description of culture
|Mechinisms for change||
Variation,superfecundity(fertility), competion for food, fittest( # of offspring.)
a relative by marriage
Also have: Individualistic.
different cultural symbol-based traditions associated with subgroups in the same complex society
|Tourist Gaze Coined By||
form of sociopolitical organization usually based on horticulture or pastoralism. socioeconomic stratification and centralized rule are absent in tribes, and there is no means of enforcing political decisions.
reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains (artifacts)
|examples of strepsirhines||
lemurs and lorises
point of view- outside view
severe malnutrition in children resulting from a diet excessively high in carbohydrates and low in protein
Violence that situations, institutions, and social, political, and economic structures exert.
Horticulture, surplus, division of labor, moka = keeps peace, holds tribe together, gives status. Tribe- New Guinea in the film 'Ongka's Big Moka'
from order of Anthropoidea
dental formula 2.1-3.3
nostrils face laterally
no bony ear tube
in a primate dominance hierarchy, BLANK is the act of giving way to a more dominant individual
any position that determines where someone fits in society
- the authoritative imposition of something negative or unpleasant on a person in response to behavior deemed wrong by an individual or group
- Studied by Michael Foucault
- Most people obey to avoid repercussions, fear of being caught
Molecules that are responsible for making chemical copy of a gene needed for a specific protein, that is, for transcription phase of protein synthesis
exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact
Ceremony where the chief collects goods from all of the villagers
organized armed resistance to an established government or authority in power.
--Radical Change in a society, culture.
--In political arena, refers to the forced overthrow of an old gov. and establishment of a new one.
--Involve a more radical turnover than rebellions.
--E.g. The U.S. Revolutionary War.
--E.g. Muslim fundamentalists in Iran toppled the Shah, replaced him with Ayatollah Khomeni.
--Many in Latin America.
The total complement of inherited traits or genes of an organism.
new family lives with husbands, mothers, brother
|Airline seats as example of circulation:||
Nanook eats dog at every meal.
a philosophical system concerned w/ positive facts and phenomena & including speculaton
changes in allele frequencies in populations and usually does not result in speciation
unequal distribution of rewards between men and women
One of the earliest archaeological sites outside of Africa, located in Israel south of the Sea of Galilee and dated between 1.4 and 1 million years ago
descent group whose members claim common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it (stipulated descent)
corresponding or similar in position or structure or function or characteristics, EX. "the wing of a bat and the arm of a man are homologous"
|development anthropologists were first hired to work in which phase of the project cycle||
|____________ are/is important in societies where the accumulation of wealth or property could upset the more-or-less egalitarian social order.||
|nonhuman primate use of language||
productivitydisplacementarguments, lies, humor
An observable or measurable feature of an organism
second period of cellular growth occurs, cell is ready to divide at end of this phase
The difference between informal and formal speech
Signs that have no necessary or natural connection to the things they stand for
respect for human diversity, willing to learn new ways
study humans from a biological perspective
a food- procurement strategy based on crop production without soil preparation, fertilizedrs, irriagation, or use of draft animals
The occurrence of two physically distinct forms of a species, based on sexual characteristics as well as non-sexual ones such as body size.
anything we can perceive with our senses that stands for something else
Places where people cant practice agriculture
|The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis||
Theory that different languages produce different ways of thinking
the study of human biology, history, and the learned and shared patterns of human behavior
Population size is limited by food supply. People must compete for food.
this skeleton was found 80% complete, short arms, long legs, young male 6' tall, cranial capacity 900 cc
Arboreal primates spend a lot of time?
A In Trees
B On the Ground
C In Water
D In the Snow
a network of relatives within which individuals possess certain mutual rights and obligations
short term in expectations of return
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
A change in the biological structure or lifeways of an individual or population by which it becomes better fitted to survive and reproduce in its environment.
characterizes cultures that may be historically unrelated, but have limited similarities because they have similar ways of adapting to the environment.
a form of political organization based on powerful central government, which may or may not be kin based but has authority to wield power over most aspects of its members' lives
ethnographers look for them who can teach them of the culture, and help them gain an insider's viewpoint
-Litanies as a genre of speech that encapsulated perspectives on the tumultuous events of perestroika, effected value transformations through which suffering engendered distinction, sacrifice created status, and loss produced gain; litanies as a genre that helped to sustain relative powerlessness and alienation from political processes
-Litanies are passages in conversation in which the speaker would enunciate a series of complaints, grievances, or worries about problems and losses and often comment on these things with a rhetorical question such as 'why are things so bad with us'
-Litanies ritualized Russian speech, and established a kind of ritual liminality (Turner) in which some form of generalized social bond/ sense of community emerges; by way of their articulation, litanies offered access to a sense of belonging to this great collective community of suffering Russians
-Every litany as an articulation of the speaker's identity and world outlook
-4 Different categories of litanies such as anti-soviet litanies, pro-soviet/anti-perestroika litanies, 'populist' litanies, and Russophile litanies
stone tools made by early homo
languages descended from a parent language
Study of human language through time and space.
seperation of workers from the means of production
to make known by open declaration; publish; proclaim formally or put into operation (a law, decree of a court, etc.).
|At Oldivaui gorge that h habalis lived at about the same time as A.Boisei and H Erectus||
Period begining around 20,000 B.P. in the Middle East and 12,00 B.P. in Europe, a wider range of plant and animal life was hunted, gathered, collected, caught, and fished.
|Which theory thinks that with the first spread of homo erectus out of Africa, there was a continuous gene flow between populations; Neanderthals evolved locally into modern humans as a result of the continuous gene flow between Europe and Africa. Sees the||
|Two eyes point forward, set in sockets (depth perception!!)||
|Puebloan Culture :||
were an ancient Native American culture centered on the present-day Four Corners area of the United States, comprising southern Utah, northern Arizona, northwest New Mexico, and a lesser section of Colorado
A thin flake whose length is usually more than twice its width. In the blade technique of toolmaking, a core is prepared but shaping apiece of flint with hammer stones into a pyramidal or cylindrical form. Blades are then struck off until the core is used up.
man goes to live where the woman lives
a bony ring encircling the lateral side of the eye but not forming a complete cup around the eye globe
Studies language in its social and cultural context, across space and over time.
value judgments about the quality of a work of art or form of expression.
group of persons of similar age and the same sex who move through some or all of life's stages together
the way in which societies transform material resources of the environment into food.
men and women speak same language with differente dialects (ex: group of men more likely to interrupt eachother)
what was an early form of science based on incorrect notions of cause and effect
based on the assumptions that an immediate return is not expected and that the value of the exchanges will balance out in the long run.
taking in more than you need; appearing rich
|family of procreation||
nuclear family established when one marries and has children.
|sheep and goats||
What kinds of early animal domesticates were found in northern Iraq?
on two feet; walking habitually on two legs
a form of competition that explicitly seeks to bring about a flow of blood, or even death, of human- human contests, human- animal contests, or animal- animal contestants
|A/an __________ system is one in which goods are produced, distributed, and consumed.||
A distinction that is made based on the connection through marriage.
a stone tool tradition named after the Olduvai Gorge (Kenya) where the first specimen of the oldest human tools were found (2-2.5 mya)
the stem that holds seeds to the stalk in wheat and other plants. Changed with domestication to be tough.
|Rites of Passage||
Rituals or ceremonies that mark the transition of an individual or group from one life stage to the next
|Cultural Resource Management (CRM)||
The application of archaeology to preserve and protect historic structures and prehistoric sites.
or the documentation of all aspects of culture in present day which is one thing that cultural anthropology does.
|4 Forces of Evolution||
2. gene flow
3. gene drift
4. natural selection
more than two persons form the family unit, all members of the group are considered to be married to all other members of the group, all members of the marriage share responsibility for any children arising from the marriage
in Tabasco, Mexico was home to the Olmec civilization, which was the first civilization in the Americas from as early as 1600 bc
the habit of treating the ways we live now as "normal" or best or timeless
a system of transfers in which one party seeks to make a profit
|What are the primary nonvocal elements?||
a. Kinesics: “body language”
b. Proxemics: use of space
c. Haptics (touch)
d Olfactics (smell)
f. Others: physical appearance (clothing, grooming)
|Was H. habilis a home body or a roamer?||
|Phylogenetic Species Concept||
defines a species as a set of organisms with a unique genetic history
Came from same tree of life as we did but on different branch; we share similar physical qualities, ability to adapt etc
process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides by mitosis, meiosis, or binary fission
|what do foragers do?||
foragers hunt large and small game, fish, and collect various plant foods
|Invention of PsuedoTradition||
Colonial powers with the help of local people invent traditions to keep people under control.
| Homo Sapian Sapians (Double Wise Man)||
Fully modern humans
Innovation becomes the driving force in cultural change, not genetics
• Spearthrower, harpoon, lamps with wicks that burn oil, hot rock boiling
• Musical instruments, carved figurines (Venus), cave art
|XV. Consequences: Upper Paleolithic Life||
a. Longer life spans. They could've been helping take care of each other. Their livelihood was very stable, not as dangerous as Neandertal life. Fewer injuries and fewer diseases.
b. Fewer injuries and diseased individuals. Some notion of public health. Early brewing, distillation. Beer wouldn't carry disease.
c. Higher population densities. AMHs live in larger social groups.
|What are some examples of cats?||
Old world monkeys, apes, and hominids
| Types of Religious Study||
Devotional - People are taught a particular religion
Academic - Studying religion in order to understand it, not to practice it
Theological - combination of the first two
|Power is dependent on?||
- power is a struggle for who has the power to bring about the kind of change that they want
|Where does replication occur and why do we need it?||
• DNA replication occurs in the nucleus of a cell. This process is important because a cell can't function properly without the appropriate amount of DNA. But before a cell can divide, its DNA must first replicate or make an identical copy of itself. When replication is complete, there are two DNA molecules. Each molecule consists of one new and one original DNA strand.
|when it was very cold the two ice glaciers would...||
coalesce and made it impossible to cross