Anthropology Final Review Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Multicausal
the
third genders
tomboys
Chinese-Exclusion Act
1882
Infra-class: Eutheria (placental-bearing mammals)
...
catharsis
intense emotional release
mensturatl blood is
powerful/harmful
phoneme
theoretical represents of sound
semantics
a languages meaning system
religious cult
Religion - Chavin
adaptive
favored by natural selection
Lecture 26—Civilization II: Theories of Civilization and Culture Change
...
Where did H. erectus originate?
Africa
optimal foraging theory
hunters/gatherers pursue plants/animals that maximize caloric return of the energy spent gathering, killing and preparing the food
Spirituality
--Often INDIVIDUAL rather than collective.
--Does not require a distinctive format/traditional organization.
Bands
Informal leadership, small groups, limited authority; egalitarian
 Features
Nonportable artifacts
 Hearths, postholes, mounds
Innominate Bones
Ilium, Ischium, and pubis
ethnocentrism
Viewing one culture as superior.
laws
binding rule created through enactment/custom that defines right and reasonable behavior and is enforced through threat of punishment
(muscle attachment)epicondyle
prominence above a condyle
Reflexivity-
Refers to the ethnographic writing that describes how the presence of the author affected the behavior itself and how the various characteristics of the author influence the research.
Pastoralism
Intensive farming societies with a herding of domestic animals. (i.e. Navajo Indians)
Reciprocity-
Wide range of exchanges involving goods and services between relatively equal individuals or groups.
palaeoanthropolgy
study of human evolution through fossil record.
Nunavut
A territory of northern Canada including part of the mainland west of Hudson Bay and north of latitude 60° north, islands in the Hudson Bay, and most of the Arctic Archipelago. controlled by the Inuit
Langue (semiotics)
(Our primary focus) Abstract systematic principles are language
arboreal
tree-dwelling; adapted to living in the trees
stratigraphy
examines accumulation of sediments in layers (strata)
foraging
human foragers until 10,000 B.P, dependent on food production or food produces, hunting and gathering environments
Matrilocal
Married couple lives with wifes mother
Mesopotamia excavations
1870s; Sumerians, cuneform (clay tablet writing, records of taxation)
the Trobriand Islanders hamlets are organized around what kind of pair?
brother-sister
Stewardship
to indicate a household employee's responsibility for managing household or domestic affairs.
Giza
Old Kingdom (2686-2181) burial complex outside of Memphis, with massive pyramids of Khfa, Khafre, Mankure, and the Sphynx.
metaphase II
chromosomes align independently from one another
Songline
called dreaming tracks by indigenous Australians within animist indigenous belief system are paths across the land which mark the rotue followed by localized creator beings during the dreaming hte paths of the songlines are recred in traditional songs, stories, dance and painting
false
The availability of wild game increased during the Neolithic period.
paleoanthropology
the interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominids.
taphonomy
study of processes affecting remains of dead animals
vertical dimensions
represents the accumulations of sediments through time.
extremely mobile/birth spacing/activity levels/food intake
population size of !Kung
Suppressing evidence
not allowing evidence that contradicts a cherished belief
Discrimination
Policies and practices that harm a group and its members
Matrilineal
Unilineal descent rule in which people join the mother's group automatically at birth and stay members throughout
Artifact
Any object fashioned or altered by humans.
Achieved Status
Are positions obtained by age, consensus, or merit.
Anthropology
Scientific and humanistic study of the human species. Holistic discipline Examine individual cultures in detail. Compare cultures across time and space in terms of specific problems and sets of data. Applied anthropologists use their knowledge in practical ways to better the lives of others
True
Anne Pyburn argues that being defined as "worthless" by society can give people power and freedom in anonymity
endogamy
marriage between people of the same social group
General reciprocity
purest form, exchanges between closely related people, giving to another and expects nothing immediate in return, used heavily among foragers
Human paleontology
Questions about the emergence of humans and their later evolution
Power
The ability of individuals or groups to impose their will upon others and make them do things even against their own wants or wishes.
Leslie White
Thought we were evolving; technology was the driving force of civilization; allowed us to prepare food in more efficient ways
Contagious
Involves touching, even ingesting as a means of passing power or some specific effect. Example: Snow White and the apple
Homo sapiens
originated 200,000 years ago; sole survivor
Consumerism
Mode in consumption in which the people's demands are many and infinite and the means of satisfying them are insufficient and become depleted
antimodernism
rejecting the modern for a presumed earlier, purer, better way
enculturation
The process by which a society's culture is transmitted from one generation to the next and individuals become members of their society.
Synapomorphies
A trait that certain groups of organisms have that exists in no others.
Adapids
- Lemur-like
- No ear tube
- Elongated snout
- Small incisors
- Post orbital bar
plural society
a society that contains various cultural groups. such groups often occupy "niches" in the broader social system, such that the groups do not interact with each other except in limited and often mutually exploitive ways
R-mode Analysis
the comparison of trait distributions among cultures
descent group
permanent social unit whose member claim common ancestry
Primatology
The study of our closest living relatives--nonhuman primates
Noncompetitive Egalitarian Society
Equality of condition or outcome
Leveling mechanisms ensure that resources are shared equally
meiosis
process by which sex cells are produced
Taumafa Kava
Tongan ceremony that is an illustration of chiefly hierarchies.
Genetic Drift
Changes in frequencies of neutral traits may result from random processes that affect gene frequencies in isolated populations
Symbolic Domination
linguistic forms, which lack power in themselves, take on the power of the groups they symbolize; the linguistic insecurity often felt by lower-class and minority speakers is a result of symbolic domination.
Natural Selection
the principle or mechanism by which individuals having biological characteristics best suited to a particular environment survive and reproduce with greater frequency than individuals without these characteristics
Exogamy
marriage to a person belonging to a tribe or group other than your own as required by custom or law
Diastema
The gap between the canine and the premolars. It's so the jaw can fully close.
efficiency
yield per person per hour of labor invested
Community of practice
Employees with same tasks associate with each other (Lawyers hang with lawyers)
female philopatry
primate social system in which females remain and breed in the group of their birth, whereas males emigrate
How many age grades does the Nandi have?
7
B
It is likely that Homo erectus ______ out of Africa to other parts of the world.
A Hang glided
B Walked
C Flew
D Swam
scientific medicine
a health care system based on scientific knowledge and procedures
Conspicuous Consumption
The purchase and public display of goods known to be costly and unnecessary for basic survival.
Two problems at turn of 50s through 70s:
...
social mobility
most societies offer some ability to move between social classes
transnational migration
regular movement of a person between two or more countries resulting in a new cultural identity
Lumbar curve
also secondary or acquired - develops as a result of the child being able to stand + begin to walk. Most pronounced of the curves.
___ magic- performed on an object that belonged to the person you are trying to effect
contagious
Bose
A site in southern China that produced a stone tool industry that includes handaxes dated to 800k years ago
System
a group of people that operate in relation to one another, who encounter eachover
ethnography
the study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation
simian shelf
buttress of bone under lower incisors that supports jaw in chewing
Generality
Culture pattern or trait that exits in some but not all societies.
Refers to a society that strives for equal distribution of goods and services but that achieves this through the use of recognized, often temporary, status differences
Rank
Biological Determinism
view that behavior is associated with biological traits
Channel of communication
the mode through which messages are transmitted. Dog barks, humans speak, etc.
Homo erectus
first to live beyond Africa, in Asia and Europe
Oasis
Evidence was in dry areas - thought to have dried at the same time that agriculture emerged. Concentration led to invention by necessity.)
What are some places that have arranged marriages?
India, China, Africa
Biological plasticity
The body's ability to change as it copes with stresses such as heat, cold, and altitude.
Religiously endagomous
because of this they only marry other Jews
Coastal route
is now thought more likely. During the late Pleistocene the coastal strip would be wider (coastal hopping)
Calibrated Relative Dating Techniques
techniques that use regular or somewhat regular processes that can be correlated to an absolute chronology to estimate the age of a site.
moiety (chapt. 9)
each group that results from a division of a society into two halves on the basis of descent
raiding
short term use of force with a limited goal. common among pastoralists
molleson article pathologies
repeated patterns leave marks on bones - osteoarthritis, muscle markers, thickness of bone
The entire formal structure of a language, consisting of all observations about its _________ and __________, constitutes the grammar of a language.
morphemes and syntax
Cruise Ship Tourism
-Emits 3 time as much carbon dioxide as a Boeing 747
-Last 30 years, reduction of 50% Latin American coral reefs
puerto rican immigrants
Who is the SPECIFIC subject of "In Search of Respect"
Hypothesis explaining skin color
Skin color is adaptable. Subject to change due to amount of sun person is exposed to. etc
ethnography (study of 'culture')
a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on feildwork
balanced reciprocity (chapt. 6)
mode of exchange whereby the giving and receiving are specific in terms of the value of the goods and the time of their delivery
how does japanese television portray women
housewives in traditional domestic roles (ex selfish women)
Integrative theory of social hierarchy
Based on the assumption that social hierarchy is necessary for the smooth functioning of modern society
a milk secreting glands (mammary), hair, specialized teeth (incisors for cutting, canines for tearing, and molars for grinding)
Humans are classified as Mammals because we have:
Klasies River Mouth
A Middle Age site in South Africa that had produced remains of modern humans and that offers evidence of hunting and the intensive use of fire
Native American classification of two spirits
Females that adopt social and economic roles of men
Males that adopt social and economic roles of women
People become/choose through personal inclination, spiritual calling, parental selection. No negative connotations
religious beliefs and traditional occupation
the caste system in india is connected to _______
Anthropology - Definition and the different areas of study
Def: The study of humans and non-human primates through space and time
Cultural - studies living present day societies
Physical - studies all aspects of present and past human biology
Archaeology - studies past societies based on material remains
Linguistics - studies construction and use of language
example of Indicative statement and Metastatement
- IS= representation of a van as suporting the idea of a soccer mom
- MS= a van that literally says soccer mom
- metastatement's exaggerate the indicative statements
not killing the cattle helps them survive
What are zebu cattle used for (if not for meat)?
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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