Anthropology Final Exam 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
lemurs
strepsirhines
Emile Durkheim
totemism
Victor Turner
the
Primatology
humans as primates
cheifdoms
blah blah blah
world music
steven feld
sex
hormones, chromosomes, physical, psychological
they eat very little
meat
Sociolinguistics
investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation
Biological determinism
Biology determines cultural differences
┏┴┓
△ O
What is the relationship between △ and O?
Siblings
essentialism
ethnicity comes from historical, demographic, and economic conditions
Aql
wisdom, maturity>mature social scene, adult wise quality
agriculture
animals as herding, increased populations
correlation
association; when one variable changes, then another does too.
Plygamy
a person with multiple spouses
status
social position determined by society
Hermaphrodite
(intersexed_
-biological
- a social status assigned to persons having sex characteristics of both females and males
rapport talk
Involves self- disclosure, matching experience, showing empathy and understanding
Translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
artifact
ancient human made things something that is from the past cultures
tetrapod
first land animals-4 legged, lungs, limbs stuck out and moved back and forth, hip bones
Ilongot
Rage Theory. "Rosaldo" wife died, canibals
Georges Cuvier
1769-1832, opponent of Lamarck, introduced the concept of extinction to explain the disappearance of animals represented by fossils
Vatos
openly defied school officials, looked down upon
sedentism
Settling in a single, permanent location.
Globalization
a series of processes, including diffusion, migration, and acculturation, working to promote change in a world in which nations and people are interlinked and mutually dependent.
fossils
the preserved remnants of once-living things, often buried in the ground
1790s statutes
justified barring Japs from citizenships
tribe
a larger egalitarian social groups, domestication of plants and animals.(pg. 117)
intervention philosophy
An ideological justification for outsiders to guide native people in specific directions.
True
The holiness churches throughout the US believe that The Bible directs true christians to handle poisonous snake and drink poison
"Firestick Farming"
Controlled burning by the aborigines
Etic
Data collected according to the researcher's questions.
Cultural Materialists.
ethnographic present
the cultural anthropologists' practice of always referring to some culture as it existed at a specific time in the past
large
where predation pressure is high, ------ communities are adantageous
Cuvier (DI)
- Catastrophism - multiple catastrophes caused extincition. -
metropolis/colonies

•Capitalism analyzed as a world system, divided between dominant and subordinate areas, called metropolis-satellite or colony relations
- refers to the city or state of origin of a colony (as of ancient Greece), a city regarded as a center of a specified activity, or a large important city.
Patrilineal
Trace family history on fathers side
Lateralization
when a specific brain function is typically and consistently found in only one of the brain's hemisphere
Marfan syndrome
genetic syndrome that affects the connective tissue of the body
cultural particulars
aspects unique to a single culture
Gene Flow
Exchange of genetic material between populations of the same species through direct or indirect breeding
One of the defining characteristics of hominids (humans and human ancestors) (now known as hominines) in CONTRAST to hominoids (apes) is that they were bipedal (a radical change in locomotory adaptation). And the latest news on bipedalism is that some of
...
Taurodontism
Having teeth with an enlarged pulp cavity.
life shock
a sudden unexpected experience that cause one to faint, become hysterial or vomit. More likely to occur when immersed in an unfamilar setting
Reciprocity
A form of exchange that involves giving and receiving between relative equals and as part of a larger ongoing social relationship.
Animatism
a belief in supernatural forces and karma, luck, fate
Platyrrhini
one of two divisions of anthropoids; broad widely separated nostrils, smaller than old world arthopoids, many lacking opposable thumb, some with prehensile tail, few species with polyandry ; found in South America
Primate
The order to which humans, orangutans, and lemurs belong
Morpheme
Smallest unit of sound that carries meaning. Andy walkS
Voodoo
haitian folk religion, mix of African magical beliefs and Catholicism
Petroglyphs
Cutting into rocks; 1% of the depictions at the Pyrenees
redistribution
mode of exchange that requires the presence in a society of some central person or institution. Varieties of redistribution range from such non-western institutions as the potlatch practiced by the indigenous inhabitants of the northwest coast of north America to the income tax and social welfare institutions of modern nation-states. It acts as a leveling mechanism shrinking gaps between rich and poor. (pg. 140)
andes
a mountain range in South America running 5000 miles along the Pacific coast
What is r-selective?
multiple offspring, born mostly matured, little parental investment
Genetic drift
the gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events.
periphery distinction
weakest structure position in the world system
role
guidelines for behavior and duties for those occupying a status that helps shape the co dependencies needed for a social structure
Socialization
the processes whereby the culture of one generation is inculcated in the next generation.
ethnic group
people who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinctive group based on cultural features such as common origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs
Conservative
family: strict dad who lays down inflexible rules, imbues with strict moral order, responsible for protecting, raises kids to be self-reliant and self-disciplined
prokaryotic cells
Small, simple, no nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles, single loop of DNA (nucleosome), no cellulose, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall (made of carbs), somtimes have cilia or flagella (movement).
social capital
the intangible resources existing in social ties, trust, and cooperation
Globalization is driven by?
- Economy
- Technology
- Socioculture
- Politics
- Biology
liminal
relating to a threshold-of a stimulus just storn enough to be conscientiuosly experienced; also at a treshold or transitional stage
govt. adopts policies, deliberate and systematic, destroy or change the ethnic identity of the group
forced assimilation
selective perception
seeing only what we want to see
Race (Cultural)
Ethnic groups assumed to have a biological basis.
Arbitrary
-a term given to choices and actions subject to individual will, judgement or preference
-based solely upon an individual's opinion or discretion
-language is considered arbitrary b/c it can initially make any connection b/w a concept and a sound
one of the first definite hominoids to be identified
...
Colonization
The act or process of establishing a colony or colonies
importance of controlled fire
warmth, cooking, protection, tool making, extends the day
causes of the industrial revolution
historical transformation of "traditional" into "modern" societies through industrialization of economy, industrialization fueled urban growth, began in England rather than France
ethnocentrism
the tendency to view ones own culures as superior and to apply one's own cultural values in judging teh behavior and beliefs of people raised in other cultures
Race
people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock
Secondary innovation
A new and deliberate application or modification of an existing idea, method, or device.
Extended family
Two or more closely related nuclear families clustered together into a large domestic group
separation
In a rite of passage the ritual removal of the individual from society.
Plains Woodland
Cooking makes some foods edible Make for mass processing of some lower quality foods Enables Storage Characterized by: Elongate pottery vessels with conoidal bottoms, corner-notched projectile points, and burial mounds
Rudolf Virchow
Believed the specimens found in the Neander Valley to be those of an arthritic hermit
Paleomagnetism
the study of remnamt magnetism or the record ot the Earth's past magnetic field
Pastoralism
animal husbandry as the main or sole sourse of subsistence, breeding and managing large herds of domesticated animals
Daughter Isotope
Isotope produced as a result of radioactive decay of the parent isotope
false
Rayna Rapp in her research found that the accessibility of reproductive technologies lowered the birth rates among North Americans.
agency
the state of being in action or exerting power
myth
a narrative with a plot that involves the supernaturals
Two-spirit role
An alternative gender role in native North America
Means of Production
refers to physical, non-human inputs used in production—the factories, machines, and tools used to produce wealth -- along with both infrastructural capital and natural capital.
It takes Nanook ______ to build a comfotable igloo
1 hour
Serial Monogamy
marriage to two or more spouses one after another, rather than at the same time.
Bride capture
A marriage custom in which the groom makes a great show and pretense of stealing the bride from her family
sympathetic magic
magic based on the principle that like produces like
Olmec (Gulf Coast)
chiefdoms 3200 and 2500 B.P, chiefly centers with large earthen mounds, plazas, massive carved stone heads, intense competitive interaction
What are the four categories of classifications of reality discussed in Humanity?
1.kinships relationships
2. Conception of time
3. race
4. ontotigical
Which scientist was the first to look at skeletal remains and make conclusions about their health while living?
Rudolf Virchow
Creole
Of or relating to a Creole or Creoles. A person of mixed European and black descent, esp. in the Caribbean.
nocturnal
active at night and at rest during the day
Mexico 1848
○ Lost half of territory to Texas ○ Mexicans made American through conquests "Texas territory"
ethical relativism
morality is relative to norms of one's culture and there are no moral standards that can be applied to all cultures. Judging if one's actions are wrong or right depends on the moral norms of society in which it is practiced.
Cultural Relativism
Franz Boas. There are no cultures that are better or worse than others. There are just different ways of being human. Also believed by Edward Burnett Tylor
Protein synthesis is...
the process in which cells build proteins.
population density
the number of people living in a given area
Tonal Language
A language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pronunciation and meaning.
Owen Lovejoy's Provisioning Hypothesis
Freeing the hands was important in allowing males to assist females more efficiently in procuring food; thus "provisioning" acted as a form of sexual competition among males for females." What hypothesis is this?
V. Advent of the Scientific Revolution
a. Renaissance (1400s-1700s)
b. Idea that the world could be understood by observing natural processes. Things could be learned empirically rather than believing in the church, etc.
c. Galen, Vesalius, & Da Vinci: human dissection. Human dissection was prohibited because the human body was "holy".
free hands, wider view, long distance travel
3 advantages of bipedalism
Learning (Human vs. Non-human Primates)
Active teaching vs. Learning through observation
3 main of food of Americas
maize (corn), potatoes, squash, book says manioc (cassava)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The total of all goods and services bought and sold in a given year.
What are eukaryotic cells?
Cells that have a nucleus and house genetic material (DNA and RNA).
exploitative theory of social stratification
a theory based on the assumption that social stratification and hierarchy exist because one group of individuals seeks to take advantage of another group for economic purposes
most artistic society yet has no word for art
paintings as cosomology- the mahabharata epic, 200 years ago
"Dirty Money" or "Money of Shit"
Money earned doing **** jobs, used to pay tax, not cattle worthy
Why is there a debate between having two different species H. erectus and H. eragaster?
H. eragaster where found in Africa and slightly smaller, while H. erectus was more robust and primarily found in Asia
IPA
international phonetic alphabet
Not an Indo-European language
Hungarian
distinction
difference, erase/repress similarities with conversation partners
dialect
variety of a particular language-geographic location
Nation-states are
political and governmental units
reality generating capacity
maintaining hierarchy, social identity, and making connections
Borrowed mispronunciations/ Hyperanglicization
Muchas Smooches, Fleas Navidad..
Inflection
The process of modifying existing words (for example, 'cats' from 'cat')
langue
diachronic- happens over a long period, shared by the community, language as an abstract system
language shift
construction of hierarchical roles and authority, relationship to language practices, theoretical frameworks
discreteness
a design feature of language referring to the fact that the units used for communication can be separated into distinct units that cannot be mistaken for one another
adaptor
a gesture that facilitates the release of body tension
macrofamilies
sets of language families that appear to have descended from a common ancient language (same as phyla)
Gumperz: Microvariation in India
Khalapur, North India~detailed intercaste/occupation variation~Variants used by older members,uchable castes(sweepers, chamars,etc) unto but not by upper castes(Muslims)
The Great Vowel Shift occurred
between 1400-1600 A.D.
In what areas can expertise from linguistic anthropology be applied?
...
Emic
View from within a culture. Insider's perspective
grammar is culture
patterns derive from practice; grammar's abstractness allows it to move across domains to mediate organizations of social life; organizes interaction, structure of conversation is mediated in part by grammatical structures
standard language ideology
a bias toward abstracted, idealized, homogeneous spoken language
syllabic writing
a system in which graphic signs represent individual syllables
determinative
a sign added to another sign to clarify meaning or create new words
related languages
languages that have developed from a single ancestral language
Syntax:
the study of the way in which sentences are constructed; how sentences are related to each other.
2 Language Ideologies in Haiti
Kreyol Swa-bilingual/educated speaker Kreyol rek-language of the average person(pejorative connotations*stupid* and positive connotations*national idenetity*)
Phone
the smallest unit of sound in human speech
Holophrastic utterances
Pertaining to the stage of development where a child produces simple one-word utterances.
Official language
A language designated as official by government policy
Roman sexuality
active vs passive (the penetrated are passive); active can only refer to men; not concerned with homo/heterosexuality; passive men were look down upon; lesbians are not in this system
Semantic derogation
- negative attributes attached to a word
- Changes in meaning
language extinction
the situation in which there are no more speakers of a particular language
Terms of Address
What you call someone: can make/break a relationship
ideological justifications for educating deaf children under oralism's rubric
sign appears to non-fluent signers like gesturing; national unity was imagined to be in peril; oral language is a high achievement of evolution
Mock Spanish
a form of language play that occurs primarily among Anglos. (ex: no problemo or hasta la pasta, numero two-oh, hasta la vista, baby)
Sahlin's interpretation on color terms
color terminology doesn't indicate evolution, but the structuring contrasts within a system of meaning
Proxemics (156)
The study of how people perceive and use space
MAR (acronym; 142)
- in rich point analysis
- Mistake
- Awareness
- Repair
Communicative Competence
what we know when we REALLY know a language: recognize/use different registers, knowing meanings of diff communicative practices
Semiotic process of language ideologies
1. linguistic difference becomes an emblem (iconization), that icon is then seen to affect all levels of the evaluated person or group (fractal recursivity), even though exceptions or cases which undermine the iconic link between a 'type' of person and forms of speech are dismissed (erasure)
2. process whereby certain features are ideologically evaluated, turned into an icon of a person or group, projected unto different levels of speech and character of that group/person;
3. political process that can and often is both unconscious and highly contested
examples used to illustrate how repression functions linguistically (C + K)
-Toni Morrison- silent Africanist characters allow white writers to think about themselves
-Butler- refusing to acknowledge relationship to blackness= form of acknowledgement
-Billig- discursive psychology examine the outward accomplishment of social life, showing how social order is produced through discourse
Dialect versus language
- Dialect - a specific variety or subdivision of a language; a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular group of people; the dialects of a single language differ systematically but are mutually intelligible.
- Language - different languages are not always mutually intelligible. Also, language can be based on political boundaries. Ex: Swedish, Danish, Norwegian - all similar, but political boundaries make them different languages.
complex alternative sign language
a gestural system used instead of a spoken language in situations where speech is not possible
According to Shieffelin and Doucet, creole speakers in Martinique, Guadeloupe, the Seychelles, and Mauritius use what kind of terms to describe creoles
metalinguistic terms that construct a complex relationship between the creoles and standard French, assigning hierarchical values to varieties of creole
In SOV languages like Japanese, where do morphemes marking location/place usually occur?
They follow the noun. (Postpositions)
Noam Chomsky's work advances the positions-
structures of syntax lie in unconscious linguistic patterns that are different from the surface of words we say; deepest structures of language are innate→ can't learn anything from other animals and they can't learn from us; the mind is specifically designed for language (genetic inheritance)
According to the American Anthropological Association statement on ethics, what is the primary responsibility of the linguistic anthropologist? (see Ethics File on Pipeline)
- Responsibility to people and animals with whom anthropological researchers work and whose lives and culture they study.
- ethical obligations to the people, species, and materials
they study and to the people with whom they work
Overall, Ochs and Schieffelin want us to consider
that the processes through which language acquisition occurs organize and are organized by culture
Cameron and Kulick attempt to provide a linguistic/discursive analysis of sexuality. they argue it must look at how sexuality is done and how it is represented because...
representations are a resource people draw on in constructing their own identities and ways of doing things; representations draw on experiences and the way we talk about it
At what site is the earliest known evidence of evolution of Broca's and Wernike's areas of the brain?
- Koobi Fora
- Also: Olduvai Gorge
Relationship of sign language to spoken language (169-170)
- sign languages do not mimic spoken language word for word
- They are complete languages with their own grammar
Bucholtz and Hall propose 3 tactics of intersubjectivity in order to...
Provide a framework for analyzing the discursive tactics whereby people position their identities in relation to the interlocutors which whom they're speaking; not concerned w/desire but w/intersubjectivity; articulations of desire are closely bound up with articulations of identity; track how people are creating/uncreating, maintaining/rebuilding, displacing/critiquing their identities in real-time talk
/ 165
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