after marriage, and therefore what kinds of residential and corporate groups are found in the society and what tasks and values they are assigned. the geographic or spatial principle- in what location people actually live or perform their cultural funtions
Which country's race relations are often constrated with those of the United States
the group pulled together from ambilineality where you can choose to be matrilineal or patrilineal
food sharing
hallmark of human societies
chimps also share
the deliberate elimination of a group through mass murder
adjusting to change but it is unsuccessful
national culture
cultural features shared by citizens of the same nation
The group of anthropoids with narrow noses and nostrils that face downward and include Old World monkeys, apes, and humans.
Reduced size of teeth and horizontal movement of the jaw (grinding)
uses the past to analyze the present
specific evolution
particular sequence of change and adaptation of a particular society in a given environment
gaps between teeth to receive the projecting canine of the opposite jaw, especially in those animals with very large canines such as baboons and gorillas.
extended family
expanded househould including 3 or more generations
belief that your culture is superior to others
Linguistic Anthropology
the study of human languages.
the different slangs, the way other cultures communicate.
cultural correlates of agriculture
large/high population density; sedentary; social stratification; few food staples; need for political organization
Australopithecus Aethiopicus
Lake Turkana sagittal crest dished face small brain heart shaped foramen magnum
Biostratographic Dating
Dating method that uses the association of fossils in specific stratigraphic layers to determine each layers approximate age
the process by which a society's culture is transmitted from one generation to the next and individuals become members of their society
Define culture according to Haviland
important distinction between:
1)Behavior (observed activities, material products or traces of behavior) and
2) Culture ( an "abstract" set of values beliefs & techniques that people use to interpret experience and generate behavior related to survival and reproduction.
Haviland's definition of culture: "a set of rules that when acted upon by the members of a society, produces human behavior that falls within the range of variation that the members find successful."
Cultural Relativism
Interpreting of specific beliefs and practices in the context of the culture to which they belonged.
A smaller study group chosen to represent a larger population.
The geological era that began 1.8 million years ago, characterized by the frequent buildup and retreat of continental ice sheets
widow expected to marry brother of dead husband
________ evidence is critical to the practice of anthropology.
4 Characteristics of Class Mammals
reproduction--conceive young inside;live birthstemp. control--warm-bloodedteeth--4 typesbehavioral diversity--large brain; k-selected
farmers who lack control over the means of their production the land, other resources, the capital, they need to grow their crops and the labor they contribute to the process
the ability to communicate about other than the here and now
Close contact culture-
Mothers and infants stay together during the day time and night time (breastfeeding)
-Boy faces a gender identity conflict
cross cousins
children of a brother and a sister
the smallest unit of sound that makes a difference in meaning in language.
Errors during Meiosis
Nondisjunction - failure of chromosome pairs to separate
Monosomy - loss in number of chromosomes
Trisomy - Gain in number of chromosomes
historical particularism
developed by Franz Boas (founder of American Anthropology), every culture has its own unique history and its cultural features reflect that history
Tacit Culture
Shared Knowledge of which ppl usually are unaware and do not communicate verbally - personal space
natural items that have been used by humans
examples: animal bones, plant pollen
people can chose what they want to include in their culture.
-taking their beliefs and blending them with others
ex. Missionaries and the gospel
Brain Size
increases to body size, language and cognitive early on evoloved more quickly
the total stock of words in a language
Palm wood club and Misi the tortoise
jaguar myths
reverse culture shock
returning and readjusting to one's native culture and
Diet Breadth
Bison decrease - other foods increase nuts and maize and others became more popular
when a widower marries the sister of his deceased wife
Ascribed qualities
determined for people at birth because of genetic make-up
the couple may reside with either the husband's or the wife's group
How do humans differ from apes?
Distinguishing features are:
Parablic dental arcade, thick enamel, reduced canines, larger molars
Larger brains relative to body size
develope slowly, long juvenile period
culture (material & symbolic) & language
Variations of Gender Hierarchy
Variations within hunting and gathering communities are dependent on the frequency of war. Among agricultural, the gender roles are dependent on modes of agricultural production. West African in contrast to Northern India. West African societies consider the woman a very valuable asset to the community. Shown through the roles and jobs of a woman to produce food in labor-intensive conditions and how the man has to present the bride with assortments of gifts before marrying her. However, in northern India the men do all the labor intensive work and women are viewed as an "endangered sex". The don't want daughters because that means they must present husband with dowry. Different cultures view women and men differently. The Baka also give women traditional male roles in their society- more egalitarian.
a member of the taxonomic family that includes humans and the African apes and their immediate ancestors
age set
group uniting all (usually) men born during a certain time span; group controls property and often has political and military functions
Anthro = Human / Logy = StudyThe scientific study of human beingsSubfields:Physical/Biological AnthropologyArchaeologyLinguisticCulturalApplied
you can choose which side you relate to. either choose matrilineality or patrilineality. You can always change sides if one doesn't work out.
An absolute dating method which works on organic matter by measuring radio active decay and doesn't work after 50,000 years is...
Radio Carbon
The type of RNA that binds to specific amino acids and transports them to the ribosome during protein synthesis
life history
an informants story of his life and influences upon it
Neutral Mutation
Mutation that is not acted on by selection; it does not affect the fitness of an organism in a particular environment.
Prenational group
A social group that has not yet achieved the mobilization and self-awareness that characterize a nation.
absolute dating techniques
more precise dating of artifacts and fossils with dates in numbers
Monte Verde, Chile
-has an early date which could disprove Clovis model
-boggy deposit
-animal fat, earth and hut preserved, medicinal plants, stone tools
-people in South America at a very early date
The way in which power is achieved and used to create and implement public goals.
Village Head
when he wants something done he will lead by example he will persuade and influence public oppinion
Cultural Resource Management
Deciding what needs saving when entire archaeological sites cannot be saved.
domestic-public dichotomy
contrast b/w women's role in the home & men's role in public life, with a corresponding social devaluation of women's work & worth
Emergence of modern methods for excavation and analysis (Culture history)
1) Stratigraphic excavation and seriation 2) culture group classifying (North America)
marriage of a woman to two or more men at one time; a form of polygamy
Ecological Species Concept
in cases where gene flow is not defining species boundaries, natural selection is.
Fossil Evidence:
* The fossil record of a region should demonstrate ancestral relationships: - This is the case in Asia (1.8 mya) - Dental and cranial characteristics are consistant - Lagar Velho 1 (fossil). (SUGGESTS INTERBREEDING BETWEEN NEANDERTALS AND HUMANS). *Problems with this model: - Experts disagree on the diagnostic usefulness of many traits. - There is a long time lapse between the appearance of A.M.H. in Africa and Asia and Europe. - It is not likely there would be identical selective pressures throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe. *Consequences of this model: 1) The naming problems: - Gene flow = all early hominids are a species of Homo sapiens or Homo erectus. 2)Physical differences in modern populations are long lived, perhaps as long as 1.9 mya.
chimpanzee, baboon, capuchin monkey
Among which groups of primates has hunting behavior been documented?
What are the two types of gender mixing among the Plains Amerindians of the 19th Century?
Berdaches- Crossdressing
Manly- Dikes
Culture that is symbolic is
every aspect of culture has meaning beyond itself.
cultural context and economics
determines what is produced and how it is produced
Primary destination of Tongans
outer to main islands, then (40%) to New Zealand, (20%) to Australia and (40%) to United States.
What was God's command to man about the earth?
Man was to subdue it.
Primate Adaptations to an Arboreal Environment
Five digits on hands and feetOpposable thumbsShoulder joints that fully rotateForward-facing eyesIncrease in brain size and complexitySignificant parental investment
Differences from the biped and quadraped foot
bipeds bear more weight on feet that quads, so foot bones are stouter. The big toe is especially big, in line with others, and phalanges are shorter and less curved
The woman/woman marriage custom found in sub-Saharan Africa
a. enables the woman who is the wife of the female husband to raise her status and live a more secure life.b. enables a woman without sons to inherit a share of her husband's property.d. confers legitimacy on the children of a woman who had been unable to find a husband.e. enables the woman who adopts a male identity to raise her status.
biological father
shared subculture
craftworkers; 4th level
Inequality? - Egypt
Subgroups with distinctive lifestyles
anthropologist-- created family disruption incest taboo theory, thought culture provides a mean for satisfying individual needs
Culturally-constituted ideas about personal identity, personality, emotions, and thought processes, as well as ideas about psychological pathologies and their cures
Study of material culture
Unified culturally and linguistically.
plural society
society with economically interdependent ethnic groups
Biological Subfield
Studies evolution, adaptations, genetics and biological variation of humans and primates
supernatural techniques used to accomplish goals, used to serve emotional needs and curb anxiety
Parabolic Sand Dune bison
hunting strategy
anthropoid apes and human beings
live with husband's mother's brother
any non-artifactual evidence of technology such as postholes, hearths, floors, etc. Change in soil color indicates features
Affinal Kin
People related through marriage.
understanding of current processes can be used to reconstruct the past history of the earth
Having dissimilar alleles of a particular gene
free morphemes
can be used as words
grasping tail possessed by some species of the primate families Cebidae and Atelidae
phylogenetic tree
chart showing evolution relationships. contains a time component and implies ancestor-descendant relationships.
Small group of related people, organized through family bonds
A social institution that sanctions parenthood, provides a context for the care and rearing of dependents, and establishes the legitimacy of newborns.
James Hutton
Uniformitarianism, calculated that the earth was millions of years old
unilineal descent group based on demonstrated descent
long term physiological responses to stress, usually taking from days to months
the granting of freedom to slaves
MtDNA: - Inherited exclusively from the mother. - Traced through the femal line. - Any change in mtDNA is due to mutation.
cargo cults
post colonial, acculturaive religions movements in melanesia
Sexual Coercion
Promiscious mating within the group
nonviolent pressure to engage in unwanted sex
guarded by alpha
_____ is an evolutionary process whereby humans modify the genetic makeup of plants or animals.
world religions
followers in many countries
concerned with salvation
Complex molecules formed from chains of amnio acids (polypeptide) or from a complex of polypeptides. Fucntion as strucutral molecules, transport molecules, antibodies, enzymes, and hormones.
the tendency of populations to cluster in settlements of increasing size and density
characteristic of one of the traditional racial divisions of humans, originally inhabiting Europe, North Africa, west Asia or India: no longer in technical use
time/place where people buy and sell, barter, cash an exchange right at that moment, based on an everything available for sale basis
slash and burn
horticulturalists clear land by cutting down (slashing) and burning forest or bush or by setting fire to the grass covering the plot. vegetation is broken down and pests are eliminated and the ashes remain to fertilize the soil.
mammalian order or suborder of mammals that may be ancestral to later Primates, characterized by some but not all of the primate trends.
H. Sapiens Culture
Magdalenian tools (blade technology, atlatl), manufactured shelters, cave art (depicted hunting), sculptures, engravings
H. Sapiens in Europe
Cro-Magnon, France
evidence of Trepination- surgery
belonging to or active during the night
transfer of goods to the bride's family from the groom's to compensate for the loss of the bride's labor and child-bearing ability
social system in which power resides in mother's hands.
abominations of the body, defects of personality, social identity (race, ethnicity, religion, caste)
May furnish common purposes and values for the community
group of people who justify manufacture of nuclear weapons
nuclear realists
Post-Marital Residence Rule
Cultural stipulation stating with which kinsmen a newly wedded couple should live with.
What is their subsistence level?
Hunters and gatherers
Inherited and cumulative change in the characteristics of species, population, and culture.
4 separate categories assigned to behavioral and intellectual qualities, Sub-Saharan were the lowest.
Linnaeus' taxonomy
anthropological linguistics
The scientific study of human communication within its sociocultural context.
cold war
no physical combat/who had more stuff/more economical and scare tactics
Tree-ring dating; a form of absolute dating.
Giving with expectation of equivalent return; People will get supplies when they need them
Balanced reciprocity
People with the same culture living together; form of categorizing people; countries; tied to nationalism; a sense of unity; print media is very important;
temporalis muscle
used for up and down chewing
-through temporal fossa
-size of muscle is indicator of size of animal but also reflects teh diet
Primate characteristics
les reliance on smell, fully enclosed eye orbit
a society's shared sense of identity & worldview. the collective body of ideas, beliefs and values by which a group of people makes sense of the world
includes: religion & national ideology
Need to domesticate is strong at the edge of the plant/animal range as production is lower.
Joint or extended family
three generations> parents, their kids, and their kids
Fallow period
Land isn't being used for growing crops so nutrients can build up again in the soil
a term coined by Peggy Sanday that refers to the deployment of the penis as a symbol of masculine social power and dominance
Misti, Mistikuna
the mestizo town dwellers who dress differently and do not chew coca publicly
The several gods and goddesses of a people.
Haiti: Affranchi-
-Mostly mulattos, were free by law, owned land and slaves, but no social or political equality with whites
-1791, an Affranchi named Vincent Oge led a revolt against the colonial authorities. He was captured and executed- led to slave uprising
Study of all parts of human behavior
Generally study societies - ethnographies
Often live with group
religion, ritual, myths, use of symbols, subsistence methods, dietary preferences,
technology, child rearing, roles in society, taboos, medical practices
Cultural Anthropology
Cultural relativity
you should try to evaluate another culture on its own terms rather than in terms of your own culture. You suspend your judgement to learn how a given practice is understood and valued by the people whose culture practice it.
person has little or no control; born into it; given to them
bond between two and only two people forever
allele is only expressed if present in a like gene pair
_______ ________ is the attempt by ethnic minorities and even countries to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms.
Linguistic Nationalism
an article or thing of very little value.
Hilly Flanks
Woodland zone just north of Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Great Chain of Being
Conception of the world's structure that was accepted, and unquestioned, by most educated men from the time of Lucretius until the Copernican and Darwinian revolution and the ultimate flowering of the Renaissance
 The Genus Homo
 First modified stone tools
 Dates to 2.5 million years ago
 Not found with hominid remains
 Known as oldowan tools
 Expansion of brain size
 Modification of female pelvis
 Reduction in size of teeth, face, and jaws
Bronze Age
middle of the three age system, 5000 BP - 3200 BP
Origins of Native Americans
single source of ancestors in Siberia
Neantertal Characteristics and dates
130,000 - 24,000 ybp
large nasal opening
projecting face
an occipital bun
long, low skull
large front teeth with heavy wear
Short an stocky arms and legs
Large brain, some larger than modern humans
large intraorbital foramen
Short, wide body truck
short limbs (bergmann-allen rules)
New world monkeys
located in the Americas, 2133 dental structure, includes Spider, Howler, Capuchin, Squirrel Monkeys, Tamarins, and Marmosets
Superpostion stratigraphy?
younger layers are deposited on top of older layers
use of two names (Genus + species) in Linnaean classification
Mutually exclusive status's
being black or white, male or female
An allele that must be present on both chromosomes to be expressed.
total daily energy expenditure
number of calories used by organisms body during 24 hour period
four year itch
highest divorce rate is at the 4th year of marriage
*attraction phase--lasts 2 years
*attachment phase--lasts 2 years
Case Study to applied environmental anthro
Gerald Murry: Deforestation in Haiti
egocentric self
A view of the self that defines each person as a replica of all humanity, the locus of motivations and drives, capable of acting independently from others.
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
reviews impact of cultural resources
What are the benefits of agriculture?
- larger pop
- permanent settlement
- predictability
- control environment
- constant food source
- job specialization
- invention
they eat masa because it provides them with lysine
lye example of etic
Cultural Ant. (Socio-cultural, Social, Ethnology)
Shows how variations in the beliefs and behaviors of members of different human groups is shaped by sets of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as a member of society—that is, by culture.
Eosimias (dawn monkey)
found in Asia, dates to 42 may - ankle bone very similar to those of fossil and living anthropoids. Possible basal anthropoid.
Theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics
(theory of use and disuse)
4 tenets of theory:
1. organisms have needs in order to survive (food, strategies, etc)
2. "needs" are met by the modification of existing organs or the production of new organs
3. Continued use of an organ leads to an increase in its functional capacity; lack of use of an organ leads to its degeneration
4. changes that occur during ones lifetime are inheritable and are transferred to one's offspring
What makes the genus Homo different from Australopithecus?
-Cranial Size: Home = increase in cranial size -Cranial Shape: Side to side cranial expansion, thick bones with less robusticity, size of face is reduced, larger front teeth vs back teeth, bipedalism more closely resembles our own.
Assisted the general expansion of the American educational system, including anthropology.
What is the post-war (WWII) baby boom responsible for?
in the weaving on a loom made of eath and sky cord, sun rays and sun halos, zigzag, falshing and sheets ligtning
navajo weavers unites the sky father with the earth mothers and this interwove union beings together all the cosmic forces associated with fertility, fecunditiy and beatuy and power
four subdiciplines
related by blood
Derek Freeman
-Australian Anthropologist
-Heavily critical of Mead's claims on Samoan culture, with interest in scientific positivist method
passive transport of water
patriarchal society
a male-dominated society
largest. africa. primarily terrestrial, knuckle walking, groups consist of one large silver back and a few adult females and offspring, no meat, behave similar to us, can catch ebola.
Walking on two legs
pertaining to finances and taxation
considered tarsier-like because of their large eyes, long tarsal bones, and small size (no bigger than squirrels)
is the structure of language
Biblical Doctrine of Salvation (Redeemed)
an explanation of a phenomena
oxygen starvation, which occurs frequently at high altitudes
type of anthropology that reconstructs, interprets, and describes the past behavior and cultural patterns
Drug policy
Disproportionate for poor people
Direction human children are born?
Etic Perspective
Getting an outsider perspective (typically associated with clinical research, surveys, scholarly research)
collective body ideas that culture generally share
any of various acoustically different forms of the same phoneme
The environmental remains from past human social contexts, including wood, seeds, pollen, animal bones, and shells.
new world monkeys. almost exclusively arboreal. pair bonding and paternal care of young. thumbs are not opposable.
Custom of marrying outside social unit
over time, as observations, hypothesis and theories are tested and subjected to the rest of time, science revises its own errors
protein-calorie malnutrition
nutritional diseases resulting from inadequate amounts of proteins and or calories
Super Ego
Freud; "moral watchdog"; governs behavior by reality and morality, often taught by parents, church and/or community; standards develop through interaction; conscience; ego ideal
3 kinds of capital
social, political, natural
formal behavior composed of symbolic acts utterances and revolve around symbols that remind us of our beliefs. Hallpay
Humans and chimpanzees share 98 percent genetic similarity.
Restricting marriage to members of the same culturally defined group
to decrease in strength, intensity, etc.:
Gen (word part)
origin, birth, creation; essentially from the same family
Cultural transmission
A basic feature of language; transmition through learning.
carrying and Feeding
Darwin, Fischer, Lovejoy) Bipedalism is handy for tools. But bipedalism around 5 mya, tools not until 2.5 mya. Bipedalism also helps carry away food -> exchange for sex, provision family
A network of relatives within which individuals possess certain mutual rights and obligations
4 plus million years
age of Australopithecus ramidus
Forensic Investigation; Variation
-Sexual Dimorphism- (slope of forehead, mastoid process bigger in male, angle of jaw
pointy for females, pelvic hurdle), Ancestry, Age, Stature/Height- take bones and can measure them, formulas to see how tall they were, Individual Variation
origins of bipedalism
carrying, hunting, better vision, feeding from bushes
The "garden of Eden included...
Iraq and Iran
Founder Effect
Reduction of genetic variation happens when a smaller number of individuals in a larger population breaks off to form a new population
Hawaiin Reckoning
Bilateral descent, all cousins classed with siblings
indirect evidence of domestication
processing tools
-storage pits, different types of technology occurring showing people are relying more on these things
Radical change in a society or culture. In the political arena, it involves the forced overthrow of an old government and establishment of a completely new one.
Policy aimed at seizing and ruling foreign territory and peoples
The violent eradication of an ethnic group's collective cultural identity as a distinctive people; occurs when a dominant society deliberately sets out to destroy another society's cultural heritage
rite of intensification
a ritual for an individual
"vocabulary reflects what has meaning, how people order and describe the world.. the relationship between language and thought"
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Trace fossils
Anything once alive, i.e. coprolites, footprints, leaf impressions.
People who are dependent mainly on domesticated animals, such as cattle, for subsistence
Alleles arise by?
Mutation and increases/decreases from natural selection, genetic drict, and gene flow
one of Karl Marx's opposed classes; owners of the means of production
population biology
the study of the interrelationships between population characteristics and environments
branch of archeology of that studies contemporary primitive cultures and technologies as a way of providing analogies and thereby patterns for prehistoric cultures
If undisturbed, when excavated, the topmost layer is the most recent and the bottommost is oldest
Pristine stratigraph
Class System
different types (fixed, not fixed, proletariat, Bourgeoisie,) Karl Marx
Stratified by:
o Income
o Personal possessions
o cultural/family background
types of diffusion
once accepted into new culture, undergoes changes
Ardipithecus kadabba
from 5.8-5.2 mya is the chronoancestor of Ardipithecus ramidus
-evolve gradually into Ramidus through time
-looks like ramidus teeth are just a bit more primitive but still not like apes as they do not have the honing complex
change in biology of organism after it reaches maturity (aging)
having more than one spouse at a time
Civil War
A violent conflict within a particular state or between corporate or identity groups within the state.
group of like organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring successfully
enviroment where pastoralists are found?
dry grasslands, mountains, sub-arctic
negative environmental effects (intensification)
deforestation, loss of ecological diversity
in Hindu caste system of India; there are four of these basic orders or "colors"; Brahmins (priests and scholars), Kshatriyas (warriors), Valshyas (merchants, traders), Shudras (artisans), Untouchables (ritually unpure)
A belief that nature is enlivened or energized by an impersonal spiritual force or supernatural energy, which may make itself manifest in any special place, thing, or living creature
Carrying capacity
The number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food-getting techniques. Of the land ....... Adj
gaining a level of mutual trust, start with low level observation until your newness wears off
A person who crosses over or occupies a culturally accepted intermediate position in the binary male-female gender construction.
Allen's rule
The rule that protruding body parts (particularly arms and legs) are relatively shorter in the cooler areas of species range than in the warmer areas.
How do entities learn?
Genetic learning, individual learning, cultural learning.
Formal sanction
a method of social contol employing rewards and punishments that are explicit and well known, often written down, and administered by special agents of control who possess the authority to administer them (police or courts)
Bones: What is repatriation?
protection for NA burial remains
What is it called when one individual has multiple spouses?
a person who precedes another in an office, position, etc.
imitative magic
magic based on the principle that like produces like; sometimes called sympathetic magic
avunculocal residence
a cultural norm in which a married couple move in with the husband's mother's brother
Pried barns
Place where tobacco was crammed into a hogshead
motivations of european colonialism
1. economic gain (raw resources, plantations, etc.) 2. political control:access to resources and routes 3. physiological aspects (god-given-right and obligation to annex territories)
Polygentic traits
to be controlled by two or more genes
The busmen women
Women gather plant foods and provide about 75% of the calories, fetch water, and wood for fires
The Subfamily Hominidae are well-adapted for ____
bipedality (walking on two feet)
All societies have ..
health care systems consisting of beliefs customs specialists and techniques aimed at ensuring health and at prescuring illness.
Explain natural selection.
Change in allele frequency relative to SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS, if environment changes, selection pressure changes.
Relations of Production
The ways in which different members of society are organized by access to the means of production, and the ways these roles are distributed according to social distinctions:
age sets
division of people by age to divide up work
What art did Sapiens have?
hooks for fishing, cave painting, jewelry, sculptor
collective violence
an act of violence by people as a group in an effort to achieve social, political, or economic objectives, repression, armed conflicts, genocide
Slash and burn agriculture
a cultivation technique in which an area of forest is cut down and then burned allowing the ashes to serve as fertilizer for crop production. Because the soil is only fertile for a few seasons the technique requires that the land be allowed to lie fallow after a few seasons
The Hijras of India:
* Born male, considered neither man nor woman.
* Some undergo operation in which their genitals are surgically removed.
* Believed to embody the Hindu Mother goddess' powers of procreation.
* Their presence is required at weddings and at the birth of a child.
* Cultural support to those who chose a path such as this.
traits associated with human evolution
bipedal walking or walking on two limbs, the making of tools, larger brains
Turkey, Iran and Israel
coutries in Middle East that are not Arabic
Accumulation processes at South African australopith sites
- bonus found in breccia
- statigraphy not laid out well
- one beneath other not necessarily older
Betsileo and concept of "scarcity"
scarcity is a variable; the concept is much less developed in stable subsistence-oriented societies
Define and detect examples of worldview American culture and/or Runa culture.
worldview is a persons values which shape their view of everything. runakuna see all religeous beings as family and they believe that mutual respect is required for help and therefore required for existance.
What are the 3 dimensions of political organization?
1. A public
2. Public Goals/Affairs
3. Power
How was status conferrred amoung the Kiowa?
by the number of horses a man possessed and by the honors he achieves in warfare
False (this may, basically, be true in primates, it is not for necessarily just for this reason; there are many factors to why primate females invest--infants have a long period of dependence, necessary lactation, etc. Moreover, this assumption does not a
If one sex is to invest, it is most likely to be females as they are predisposed to give care because they invest more heavily in eggs than males do in sperm. True or false?
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