AP Bio 439 Flashcards

Cnidaria
Terms Definitions
Ammonites
shelled cephalopods.
Echinoermata
deuterostomatia; bilaterally symmetrical as larvae, but not adults. Move and feed with internal canals to pump water. Sand dollars, sea stars, sea urchins. Usually slow moving or sessile. Epidermis covers endoskeleton of calcerous plates. Skeletal bumps and spines = prickly. Water vascular system, tube feet. Sexual reproduction through separate male/female individuals fertilizing in water. Parts radiate from center, usu. as 5 spokes (NOT RADIAL).
Dermaptera
earwigs, nocturnal scavengers. Wingless or 2 pairs of wings. Biting mouthparts, posterior pincers. Incomplete metamorphosis.
Phoronids
Tube-dwelling marine lophophorate worms that live buried in the sand within chitin tubes.
Cnidaria
corals, jellies, hydras. Diploblastic, radially symmetrical body plan. Gastrovascular cavity with a single opening—both mouth and anus. Capture prey with tentacles arranged in a ring around the mouth. Contain simplest forms of contractile tissues and nerves. Gastrovascular cavity acts as a hydrostatic skeleton. Have a nerve net, but no brain (radial symmetry is uncephalized).
Cnidae
capsule-like organisms in cnidocytes that explode outward.
Gastropod
developmental process of torsion, where during development the visceral mass rotates 180 degrees such that the anus and mantle cavity are above the head. Often have a single spiral shell for protection, and a distinct head with eyes and tentacles.
Crustaceans
marine and freshwater environment. Highly specialized appendages, inc. antennae. Mouthparts. Legs on thorax, and appendages on abdomen too. Gas exchange across cuticle or gills. Nitrogenous waste diffuses through cuticle, glands for regulation of salt balance in hemolymph.
Mollusca
lophotrochozoan; soft body plan protected by a hard shell in many cases. Snails, slugs, oysters, clams, etc. Coelomates with three parts: muscular foot, visceral mass, mantle. Feed with radula. Usually have separate sexes with gonads in visceral mass. Life cycle often has a trochophore stage.
Blattodea
cockroaches - dorsoventrally flattened body with legs = rapid running. Leathery forewings, fanlike hind wings.
Hydrozoans
class of cnidarian, alternating between polyp and medusa forms (where polyp is more conspicuous).
Tapeworms
Parasites that infect vertebrates including humans. Most have a hook called a scolex that helps them stick to the intestines of the host. They have sacs of eggs called proglottids that lay eggs into feces, which can contaminate meat.
Myriapods
Terrestrial subphylum of arthropods, have antennae and mandibles (Eg millipedes and centipedes).
Trilobites
Early arthropods with unspecialized appendages that over time evolved for different functions.
Sea Cucumbers
no spines, reduced endoskeleton. Elongated oral-aboral axis. Five rows of tube feet. Tube feet near mouth → feeding tentacles
Incomplete metamorphosis
grasshoppers, etc. where nymphs (young) resemble smaller adults with different body proportions and no wings. Molt into adult form.
Protonephridia
networks of tubules with ciliated "flame bulbs" that pull fluid through branched ducts opening to outside Functions in flatworms to maintain osmotic balance with exterior environments.
Visceral mass
contains internal organs in molluscs
Medusa
flattened, mouthdown version of polyp, moving freely with passive drifting and body contractions.
Tapeworm
(Cestoda class) as parasites that mostly live within vertebrates. Anterior end (scolex) armed with suckers and hooks to attach to intestinal lining of host. No mouth or gastrovascular cavity; absorb nutrients from host's intestine through body surface. Composed of many proglottids.
Onychophora
ecdysozoa; "velvet worms" that live today in humid forests. Fleshy antennae, several dozen "sac-like" legs.
Mesohyl:
gelatinous region of a sponge separating two layers of cells. Also home to egg cells in sponges.
Tardigrada
ecdysozoa; "water bears," with round shape, stubby appendages and bairlike gait. Oceans, freshwaters, or on plants/animals.
Brachiopoda
lophotrochozoan; lamp shells, with a stalk anchoring them to substrate, that opens shell to allow flow into lophophore.
Odonata
dragonflies, damsalfies. Two pairs of large, membranous wings. Elongated abdomen, large compound eyes, chewing mouthparts. Incomplete metamorphosis. Active predators.
Monogeans/Trematodes
parasitic flatworms, with suckers that attach to internal organs of host. Tough outer coating protection, with reproductive organs filling nearly the entire interior. Alternating sexual and asexual life cycles. Have an intermediate host where larvae develop before infecting final host → must evade immune system of both hosts.
Parthenogenesis
reproduction of only females from unfertilized eggs.
Cubozoans
box-shaped medusa stage, with compex eyes embedded into medusa fringe. Strong swimmers, with highly toxic cnidocytes (i.e. sea wasp → pain, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, nearly instantaneous death).
Exoskeleton
An external skeleton present in arthropods made of protein and chitin. It serves as protection.
Rotifers
Tiny multicellular animals that have organ systems, including an alimentary canal with a separate mouth and anus. The undergo parthenogenesis.
Planaria
One type of Turbellarian (free-living flatworms). They move using cilia, have two eyespots, and a nervous system. They can also regenerate if cut into half.
Mantle
fold of tissue draping over visceral mass and secreting shell. Produces water filled mantle cavity (gills, anus, excretory pores.)
Leeches
inhabit fresh water, feed on other invertebrates or are parasitic. Slit skin of host with bladelike jaw, or digest with enzymes. Hirudin chemical to keep blood from coagulating.
Nematoda
ecdysozoa; large and diverse in soil and aquatic habitats, often parasitic. Tough outer cuticle. Roundworms. Alimentary canal, no circulatory system. Nutrients transfer through pseudocoelom. Sexual reproduction through internal fertilization. Capable of redirecting cellular functions of hosts to evade immune systems, and attract blood vessels to supply nematode with nutrients.
Hymenoptera
ants, bees, wasps; social insects with 2 pairs of membranous wings, a mobile head and mouthparts for chewing/sucking. Posterior stinger in females. Complete metamorphosis.
Cheliceriform
horseshoe crabs, etc. that are named for their chelicerae feeding appendages. Anterior cephalothorax and posterior abdomen. Simple eyes, no antennae. Mostly arachnids (spiders, scorpions, etc.) Gas exchange through book lungs.
Bivalves
shell divided into two halves, hinging at the mid-dorsal line with an adductor muscle drawing together to keep the soft body safe. No distinct head, no radula. Mantle cavity for suspension feeding.
Hemichordata
deuterostomia; with gill slits and a dorsal nerve cord. Acorn worms, that live buried in the mud or under marine rocks.
Acoela
flatworms with a simple nervous system and saclike gut. Separate lineage from Platylemninthes, diverging before mail bilaterian clades.
Eumetazoa
animals with true tissues; all animals except sponges
Sea Daisies
live on submerged wood. Armless, disc-shaped body. Five sided organization, ringed with small spines. Absorb nutrients through membrane surrounding.
Anthozoans
class of cnidarian; sea anemones and corals occurring only as polyps. Corals excrete an exoskeleton of calcium carbonate.
Trochophore
A ciliated larval stage apparent in many molluscs.
Oligochaetes
This class of annelids have sparse chitin bristles called chaetae, including earthworms. Earthworms till the soil and their secreted waste improves the soil texture. They are hermaphrodies that cross-fertilize.
Trematodes
Parasites (such as blood flukes) have complex, alternating life cycles. Usually they have to infect a preliminary host where larvae grow before infecting the final host.
Insects
These organisms are the most abundant form of life on Earth. they vary widely, and many have wings to allow them to fly. hare both a help and a hindrance to us.
Invertebrates
Animals that lack backbones. They make up 95% of known animals and are all but 1 of the 35 known animal phyla.
Choanocytes
Flagellated collar cells that line the interior of spongocoel and other inner water chambers. They serve to create a current and capture food particles.
Molluscs
Organisms of the phylum Mollusca that are soft-bodied animals, often protected by a shell of CaCO3.
Cnidocytes
Cells on the tentacles of cnidarians that function in defense and capture of prey.
Annelids
Organisms of the phylum Annelida whose bodies resemble fused rings.
Amoebocytes
Cells within the mesohyl that use pseudopodia. They digest food and carry nutrients.They also form skeletons in sponges.
Complete metamorphosis
A developmental process where the larva are specialized for eating and growing and look nothing like the adult. They transition through a pupal stage to reach adulthood.
Brittle Star
distinct central disc + long flexible arms. Move by lashing arms. No flattened disk on tube foot, but also secretes adhesive chemicals. Suspension feeders, predators or scavangers.
Scyphozoans
a class of cnidarian that is most often found in the medusa form. Cosastal scyphozoans go through a brief polyp phase, whereas open ocean avoids this entirely.
Lepidoptera
butterflies and moths, with 2 pairs of scaled wings. Feed with proboscis, usu. on nectar.
Water vascular system
network of hydraulic canals branching into extensions called feet
Gastrovascular cavity
The central digestive compartment of a cnidarian that functions as both mouth and anus.
Platyhelminthes
A phylum of the clade Bilateria, also called flatworms. They are flat and have no gastrovascular cavity and simple body systems.
Mantle cavity
The water-filled chamber formed by the mantle extending beyond the visceral mass, where the gills and anus are located.
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