anthropology final exam terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Omo
Ethiopia:
Claude Levi-Strauss
Structuralism
great transformation
1944;
New World Monkeys
Arboreal
socially
culture is transmitted
polytheism
belief in multiple Gods
Functionalism
Specific cultural institutions function to support the structure of society or to serve the needs of individuals in society
Charles Lyell
Rediscovered Hutton's work
Eukaryotes
cells that contain nuclei
comparative:
cross-cultural comparison, focuses more on non-western non-industrialized groups
polyploidization
hybridization between populations with differing chromosomal compositions; can only cross with other hybrids
Stratified
Class-structured, with differences in wealth, prestige, and power.
monogamy
one spouse at a time
excavation
another word for a dig
Moiety
Composed of several different clans
two
All societies recognize (minimally): ___sexes and ___genders
Phylogenetic Classification
reflecting evolutionary relationships. Darwin was the first to suggest that any classification of life should be "genealogical"and would naturally be hierarchical; now we call this "phylogenetic"
Diffusion
Borrowing and sharing cultural habits/traditions with different groups of people. Intersection of cultures.
A.R. Radcliffe Brown
Joking Relationships
-colonial administrator turned anthropologist
-Scientific anthropology: search for universal laws to explain human behavior
-Proponent of British Functionalism
--Social structure key framework for comparative analysis
--Goal to understand how social institutions function
irria to control
chastity - virginity
People who encourage sexual relations for pregnant women to sustain the unborn
Dobu
Halafian
An early and widespread pottery style(7500-6500B.P.) first found in Northern Syria. Delicate ceramic style and to the period when the first chiefdoms appeard.
anthropometry
the scientific study of the measurements and proportions of the human
nocturnal diurnal
active during day and night
Archeology
the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures
Transnationalism
when immigrants maintain close ties with native country often through frequent visits
Shamans
part time religious specialists who are thought to have supernatural powers by virtue of birth, training or inspiration, gain status through direct relationship with the supernatural, recognized by special signs, openly available role (anyone can do it), heal or tell fortunes for a fee/gift, cannot sway public opinion
Domesticated Crops
Wheat was the first crop
Polygamy
Common, multiple mates, usually no difference in body size
Lamarckian evolution
inheritance of aquired characteristics through one's own will; evolutionary force that causes changes due to net reproductive success of individuals; filters genetic variation; nature selects phenotypes best suited to an environment
Homo erectus
1.3-1.8 mil years ago; hominids
John Marshall
Who created the film N!ai?
Evolution
Changes in allele frequencies in populations. Also known as microevolution.
Phenetic Classification
Classification based only on similarity of phenotype
Loci with 1 or more allele
Polymorphisms
fat
The thrifty genotype permits the efficient storage of ______ to draw on in times of food shortage and conservation of glucose and nitrogen.
Status
synonym for prestige in everyday society.
Cultural anthropology
The comparative, cross-cultural, study of human society and culture.
what include vocalizations such as giggling, groaning, or sighing, as well as voice qualities such as pitch and tempo?
paralanguage
alter
to change; become different or modified.
Family
A social group whose members are related by marriage, ancestry, & adoption having the major responsibilities of raising and caring for children.
Prejudice
Devaluing a group based on assumed characteristics.
Participant observation
learning a culture through social participation and personal observation in a community being studied. Also includes interviews and discussions with individual members of a group over an extended period of time.
Branisella
A south American genus from the Oligocene, ancestral to platyrrhines
Ambilineal
Recognition of either side of family, but one is major while one is minor. Superior side
Genitor
may refer to a child's biological father
perils of bipedality
hip strain, varicose veins, intestines, vertebral column
stratification
the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers
Carolus Linneaus
published where Human spieces came from First person to recondise we are Primates, he said we have 4 different type of Humans, White, Black, Red, Yellow linked behavior with physical appearance
parents
people from whom children first learn about their culture
Social Institution
set of patterned behaviors and expectations assigned to specific groups of persons to guide their interactions with each other whose social nature is forgotten such that it seems unattainable.
Epidemiology
the study of how diseases affect different populations
Adjudication
Mediation with an unbiased third party making the ultimate decision
emic
The research strategy that focuses on how local people think (native-oriented)
reproductive isolation
any mechanism that prevents two populations from interbreeding and exchanging genetic material
forming wilder alliances
creating connections among groups larger than the nuclear family is adaptive for societies.
priest or priestess
A full-time religious specialist formally recognized for his or her role in guiding the religious practices of others and for contacting and influencing supernatural powers.
Encephalization
measure of the positive deviation with respect to the average brain/body size trend for mammals
Maya Hieroglyphics
a complex combinations of pictographic and syllabic script that initially developed to record major events in the lives of rulers
Freudian Theory (Incest)
Conscious attempt to suppress naturally occurring feelings between family members
Sociolinguistics
How people use language differently in various interactions in reality. "Mask" for different situations.
taboos
acts that are forbidden in a culture
R pronunciation
was the determining speech feature that correlated social hierarchy
development anthropology
Field that examines the socio-cultural dimensions of economic development
A primitive portion of the brain involved in self-preservation behavior such as mating, aggressiveness, and territoriality
R-Complex
Potlatch
On the northwest coast of North America, a ceremonial event in which a village chief publicly gives away stockpiled food and other goods to display wealth. A form of Redistribution due to the long-term fluctuation of resources.
Chiefdom
A religious polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief,who is at the lead of a ranked hierarchy of people.
Homo heidelbergensis
400 thousand years ago some population of heidelbergensis evolves into Homo neanderthalensis (Europe only)
cultural consultants
people who teach an ethnographer about their culture
Crow Kinship
(Bifurcate Merging) The Crow system is distinctive because unlike most other kinship systems, it chooses not to distinguish between certain generations. The relatives of the subject's father's matrilineage are distinguished only by their sex, regardless of their age or generation. In contrast, within Ego's own matrilineag
carrying capacity
The number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food-getting techniques.
Primary innovation
The invention or discovery of a totally original cultural item, as opposed to secondary innovation.
evolutionary biology
the study of organisms and their changes
Uxorilocal marriage
Young married couple resides with the wife's family or kin.
Bifurcation
Different names for each "side" of the family: one side "blood" relatives, other side not
assimilation
the process of change that a minority group may experience when it moves to a country where another culture dominates; the minority is incorporated into the dominant culture to the point that it no longer exists as a separate cultural unit
 Language
 A set of structured relationships between meaning and expression
 Animals use call systems
christianity
o arose in Middle East during early part of first century A.D.
o developed from Judaism and shares many ties with that religion
o belief in Jesus Christ as messiah (who came to earth to fulfill Hebrew prophesies)
o 1.5 billion adherents throughout the world; highly proselytizing with many types of missionaries
o basic teachings laid out in Bible (Old and New Testaments)
o believe a supreme being sent son to earth as sacrifice for welfare of humanity
o largest branches are Catholic, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox
o holy day on Sunday
o limited food taboos (e.g., fish on Friday in Catholicism
Allele
a variant of a particular gene (AA, aa, Aa)
bipedalism
A special form of locomotion in which an organism walks upright on two feet- characteristic of humans and their ancestors.
totemism
The use of a symbol, generally an animal or a plant, as a physical representation for a group, generally a clan.
Selective Perception
Seeing only what you want to see
Lapita
A culture taht spread across a vast area of Melanesia beginning 3.5k years ago and reached as far as the islands of Samao and Tonga
Diglossia
the situation in which two forms of the same language are spoken by people in the same language community at different times and places
Radiocarbon Dating
tracing a remains carbon release and calculating its age
The Myth of Global Ethnic Conflict
John Bowen
problematic assumptions
-ethnic identity is ancient and unchanging
-ethnic identities motivate people to kill and persecute others
-ethnic diversity inevitably leads to inter-ethnic violence
**Problems:
-Implies ethnic conflicts engaged in by those who are less modern and rational, more primitive (irrational) and tribal (savage)
-Implies that violence is natural characteristic of some ethnic groups, ignores that violence is consequence of political processes and actions
Shame, sorcery and jail play are forms of social control among the Makua. These refer to an imagined social script culminating an undersirable consequence. Shame is a powerful social sanction.
Variants of a gene that code for different expressions of a trait
Alleles
milk producers, transportation, meat and trade
domestic herds (near settlements)
tempocentric
the habit of treating the ways we live now as "normal" or best or timeless
Chemical dating (fluorine dating)
dating methods that use predictable chemical changes that occur over time; fluorine dating measures levels of fluorine in bones
judgement sample
sample that is chosen based on the judgement of the ethnographer: Key informants
Gender stereotypes
strongly held ideas as to how males and females should act (women are nurturing, men are logical)
symbolic anthropology
the study of symbols in their social and cultural complex
 Biological kin type
Refers to the actual genealogical relationship
H. erectus
"upright man" a species within t he genus Homo first appearing just afer 2 million years ago in africa and ultimately spreading throughout the Old World
What is the law of superposition
Nicolas Steno
Sedimentary layers deposited in time sequence (young-top, oldest-bottom)
Negative Reciprocity
A form of exchange whereby the giver tries to get the better of the exchange.
Olduvai Gorge
- Tanzania
- 25 mi. long, 100 meters deep
- Bosei & Homo Habilis
- bones in cave
- relates to carnivorous behavior
middle stone age
stone tool industries of SSA and southern and east asia that existed 250 to 40 kya
culture of consumption
economy dependent on foreign labor and finances. sharing and depending on people to continue the flow of money.
informed consent
Make sure that the people you talk to clearly understand that you are an anthropologist and that you will be taking field notes of your experiences. If there is something they say that they do not wish to be recorded, they must know they have a right to request you to put away your notes.
Ideology of Gender Stratification
believing that superoirity of men over women was not socially constructed but natural
folklore and wrestling similar
alternative ways to represent issues I society
Trobriand Islanders
of the coast of paupa new guinea a horticultural subsistance society which focuses on growing yams which are collected by the clan leader who creates great feasts to compete with the neighboring. extra yams are planted for these feasts because they have great respect for the kinship, spiritual power, or were in debt to him. a successful feast inproved spiritual power,gained alliances or created possible marriages. this shows how holistic the yam is to the trobriand society
How do we know about prehistoric global climate change
The Oxygen isotope cycle
Q: The study of nonhuman primates is of special interests to which sub-discipline of anthropology?
A: Biological anthropology
bifurcate collateral kinship terminology
six seperate parental kin terms: M, F, MB, MZ, FB and FZ
What is gender stratification?
The degree to which males and females are unequal in dimensions such as status, power or influence, access to valued resources, eligibility for social positions, and ability to make decisions about their own lives. Men have more power over women.
The sidewalk and notions of home
That's where they live, conceptualized as home.
for small canines to have evolved...
females may have even selected mates with small canines
XIII. Hypoxia: Acute Mountain Sickness
a. Affects 20% of people at high altitudes
i. Inability to do normal physical activities without fatigue
ii. Lack of appetite
iii. Between 1 and 2% of people die as their blood cells have burst (Pulmonary Edema)
Pupil of Eye (Statistical Universals)
the black part of the eye; there are two ways this comes out
1) high percent (20-25%) of the worlds cultures believe that the black part of the eye is a little person looking back at you (reflection)
2) the word for the black part of the eye = seed or "the seed of the eye"
Venezuelan Bari and effects of partible paternity on gender status
belief that a child can have more than one father; these children have higher survival rates; gives women the upper hand in society because there is no discernible jealousy among males
what is one of the most striking things about the population found inside the Tomb of the Eagles that may indicate why living people maintained such intimate contact with the remains?
people may have come to the tomb to handle the bones (342 incomplete bodies)
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