Terms Definitions
yes 2
cultural ecology
fixed facial expressions
Earliest Characteristics:
Bipedal locomotion
non-honing Chewing
English is tonal/nontonal?
Individuals related by marriage
The analysis/application of information gathered through ethnography
Hereditary kingship? - Aztec
mesozoic era
age of reptiles
Affinal Kinship
- affinal="law"
-established through marriage
unilineal descendants who can demonstrate precise links to all lineage members
Core Nation
the industrialized or post-industrialized countries; their gdp is over $14,000
temporary yet exclusive male/female mating relationship
neandertal tools, used levallois technique, beginning of composite tools, side scrapers, spear points
both lines are equally important
during reproduction, two cells (gametes) come together to produce a zygote
Complex nations are multicultural insofar as they house different cultures.
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
_________ linguistics focuses on language and gender issues and social dialects.
Discrete structures composed of DNA and protein found only in the nuclei of cells
Historical Linguistics
Study of languages over time
Which genus has the following characteristics: 2.5-1.4 million years, **450-475 cc, **massive molars and chewing muscles, **East Africa and South Africa
Use or absence of birth control;
Homo antecessor
780 kya
Gran Dolina
primitive and derived traits
Economics and demographics are in favor of what type of marriage?
Original Choukoudian bones were lost during the invasion of China.
Physical/Biological Anthropology
biological/genetic aspects of people and evolution of humans, earliest fossil record, hominins - human ancestors, deals with the evolution of a species
main causes of evolution
technology and environment
Primate charateristics
flexible hands/feet; reliance on vision; small litters; dentition
___- informal systems of alliance within well-defined political power to achieve public goals
Lagash was an ancient city in:
Charles Lyell wrote 3 geological volumes about the principle of
___ do NOT necessarily involve supernatural interaction (i.e. politics)
The comparative study of human societies and cultures.
a series of processes, including diffusion, migration, and acculturation, working to promote change in a new world in which nations and peoples are increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent.
massive cultural change that people forced to make as a consequence of intensive first hand contact between their own group and another often more powerful, society
any position that determines where someone fits in society
The geological period from 1.6 millions to 10,000 years ago characterized by a series of glacial advances and retreats
cultural patterns within a larger culture (cornhole, frisbee golf)
XVI. Ethical Responsibilities
a. Research Participants. Pseudonyms are frequently used, both for people and places.
b. Academic/Scholarly Community. The data retrieved by the anthropologist must be legitimate.
c. Environmental
d. Wider society/culture
i. Tensions may develop between stakeholders
matrilineal descent
descent traced exclusively through the female line to establish group membership
What does this kinship chart symbol signify?
The economic foundation of a society, including its subsistence practices and the tools and other material equipment used to make a living
applied anthropology
use of cultural anthro, linguistics, archaeology, and biological anthropology to solve practical problems in business, politics, delivery services, and land management
is a key characteristic of American culture; has been since our earliest days as nation beginning with manifest destiny and the westward expansion by horse-drawn wagon
the values, beliefs and perceptions of the world shared by members of society that they use to interpret experiences and generate behavior, and that are reflected in their behavior
payment of a woman's inheritance at the time of her marriage, either to her or to her husband
cut into hillside and build stage after stage of fields rising above the valley floor
tool making tradition used by Homo erectus
the era before writing, before things were being recorded by writing
Culture is a totality of local meanings in terms of which people understand, think about, talk about, and describe behavior, institutions, events, and processes
a technique for relative dating by putting groups of objects into a sequence in relation to one another
a flat grassland in tropical or subtropical regions
 Five Subdisciplines of Anthropology
 Biological
Linguistic Anthropology
 Cultural Anthropology (Ethnology)
 Applied Anthropologist
the animating force within a living being
gendered speech
Distinct male and female speech patterns, which vary across social and cultural settings.
Qin Dynasty
(221-204 BC) that unified China, codified law, built the great wall, paper, canals and roads.
method for identifying the appox. time that langs. branched off from a common ancestor it is based on analyzing core vocab
The process by which a society's culture is transmitted from one generation to the next.
the cultural practice permitting a man t have more than one wife at a time
40% of these people had nutritional deficiencies and they also started representational art
Levallois technique
a middle paleolithic technique that made use of prepared cores to produce uniform flakes
the actions of individuals, alone and in groups that create and transform culture
Native American food foragers established a way of life in New England and southern Quebec that lasted about 5,000 years. This is indicative of
effective cultural adaptation.
Externalized Controls
imposed by those in charge-positive sanctions reward appropriate behavior-negative sanctions punish behaviors
a means of supporting one's existence, esp. financially or vocationally; living:
Generalized Reciprocity
*Exchange of goods and services in which neither the times nor values of return are specified, but balance is understood.
In Sudan, chores and cooking were done by wives separately in the polygamous family. each shared the responsibilities in their own house hold. in the US, both the husband and wife shared responsibilities and everyone would be in charge of making their own food to eat.
Egalitarian societies
are those in which decision-making and power are NOT centralized, decision-making is a group activity and depends on the consensus. And the principle means of organizing society and defining their place in society is though marriage and kinship.
Policies or actions that harm a group and its nonmembers.
general evolution
general progress of human society in which higher forms arise from and surpass lower forms
Reciprocal Exchange
the transfer of goods and services between two people or groups based on their role obligations. A form of nonmarket exchange
What is the smallest of all the apes?
Sagital Crest
An elevated bony ridge along the sagittal suture of many mammalian skulls including those of some extinct hominids
Neanderthal disappearance
-scientists puzzled by such a strong species
-our ancestors must have forced Neanderthals into extinction
Cubans locations
2/3 of US population in Miami, FL
Orrorin tugenesis
Kenya, smalll teeth large body size, femur and arm show bipedalism, fragmentary cranial*
explicit culture
cultural knowledge you can talk about; learn mostly by hearing it from the other; parents, teachers, etc
Culture-Bound Syndrome
or ethnic psychosis is a mental disorder specific to a particular cultural group
Genetic Bottleneck
The concept that, when populations are severely reduced in size, they may lose some of their genetic diversity
Future Orientation
Americans value the culture and the improvements the future will surely bring
A mixed media approach includes...
Qualitative and Quantitative Research.
Dependency Theory
countries that were colinized and made dependent - always going to be like that, history (Mali - cotton for France, economy entirely dependent on France)
Development project
a specific activity or task settled upon to achieve economic, political, and social goals of a development policy. ex: transportation, energy (hydro-electric), agricultural, and resettlement schemes
social control
process that through both formal and informal mechanisms maintain orderly social life
cultural colonialism
internal domination by one group and its culture or ideology over others
Psychologists who first taught American Sign Language to a chimp, Washoe.
Beatrix and Allen Gardner
polygenic traits characteristics
-influenced by more than one gene-expression not influence by environment-phenotypes are continuously distributed
foramen magnum
where spinal cord attaches to back of skull
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
idea that there is a specific link between the grammar of language people speak to the culture they live in.
Human Rights
the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings
relationship between culture, race, ethnicity
distinguish between biological race and social race
Somatic cell
any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
The Gebusi
The society where wives don't care if their husbands have sex with teenage boys but are angered if husbands are interested in other women
- A feature of an organism created by the process of natural selection
paramount chief
a chief who has the single highest rank in a chiefdom in which subdivisions are also headed by chiefs. in the trobriand islanders the chief is decided by the oldest male of the highest ranking linneage of the highest ranking matrolineal clan.
Laying on of hands
Used to heal with holy spirts
Beverly Strassman's Hypothesis
*Lack of menstrual cycle implies woman is either pregnant, lactating (recently had baby), or menopausal (can't have any more)
*Continuous lack of menstrual cycle implies woman is sterile
*Therefore, "information about menstruation can be a means of tracking paternity."
*Dogon Context: info about paternity critical - descent passed through male lineage
law of superposition
sequence of layers that represent age of artifacts
Old View of foraging
Foraging people:
1) Lived on edge of starvation
2) Were sick and weak, had unbalanced diet
3) Had short life expectancy and died young
"Nasty, brutish, and short"
This was because studies were not ecologically oriented and quantitive data was not collected
Culture vs Society
Society is a group while culture is the attitudes and behavior of that group
hardy weinburg law of equilibrium
a mathematical model in population genetics that reflects the relationship between frequencies of alleles and of genotypes; it can be used to determine whether a population is undergoing evolutionary changes
Able to bring the thumb or big toe in contact with the tips of the other digits on the same hand or foot in order to grasp objects.
cultural consensus modeling
a way to confirm awnsers by bringing multiple people together in an area to compare an awnser in the group.
Skin color and ancestry
How is race constructed in the US?
What are cultural copying rules?
Human tendency to copy those who appear successful
The principle of culture relativism
judgement are based on experience and experience is interpreted by each individual in terms of his own inculturation
changing names and addresses, partially censors it, and constructs a story
What literary liberities are taken by the ethnographer of "In Search of Respect"
In the "System of Nature", what comes after Class?
Order, family, genus, species
Whats the difference between Sex, Gender, Sexuality
Sex - M+F
Gender - Masculine , Feminine
Sexuality - Orientation , sexuality has to do the whole realm of sexual expression
Olduvai Gorge (where found; why important?)
East African Rift Valley; for study of evolution
Where and by whom was Kenyanthropus platyops discovered?
Lomekwi, Kenya by Justus Erus team member with Meave Leakey in 1999.
Through naming, a person not only has a personal identity,
but also recognition by the group of the person's birthright and social identity.
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