Anthropology FINAL Exam Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Unjust adaptations
Mesopotamisn writing
(Marital custom) Dowry
Most common practice
diffusion language
in time
how does culture change?
monkeys, apes, and humans
the cessation of menstruation
taking the comparativist's perspective
full time specialization (christianity and Buddhism)
(Studying societies) at one time.
human biology, culture, and language
systems of cultural knowledge characteristic of subgroups within larger societies
Bilateral Descent
Reckoning descent equally, symmetrically on both "sides" of the family
A relationship between individuals linked by genealogical ties, which gives individuals certain shared rights and obligations.
What are OWM also called?
pertaining to finances and taxation
combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology, is the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominid evidence such as petrifacted bones and footprints.
The accelerating interdependence of nations in the world system today.
Where nature is enlivened by impersonal spirits > Mana
a discredited idea that evolution would continue in a given direction because of some vaguely defined non-physical force until a perfect structure is formed
Cultural materialism
idea (Harris) that cultural infrastructure determines structure and superstructure
The study of sociocultural differences and similarities.
the specialization in linguistics that focuses on grammatical structure of language
cultural transmission
of communication system through learning is fundamental attribute of language
social ills
pollution, crowded and unsanitary housing, insufficient water and sewage disposal, disease and rising death rates
1.25 billion years of half life
Applied Anthropology
the application of anthropoligical data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identity, assess, and solve contemporary social problems
Wrote by Pritchard; consulted oracles, to let them know how things would go in their futures
nuclear family household
only one married couple
Study of the articulation and production of human speech sounds. Two parts 1/2 points each
learned shared understandings among a group of people about how to behave and what everything means
no, theocracy
Division of Power? - Chavin
the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another; the resultant blend
Hunter-gatherers who live in small groups that move camp frequently to take advantage of fresh resources as they come into season, with few resources stored in anticipation of future use.
reversible physical changes during an individuals lifetime
primate evlution started around ---- million years ago
Governments and territories that are identified with culturally homogeneous populations and nataional histories
5.8 – 4.4 myaEthiopia (East Africa)Morphology of a toe bone suggests bipedalism
end of pleistocene, humans responded to changes in environment by breed animals
occurred independently in seven areas of the world between 10,000 and 4,000 years ago
genetic change that manipulates genes to select for specific traits that increase usability
Basic social unit composed of 20-100 people
human ability to talk about different times and places
Basal anthropoids
No clear transitional fossils between euprimates and anthropoids
Cultural Models
Shared Assumptions that people have about the world and about the ideal culture.
Charles Darwin's ideas came in the wake of other thinkers who were already fascinated by evidence of change they witnessed in the earth: geologists and naturalists could see that the earth had changed over time: oceans were once where mountain ranges now
Kula, potlatch
A redistribution form of exchange characteristic of native people of the northwestern coast of North America in which a lineage head collects art objects and other valuables to be given away to members of another lineage at a ceremonial feast and dance performance
skulls increase in brain size, modern body shape and height
suborder of the order primates that includes the anthropoids and the tarsier
most crops here domesticated once and spread rapidly in east-west direction
culture core
cultural features that are fundamental in the society's way of making its living - including food-producing techniques, knowledge of available resources, and the work arrangements involved in applying those techniques to the local environment
medical anthropology
a specialization in anthropology that brings theoretical and applied approaches from cultural and biological anthropology to the study of human health and disease
Where is the Shamanic Religion found?
Foraging societies
Participant observation
In ethnography, the technique of learning peoples culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied as well as interviews and discussion with individual members
The collective body of ideas that members of a culture generally share concerning the ultimate shape and substance of their reality
tarsier sized, base of all anthropoid radiation?
action theory
aggressive leaders shaped history in the
the research strategy that focuses on local explanations and criteria of significance
ability to control other; basis of political status
a tree diagram used to illustrate phylogenetic relationships
is any society's set of environmentl practices and perceptions -- that is, its cultural model of the environment and its relation to people and society
is the idea that the geologic processes that operate today also operated in the past
pantribal sodalities
extend across whole tribe spanning several villages
Paleozoic Era
age of marine life and plants
Classes of Artifacts
1. ceramics
2. LIthics
3. Faunal
4. Osteological Remains
The result of pidgin languages passed down to the next generation; a formal language with larger vocabulary, more complex grammar, and more consistency than its original pidgin language.
subfields of physical anthropology
paleoanthropology, human population biology
c. Constructivist (etic).
Identity is inevitable because they will always see themselves in opposition to something else (think about duality).
Adaptive Strategy
Means of making a living; productive system
people who move from place to place, rather than living in one place
natural selection
Process by which some organisms, with features that enable them to adapt to the environment, preferentially survive and reproduce, thereby increasing frequency of those features in the population.
longitudinal research
long term study of a community, region, society, or culture that is usually based on repeated visits, allows anthropologist to study cultural changes over the span of several decades
Prescriptive Grammar
Artificial rules of proper language as certain people insist it must be used
soft hammer
a technique of stone tool manufacture in which a bone or wood hammer is used to strike flakes from a stone
New World monkeys features
Side-facing nostrils, o Three premolars  important to know. If monkey has three premolars we know we are talking about a new world monkey
Gene drift
A random, fluctuating change in the frequencies of alleles within a population
The study of society today that helps to imagine the past
the study of how bones and other materials come to be preserved in the earth as fossils
-the means by which humans obtain the resources necessary for survival
-cultivation:horticulture and agriculture
too little food energy or too few nutrients to prevent disease or to promote growth
Presentation Scene
a script or outlook concerning a presentation or performance.
all people, of all races, were the product of a single creation
The second part of the Stone Age beginning about 45,000 B.P. and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 12,000 years B.P.
the spread of farming: 4 of 5
Atlantic Europe
cultural relativism
The thesis that one must suspend judgment of other people's practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms.
founder effects
A particular form of genetic drift deriving from a small founding population not possessing all the alleles present in the original population.
Having the same alleles at the loci for gene on both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes
Basic definition of natural selection
nature selects favorable traits
primate ecology
study of how primates interact with their environment
most primates live in tropical habitats
within tropics diverse range of primate habitats
key factor: average annual temp higher in tropics
most primates hate cold
only tropical habitat not occupied
Explanations of altruism
Answer 1: to maximize genetic fitness
Answer 2: to initiate reciprocity
Color Perception Conclusions Contd
b. Category distinctions are variable (cultural)
i. Focal vocabulary: Gender, profession. Women often describe colors with more detail, along with painters, artists, etc.
A person who enter an altered state of consciousness-at will-to contact and utilize an ordinarily hidden reality in order to acquire knowledge, power, and to help others.
rapid research method
fieldwork method designed for use in development anthropology that can yield relevant data in a short period of time
Domesticated Animal
Any animal tamed and made for human environment
manly-hearted woman
Certain Indian women who do not behave in the restricted manner of the women of the tribe, but who have a freedom and independence more like women in modern western culture.
Longitudinal Research method
long term study of a community, region, society, culture or other unit usually based on repeated visits.
research teams
How do apes walk?
on their knuckles; have specialized wrists
cross cousin
child of a mother's brother or a father's sister
Social Structural Question
Into what groups are the people organized? How are these groups structured, and what do the groups do? How do the groups' structures and activities influence their members' behavior and ideas? How are groups created, destroyed, restructured, or repurposed?
oligocene anthropoid
most ---- --- fossils found in fayum egypt, including apidium and aegyptopithecus
E. A. Hooton
- Appointed to committee on the Negro
- 1927 the committee endorsed study comparing AA infants to young apes
- Published Apes, Men, and Morons
gender stratification
changes in power due to gender; an unequal distribution of rewards b/w men & women, reflecting their different positions in a social hierarchy
Appeals to Santiago: Film
Describes the cargo system of the Mayans in Chiapas, Mexico, With Alonso Teh coming into town to work in the Fiesta of Santiago. Alonso The is heard praying in Mayan. Cargo bearers describe how they prepare the saints' images, dressing them in their sacred vestments and jewelry from the holy bundles.
The first writing in Uruk was done on what?
clay tablets.
requirements of agriculture
lots of human labor; less land than horticulture
first attempted to comprehend events
According to E.B. Taylor, religion came in to being when people ______
One-world culture
the idea that all of the peoples and cultures of the world are becoming (or should become) more similar, to the point at which all humans share a single culture. often attributed to globalization and the universal access to technology and cultural images (like American movies), it assumes that disparate groups will continue to become more similar until all groups share the same basic values, tastes, and media
What is potassium-argon dating?
This dating process works on volcanic material by measureing radioactive K-40 which becomes Ar-40 after time... this process is only accurate for three billion years
Supernatural vs. Natural
Power believed not to be human or not subject to the laws of nature
mode of livelihood
the dominant way of making a living in a culture
Humans select plants based on the following traits
-grains with tougher stems-plants with larger fruits and seeds-plants with brittle husks-plants that retain seeds longer
groups that are non-family...
have to do with sex, age, and common interests
Swedish botanist who is the father of modern taxonomy
Carl von Linné (Carolus Linnaeus)
How treatment of women influences reproduction rate
Treatment of women can affect the age at which women begin to reproduce, and how many children she can support
Whom, where and what time was Australopithecus boisei?
In 1959 by Mary Leakey Oldwai Gorge, East Africa
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