AP 99 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Socrates
...
plato
greek philosopher
Spanish- American War
1898
Czar
absolute ruler of Russia
Hypocritical
pretending to be virtuous; deceiving
Ex: Education exposed many Indians to liveral or radical ideas and convinced them that it was hypocritical of British - with their long tradition of civil liberties and representative government - not to apply those liberties to nonwhite races. (B.277)
1789-1783 CE
French Revolution and Napolean
scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
viceryoalties
four territories in South America
caliph
The political and religious successor to Muhammad.
Polynesians
people from Polynesia; reached islands such as Fiji and Samoa
Bosnia Herzegovina
which territory does the Austria-Hungarian empire annex in 1908- it also is the region where Franz Ferdinand was assassinated (the city was Sarejevo)
footloose
free to go whenever one likes
Abe Lincoln
President, challenged Douglas to debate
Samsara
the cycle of life in Hinduism
Chavin
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills.
rice
After much experimentation, this crop emerged as the principal export crop in Carolina. It was then an exotic food in England; none of this crop was sent to London in the first supply ships to Carolina, but it was grown in Africca and the Carolinians were soon paying premium prices for West African slaves experienced in this crops complex cultivation
From which nation do most Spanish-speaking Americans come from?
Mexico
Kellogg
Coolidge's Secretary of State; Nobel Peace Prize winner for a pact made in 1929 (Last name only)
Churchill, Winston
British prime minister during World War II; responsible for British resistance to German air assaults.
SALT I
-1972
-US and USSR
-Treaty to limit the number of missiles in each nation
-lead to the SALT II discussion and a slowdown of the arms race.
George Grenville
Prime Minister who began revenue taxation
Greece
Which country is known as the "intellectual jewel of Europe"?
Korean War
1950-1953; , conflict between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in which at least 2.5 million persons lost their lives. The war reached international proportions in June 1950 when North Korea, supplied and advised by the Soviet Union, invaded the South. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal participant, joined the war on the side of the South Koreans, and the People's Republic of China came to North Korea's aid. After more than a million combat casualties had been suffered on both sides, the fighting ended in July 1953 with Korea still divided into two hostile states. Negotiations in 1954 produced no further agreement, and the front line has been accepted ever since as the de facto boundary between North and South Korea.
In 380 CE christianity was proclaimed the official religion of the empire by emperor...
?
For Duquesne
Defended Ohio River for French; Braddock tried to capture it in French and Indian War, but ill-disciplined force is routed and British take huge losses; finally captured years later
inelasticity
The inability to expand or contract rapidly.
Tokugawa Shogunate
Referred to as bakufu (tent government) because it was supposed to be a temporary replacement to imperial rule. Founded by Ieyasu who, with his descendents, ruled Japan from 1600-1867. Tried to control the daimyo to prevent the return of civil war, which had dominated for the entire 16th century (called sengoku). Court was based in Tokyo (then called Edo). With the policy of alternate attendance, they were able to keep the daimyo from gaining too much power (they spent money on good houses rather than armies). Shoguns closely controlled relations between Japan and the outside world. Agricultural production increased under them (bar graph time) leading to population increase. Samurai became learned in the arts, because peace was widespread. Merchants became more prominent. Neo-Confucianism was sponsored by the shoguns, but didn't catch on.
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
protestant reformation
(600-1450) martin luther printed a lost of what he disapproved of the church which led to lutherans and calvinism(john calvin), king henry VIII took political power over the church
Manifest Destiny
a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God).This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Khanbaliq
"city of the khan"; previously ruled by Jurchens but was new capital for the Mongols
John Adams
Federalist president during the XYZ affair.
Tea Act
This act revived American passions about the issue of taxation without representation. The law provided no new tax on tea. But the original Townshend duty on the commodity - the only one of the original duties that had not been repealed - survived. 2: 1763-1775
Mauryan Empire:
extensive and powerful empire in ancient India
Dorothea Dix
(AJ) , Activist who helped improve conditions of mental patients
Chavín culture
Appeared in highlands of Andes between 1800 and 1200 b.c.e.; typified by ceremonial centers with large stone buildings; greatest ceremonial center was Chavín de Huantar; characterized by artistic motifs.
Hamilton's Economic Plan
1790-1791: tries to stable American finances. 1) Assumption of State debts 2) Creation of a National Bank 3) tariffs
Francis I
King of France; a Renaissance monarch; patron of the arts; imposed new controls on the Catholic church; ally of the Ottoman sultan against the Holy Roman emperor.
Taj Mahal
beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife
James Wolfe
the British general whose success in the Battle of Quebec won Canada for the British Empire. Even though the battle was only fifteen minutes, Wolfe was killed in the line of duty. This was a decisive battle in the French and Indian War.
Townshend Duties
Popularly referred to as the Townshend Duties, the Revenue Act of 1767 taxed glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea entering the colonies. The colonists objected to the fact that the act was clearly designed to raise revenue exclusively for England rather than to regulate trade in a manner favorable to the entire British empire.
At-Large Elections
Votes went for whole district, not individual sections; reduced corruption
Mayflower Compact
foundation for government in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, consent of governed
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Indian Muslim politician who founded the state of Pakistan. A lawyer by training, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913. As leader of the League from the 1920s on, he negotiated with the British/INC for Muslim Political Rights
John Hancock
rich colonist who made money by smuggling around the Navigation Laws
Iroquois Confederation
Nearly a military power consisting of Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, and Senecas. It was founded i the late 1500s. The leaders were Degana Widah and Hiawatha. The Indians lived in long houses with relatives. Men dominated, but a person's background was determined by the women's family. Different groups banded together but were separate fur traders ad fur suppliers. Other groups joined; they would ally with either the French or the English depending on which would be the most to their advantage.
Eightfold Path
Principal teaching of Buddha. Code of behavior. Provides the answer to alleviating the suffering of all humankind and leads to Nirvana, right views, right thought, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right endeavor, right awareness, and right contemplation. seen as the "midle way"
mestizos
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory
______ was the best known of the christian humanists
Erasmus
Haiti DIlemma
(RR) 1990s, had 30 year dictatorship, soon ends, then Bertrand Aristide overthrows with military, and UN awith US use mandate to restore constituional rule and Aristide's presidency.
Mary Lyon
(AJ) in 1837 founded the first college for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary
The Swahili city state of Kilwa was ferociously sacked in 1505 by the
Portuguese mariners
Reports on the Public Credit
Hamilton's report that contained recommendations that would at once strengthen the country's credit, enable it to defer paying its debt, and entice wealthy investors to place their capital at its service
10. John Winthrop
He advocated for the banishment of Anne Hutchinson in 1637.
Dominion of Englad
1686- formed by James I because Navigaton laws were being ignored & he didn't like their religion, included Mass., Rhode Island, Conn., New Hamp. (later NY & NJ), charters taken away and governed by the king; dissolves when William & Mary take the throne in 1688
Niagara Movement
A group of black and white reformers who organized the NAACP in 1909
Joseph Smith
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
Dominoe Theory
The US theory that stated, if one country would fall to Communism then they all would.
Standard Time
set by the railroads; 4 timezones, 1 hour apart were created in the US and soon these time zones were used for everything, not just railroads
Oceania
a large group of islands in the south Pacific including Melanesia and Micronesia and Polynesia (and sometimes Australasia and the Malay Archipelago)
Berlin Wall
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by the Soviet Union to keep citizens from escaping to the West
"Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute" was a popular slogan which referred to american anger over
the XYZ affair
Grain Stabilization/ Cotton Stabilization Corporation
Two corporations created to bolster sagging prices by buying up surpluses; suffocated by an avalanche of farm produce
John Ross
John Ross was a Cherokee chief and was considered a mixed blood leader. Ross encouraged the process social and cultural accommodation. The Cherokee had always been a hunting and gathering tribe but as times were changing they slowly turned to villages with settled agricultural settlements or they just left to form small farms themselves. Others began to develop sawmills, country stores, and blacksmiths stores. The ideas of private property began to take place within tribes, some even learned to talk English, they also began to own some black slaves, and the set up a tribal government.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
formed by black and white students after the Greensboro, Nashville, and Atlanta sit-ins in 1960. established a summer of voting registration in 1963
Geraldine Ferraro
She was the first woman to ever run for VP on a major party ticket
western lands question
why not turn the whole western area over to the central government?; states without western lands had fought equally as hard for American Independence and states with western lands could use them to pay off debt
97. Polynesian migrations
most likely began from the islands of Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, spreading east, south, and north, covering millions of square miles of ocean sparsely dotted with islands.Polynesians migrated throughout the Pacific in sailing canoes, ultimately forming a triangle, whose points are Aotearoa (New Zealand) to the southwest, Rapa Nui (Easter Island) to the east, and the Hawaiian Archipelago to the north.
Social Issues under Reagan
New Right's push for organized prayer public schools and ban on abortion ((RR) against) first female in SC, (RR) also opposed Equal Rights Movement
which of the following statements concerning the mercenaries armies of the later abbasid era is NOT accurate
despite their tendency toward random violence, the loyally defended the abbasid caliphs
gens de couleur
Free men and women of color in Haiti. They sought greater political rights and later supported the Haitian Revolution.
Embargo of 1807 (1807)
It was an american declaration to keep its own ships from leaving port for any foreign destination. jefferson hoped to avoid contact with the vessels of either of the warring sides of the Napoleonic Wars. The result was economic depression in the U.S.; this angered the Federalists, who were well-represented in Northeast commerce and were hit hard by the depression.
Virginia: purpose, problems, failures, successes
was formed by the Virginia Company as a profit-earning venture. Starvation was the major problem; about 90% of the colonists died the first year, many of the survivors left, and the company had trouble attracting new colonists. They offered private land ownership in the colony to attract settlers, but the Virginia Company eventually went bankrupt and the colony went to the crown. Virginia did not become a successful colony until the colonists started raising and exporting tobacco.
brown v. Topeka Board of Education
In 1954, the Supreme Court reversed the 1896 "Plessy v. Ferguson" decision that established the "separate but equal" doctrine. The "Brown" decision found segregation in schools inherently unequal and in violation of the Constitution. The decision led to a long and difficult effort to integrate the nation's public schools
The cult of domesticity/cult of true womanhood:
• Ideals that women were supposed to be perfect ideals of womanhood
• Piety, purity, submission
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