Anthropology Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Females dominate
-horticulturalist, pastoralists-private porperty minimal accumulation of wealth. more sedentary than bands.-horticulture and pastoralism.-trace lineage from one side of their family.-bridewealth.-could have gerontracy.-sodalities-lead by bigman. no real position just based off of respect.-religion could be aninimism, shaminism, sorcery
paired cranial bones
kula ring
trobriand is
largest sections of time
consanguine kin
sang=blood, blood relatives
Charles Darwin, HMS Beagle
Bureau of anthropologic ethnography
niger delta
water spirit lover
ranked subgroups, differentiated in economic terms
borrowing of traits between culture.
things or quanities that vary
biological father of a child
ancestor spirits
ghosts of dead relatives
traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them.
religious movemtent that ruled afganistan from 1996-2001. Now serves as an underground insurgency commit jihad a religious duty for Islam
deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material consisting of a complex molecule whose base structure directs the synthesis of proteins
failure of chromosomes in meiosis
– ideology promoting many children
-A system of social stratification whose membership is defined by birth.
-A person's membership in a caste is closed. Persons may not pass from one division to another
-The creation of new categories through "mixing" may be possible, but usually the person of mixed race is deemed to belong to the lower of the two racial statuses.
-The hierarchical arrangement between castes may be changeable.
study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions.
an extended unilineal kinship group, often consisting of several lineages, whose members claim common descent from a remote ancestor, usually legendary or mythological
the tool industry found among Neanderthals in Europe and Southeast Asia, and their human contemporaries in northern Africa, during the Middle Paleolithic, generally dating from about 40,000 to 125,000 years ago
food production
cultivation of plants and domestication of animals, developed 12,000-10,000 years ago
Vertical Transmission
transmission from parents; down through time in generation
The term anthropologists use for on-location research.
a political leader who coordinates group activites and is a village spokesman but who serves only with the consent of the community and has no coercive power
Physical Anthropology
consideres: mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, the fossil record of human evolution
Charms, material objects believed to embody supernatural power that can aid or protect the owner
residence pattern where a married couple may choose either matrilocal or patrilocal residence.
Site where bipedal footprints were found in Africa.
A unilineal kinship group descended from a common ancestor or founder who lived four to six generations ago, and in which relationships among members can be exactly studied in genealogical terms.
I. Evolution & Natural Selection
a. How did people think about the origin of life before Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace? People have always been interested about the origin of life. How is it that there are creatures at the bottom of the ocean, tops of
The systematic description of a particular culture based on firsthand observation.
Decreased with government and becomes stricter
a type of revitalization movement intended to adopt th characteristics of a foreign and "modern" society, in the process abandoning some or all of the "traditional" charactistics of the society undergoing the movement
unilineal descent
-patrilineal descent and matrilineal descent are types of unilineal descent
-descent rule uses one line only (male or female)
The relationship between habitus and cultural capital
Natural selection
1. variation exists: randomly generated, heritable2. populations tend to increase3. resources are finite, competition occurs4. best adapted (equipped) individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce
The ability of individuals or groups to impose their will upon others and make them do things even against their own wants or wishes.
Class System
-A system of social stratification whose membership is defined primarily in terms of wealth, occupation and life chances.
-Persons may pass from one division to another, but the arrangement of strata is structural and unchanging.
-Class membership is almost always marked by cultural distinctions ("taste")
Eastern North America
development of agriculture involved both the domestication of a wide range of local plants and the adoption of maize
Culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies.
The exchange of genes between paired chromosomes during cell duplication.
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Symbol (signs)
a symbol is an arbitrary representation. We just decide meanings of words because someone before us made that decision
"white man's burden"
justification for british imperialism. paternalistic and racist doctrine asserting that native peoples in empire were incapable of governing themselves, and British guidance was needed to civilize and christianize them
Idealist Perspective
A theoretical approach stressing the primacy of superstructure in cultural research and analysis.
Culture is All encompassing
all people are cultured
the preception of social space cross culturally
referring to the societal system in which a married couple resides with or near the wife's parents, thus the female offspring of a mother remain living in (or near) the mother's house, thereby forming large clan-families, typically consisting of three or four generations living in the same place.
late 1700s
period when Ashkenazic Jews from Central Europe and Germany migrate to America
Movement throughout the year by the whole pastoral group (men, women, and children) with their animals; more generally, such constant movement in pursuit of strategic resources.
can be natural fluvial landforms or constructed flood control channels. The term usually applies to a sloped or mountainous terrain in xeric and desert climates
Devaluing a group because of its assumed attributes, values, or capabilities
Animal Husbandry
agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock
In biology, race refers to a subpopulation or variety of a species that differs somewhat in gene frequencies from other varieties of the species. All members of a species can interbreed an produce viable offspring. Many anthropologists do not think that the concept of race is usually applied produce viable offspring. Many anthropologists do no think that the concept of race is usually applied to humans because human do not fall into geographic populations that can be easily distinguished in terms of different sets a biological or cultural traits. Thus, race in humans is largely a culturally assigned category.
An extreme form of empiricism. One that advocates that tangible, sensory facts are the only legitimate way of knowing and rejects all other forms of knowledge as non-scientific.
The study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view, utilizing ethnographic accounts and developing anthropological theories that help explain why certain important differences or similarities occur among groups.
the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethic group or culture
There are no anthropoid primates on Madagascar today.
divided or dividing into two sharply distinguished parts or classifications
single continent of all earth's land until 125 mya
According to Selka, what was Brazil's answer to the "race problem"?
population pressure
-very famous in recent years-wild resources became depleted and agriculture became worth doing
Marriage: Rite of Incorporation
wedding, marriage, 'I do'
Reasons for four-field approach
Americans were interested in Amerindians and sought to preserve what they could before their cultures were further tampered with. They collected multiple kinds of data, including cultural, linguistic, biological, and archaeological. In addition, the four subfields are interrelated, and have a common interest in evolution of culture.
three or more copies of a particular chromosomes in a cell
Life history
Of a key consultant; a personal portrait of someone's life in a culture.
A refuse or garbage disposal area in an archaeological site
social class
a person's position in society in economic terms
Historic linguistics
how a language develops and changes over time
Participant observation
the technique of learning a people's culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended period of time
 Results of Domestication
 Development of specialists
 Population increase
 State creation
 Standing armies
 Bureaucracy
 Taxes
 Class stratification
Name the subfields of anthropology
physical anthropology; cultural anthropology; linguistic anthropolgy; archeological anthropology.
Political Organization
The way power is distributed and embedded in society; the means through which a society creates and maintains social order and reduces social disorder
vitamin D
from the sun, aids in calcium absorbtion
New World Monkeys
spider monkey; golden lion tamarin; howler monkey
Balanced Reciprocity
More-or-less even exchange of goods or services in the non-market transaction of reciprocity
revitalization movement
proposes that society can be improved through the adoption of a set of new religious beliefs
Out comes of Agriculture?
Malnurition, but alot of development
third gender in india. those born with ambiguous sexual anatomy, homosexuality, infertile & impotent men, and infertile women.
Industrial collectivized agriculture
a form of industrialized agriculture that involves state control of land, technology, and goods produced
Q-mode analysis
comparison of cultures by the number of traits that they have in common
critical legal anth
an approach within legal anthropology that examines how law and judicial systems serve to maintain and expand dominant power interests rather than protecting marginal and less powerful people
sagittal crest
runs along midline of the skull, attachment for chewing muscles
Hooton's Impact
Left a wealth of PhDs including:
- Paul BAker
-  Stanley Garn
-Sherwood Washburn
-William Howells
-Harry L. Shapiro
characteristics of traditional economices
goods organized for local consumptionunder productionfew costs in energy etcflexible economies- can move aroundreciprocity is practiced- neighborly
Pastoralism & Ecology
take animals around to different areas to feed them off the land; then when herder was hungry, kill one of the livestock.
used for or related to the keeping or grazing of sheep or cattle
space in the tooth row for each canine of the opposite jaw to fit into when the jaws are closed
sounds that are made with both lips of the same time
LIPS - p, b, m, n,
Can be voiced and unvoiced
The die out of an entire species. The beginning of triasic period a major extinction occurred.
Kinnewick Man
remains of a prehistoric man found on the Columbia River, ownership of the bones is a subjects of great controversy
Cognatic descent groups
Descent is traced through either or both parents.
Idioms of practice:
Agreed upon uses for appropriate media uses.
Yanomamo: Forging alliances-
-Threat of enemy attack: no village can afford to be without alliances
-Trade relations, feasting, marriage (cross-cousin marriage preferred)
Birth rates in US history
1800: Agricultural society, 7 children/woman
1900: Industrial society, 3.56 children
1978-present: advanced industrial, 1.8 children
Upper Paleolithic
The last part (10,000 to 40,000 years ago) of the Old Stone Age, featuring tool industries characterized by long slim blades and an explosion of creative symbolic forms.
development project
a set of activities designed to put development policies into action
What is redistribution?
Some sort of political organization of religious elite.
man has more than one wife at the same time
What is an ethnic group?
People who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinct group based on cultural features like:
Shared ancestry, common origin, language, customs, traditional beliefs
domestication main point
-Problem is with most things that are complicated it is probably not just one factor leading to something
*Multiple factors
*Both environmental and social
*Probably wouldn't be the same in each area
Ota Benga
pygmy man displayed at the zoo as the missing link
Rites of intensification
a ritual that takes place during a crisis in the life of the group and serves to bind individuals together
Today food foraging societies
are found only in remote, marginal areas.
Dental formulas - humans, old world monkeys, great apes vs. new world monkeys
2/1/2/3 vs. 2/1/3/2 or 2/1/3/3
old world apes, A and B
Which of the following is characterized by the cercopithecoid dental formula
proper roles for applied anthropologists
1. identifying needs for change that local people perceive
2. Working with people to design cultureally appropriate and sensitive change
3.protecting people from harmful policies and projects that mayy threaten them.d
"Understanding Race" - Why might racism occur?
-To establish and ascribe hierarchy in a society not based on kinship but on perceived physical characteristics.
-The need to differentiate group membership.
Out of Africa/Complete Replacement Model
Modern humans emerged as a new species between 200 and 150 kya in Africa. Some populations left Africa at 100 kya spread throughout the Old World. Earliest fossils of anatomically modern humans.
Describe the ethnographic technique of participant observation, its benefits and limitations.
it is the core fieldwork method,you go into a society and try to join in and immerse yourself in culture as much as possible.Strengths: Naturalism: integration, intimacy,Repeated opportunities, Holistic view, Serendipitous discoveries
Drawbacks: At times, physical danger, and Limited perspective can introduce bias
Identify the ethnic flags that mark both the Runakuna and the Mistikuna.
the runa dress in traditional garb and they chew coca in public and they most all speak quechua the misti do not chew coca and public and dress more western and they tend to speak more spanish and are more industrialized and live in cities
growling, screaming
Very simple
Franz Boas
Historical Particularism
Irrigation/terracing? - Teotihuacan
Characteristics of foraging societies-
(Food Collecting) Systematic collection of wild vegetation, hunting animals and fishing. Relying on nature to make a living. Hunting and gathering
influenced by many factors
Thomas Malthus
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production. (p. 867)
Walking on two legs
conclusion and reformation
revise your hypothesis
What are primates adapted for?
Restrictive reservation life, Military defeat by whites, Extincition of buffalo
Culture is Shared
members of group/groups
socially approved use of powers
society recognizes man/woman's right of sexual access and children
More building/ business/ population growth
patterns of culture characteristics of such groups
they come out during the day
Baseball Rituals
pre-game, during game, private, public, food or clothing, time or motion.
A prescribed formal behavior for occasions not given over to technological routine, having reference to beliefs in invisible beings or power.
1. Rites of Seperation = Preliminal Rites
2. Transition Rites = Liminal Rites.
3. Rites of Incorporation = Postliminal Rites.
- more robust, prognathism, large cheeks, sagittal crest, evolutionary dead end, dish like face
The traditional Indian practice in which a widow commits suicide by throwing herself on her dead husband's funeral pyre.
Thomas Aquinas
religion Scholar, used biblical references that supported the idea that there is ranking in the Bible-Devine Justification
ranked society in which relations among villages as well as among individuals are unequal
Settlement of a dispute through negotiation assisted by an unbiased third party
Erasmus Darwin
Grandfather to Charles. Discussed evolution by means of natural and sexual selection and concept of inheritance of acquired characteristics.
-equal access to the resources necessary for survival
Disease in hunter-gatherer societies
parasites and zoonoses
__- mutual exchange between social equals. Those related by kinship or marriage.
Han Dynasty
Confucius was alive during the
different symbol based patterns and traditions associated with particular groups in the same complex society
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Oldest suggested hominid species, 7-6mya, discovered in Chad, 2001
referring to the inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural approaches- one of anthropology's hallmarks
Anthropologists are most at home working from the observable aspects of a culture and building narratives from those observations.
(muscle attachment)ridge
raised, elongated area of bone
the basic category of biological classification, composed of individuals that resemble one another are able to breed with one another
examines the material remains of past cultures left behind on or below the surface of the earth
achieved status
social position acquired through our own efforts or accomplishments or taken on voluntarily
A system of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules
gender roles
Expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each sex.
De facto discrimination
Practice of discrimination arbitrarily by individuals or groups.
Ethnographic Analogy
Method of comparative cultural study that extrapolates to the past from recent of current societies.
Russian mobs who persecuted Jews by burning their homes and assaulting them
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
Modern looking humans undisputed example of which appeared about about 50,000 years ago, may have appeared earlier.
Absolute Date
Determining specific date for an artifact
scavenging hypothesis
ROBERT BRAIN: early hominims were scavengers and often eaten themselves, brain w/2 puncture marks and leopard jaw = punctures
DK site
had a stone circle around it
-indicating a possible hut
-bones and stone tools scattered around
-much more human like site
A prohibition, which if not observed, leads to a penalty inflicted by magic, spirtual force or religion.
generalists; many kinds of foods make up their diet
Hawaiian System
Kinship reckoning in which all relatives of the same sex and generation are referred to by the same term. Also known as the generational system.
the work tasks that people perform universally are distributed according to sex and age
groups of ordinary people hold rituals or ceremonies for the entire community or parts of it. Rituals are not necessarily connected with the supernatural. (food producing tribes)
market economy
everyone makes his livelihood by selling something to the market
agriculture was the worst mistake of humans because it increased the likely hood of diseases
Arboreal Adaption
also known as scansorial adaption. Found in animals that live in trees or climb on rocks and walls.
- chest, girdles, ribs and limbs are strong and stout
- feet and hands become prehensile(catching) with opposable digits
- For facilitating the clinging, some have elongated claws (ex. squirrels)
- rounded adhesive pads at the tip of their digits (ex. frogs)
- often tail becomes prehensile as well (monkeys, chameleons)
Cultural Consultant
refers to individuals the ethnographer gets to know in the field, the people who teach him or her about their culture, who provide the emic perspective
use of language is a distinctive ---trait
presents given by the husband's family to the wife's kin before, during, or after the wedding ceremony.
an observable or measurable feature of an organism
All the genes in a population
Gene pool
Varna - 4 Parts
Brahmins - Priests
Kshatriya- Warriors
Vaishya- Merchants
Shudra- Laborers
active, passive, observation
Humans are BLANK teachers, whereas chimps are BLANK teachers; in fact, it might be a bit of misnomer to call chimps teachers to begin with. Chimp infants seem to pick up protoculture not by being taught directly but by BLANK of their mother performing some form of protoculture (using a stick to catch termites, breaking nuts with a rock, etc).
refers to the ability to talk about things which are not present in place or time
More then two in the marriage. The norm. One husband, more then one wife.
Reasons for genetic drift:
random death, nonreproduction among individuals, differences in gamete production, and founder effect.
Unstructured interview
A fieldwork method in which the anthropologist con­ducts a relatively free-flowing conversation with an informant/consultant, either without prepared questions or unconstrained by these questions.
Only one crime was not substituted, which is:
Pre-Meditative Murder
wrestling as a performance
Character role, ethical identifier, Audience, persona
Kinship Marriage
Incest (Marrying one from the same group)
longitudinal research
long term study of a cummunity, region, society, or other unit, usually based on repeated visits
Adaptive Strategies of H.erectus
hunting adaptations: improved tools, skeleton that permitted long distance stalking and endurance during the hunt, larger/longer legged body permitting long-distance hunting of large prey. An increase in cranial capacity. Skeleton and chewing apparatus provide biological evidence of hunting and gathering. Small amount of speech in order to coordinate hunting and culture.
people who must sell their labor to survive
c. Evolutionary Theory
set of testable hypotheses asserting that living organisms change over time and give rise to new organisms. A common ancestry
Survey Research
The study of society through sampling, statistical analysis, and impersonal data collection.
one of the "X" shape of chromosomes visible once replication is complete; sister chromatids are exact copies of each other
the number of alleles that occur at the same loci on a paired chromosome.
the science of the forms of life existing in former geologic periods, as represented in their fossils
franz boaz
surveyed the size and shape of immigrants over time and found that they change. this disproves eugenics.
animal husbandry
breeding, care and use of herd animals such as sheep, goats, camels, cattle, yaks
a person who precedes another in an office, position, etc.
The strand of DNA found in the nucles of eukaryotes that contians hundreds-thousands of genes
Idea that human history is a story of steady advancing from living at natures mercy to controlling nature.
General degeneration
as the person gets older the bones wear down so you can tell that way
descriptive linguistics
this is a branch of linguistics that involves unraveling at language through recording and describing all of its features
H. Erectus
Which was bigger H. Erectus, or H. Habilis?
egalitarian society
a society in which everyone has about equal rank, access to and power over basic resources
Neandertal description:
-Male C.C: 1600 cm3 -Female C.C: 1300 cm3 *Cranium Shape: Back part is much bigger (nuchal muscles) - Mid face is pulled forward -Large cranial capacity + Little forehead = Back of skull expansion. -Huge supraorbital tori (brow ridges) -Not much forehead development
besides a tomb, what other function did the Tomb of the Eagles fulfill?
contacting the underworld
refers to the study of the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture
Hindu caste system
1. priest and scholars 2. warrior caste 3. merchants 4. menial works 5. untouchables
What is relative dating?
Oldest method, less specific, relies on stratigraphy, based on rock layers
Diversity of Labor (Economic Specialization)
Some people provided surplus food while others worked as artisans and craftspeople
Development of new technologies; beginning of extensive trade systems
1) A sound or set of sounds that make a difference in meaning to the speakers of a language
2) A basic, distinctive unit of speech sound in a language
"going to the field"
going to another place to directly observe and collect data
Homo florensiensis
74 kya / more than likely turned into archaic modern humans
food regime
or the way a society gets its food supply
what are the four forces of evolution
Natural selectionmutationgene flow (resulting from migration)genetic drift
"A Car is a Bad Cow"
-comparing cows and cars
-cows don't cause problems unless when they are sick and about to die while cars cause constant problems
-cars are important aspect to the livelihood of ppl living in the US just as the cow is valued in Nuer community
On the Origin of Species
book outlining the theory of natural selection
Genres of speech
-This is an idea we get from Ries
-She considers the split between the male and female factions of the population of her interlocutors, she also looks at the differences between formal and informal
-She suggests that different social actors have different ways of talking about different things
-Suggest that they locate themselves by way of aligning with and employing these various genres, in this sense talk can be seen as not just "models of life but models for it" as Reis writes
-Ries writes that "the liquid of cultural meaning does not flow freely but comes in its own particular cultural containers;" "speech genres as conventions and patterns, proudly entrenched through widespread reiteration
-Russian genres themselves as blurry, unfixed and interpenetrating but they are nonetheless fully constitutive and constraining patterns in the overall production of speech acts
-"gender norms, power and status appropriateness and other marks of identity are maintained through the correct deployment of the genres of speaking... values and beliefs are well protected and effectively transmitted through culturewide observance of the basic protocols of genre—an observance which is automatically socialized as part of the acquisition of language"
-Provides the example of her attempt to employ the American genre of 'practical-problem solving' whilst engaged in conversation with her interlocutors who were complaining about food shortages; she realized that her Russian interlocutors did not find her question (which posed a solution to the problem) as appropriate because the distinctively American genre in which the question exists did not fit with the genres of Russian discourses, but rather the genre threatened to contradict their genre and threatened to deflate it; her question was accordingly ignored by her interlocutors (they avoided it by ignoring it all together in ritualized speech settings)
-She presents a schematic diagram of the Russian talk world she encounters which is arranged along two axes that define the relations of Russian conversational units by way of gender (horizontally plotted) and power (vertically plotted)
El Sebou': Egyptian Birth Ritual: Film
Rite of Passage. Sebou' ritual is celebrated by Egyption families on teh seventh day after birth to incorporate the newborn into "the cultural world of kin and the sexes".
What is beneficial of argon argon dating
and advanced measurement of tradition k-ar to date single grains
What are the three divisions of the Paleolithic Age?
Lower (early) - roughly associated with Homo erectus
Middle-archaic Homo sapiens
Upper (late) - anatomically modern humans including Neandertals
nature v. nurture over homosexuality
are you born gay or do you develop it over time?
What is a pidgin language & how is it created?
It is a language made up of vocabulary of multiple languages.
E.g. Spanglish
Created when the syntax & vocab. of two or more different languages are combined and simplified.
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