AP Bio 443 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
zo-; zoa
organic, vitamins
produced: seminiferous tubules
function: act on the seminiferous tubules to increase sperm production
move quickly in cloud
spaces around the organs
Embryonic induction is best illustrated by which of the following
a) formation of the lens in the ectoderm after contact with the underlying optic cup
b) replacement of cartilage by bone
c) lysosomal action on the degenerating tail of a tadpole
d) development of the amnion surrounding the embryo
e) development of the mesoderm into the notochord
Quantitative variations usually indicate
polygenic inheritence
Phylum Cordata
chordates, bilateral symmetry, triploblastic, coelom, deuterstomia, notochord, dorsal, pharyngeal clefts, muscular tail
second messenger
A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein.
density dependent inhibition
crowded cells stop dividing
Steps in Meiosis
Meoisis I, Meiosis II
visible light
380nm (violet) to 750nm (red)
The splitting of glucose into pyruvate.
compound containing three polar OH groups; found in fats and oils
the transport of dissolved substances into cells
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
The condition describing a non-evolving population (in genetic equilibrium).
The dense fluid within the chloroplast enclosed by an envelope of two membranes.
The process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane; specifically, the succession of rapid cell divisions without growth during early embryonic development that converts the zygote into a ball of cells.
The entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane.
founder effect
when few individuals become isolated from a larger population, this smaller group may establish a new population whose gene pool differs from the source population
The appearance of a fertile, polyploid individual within a population of diploid organisms is a possible source of a new species. If this individual is capable of reproducing to form a new population, scientists would consider this to be an example of
a) allopatric speciation
b) sympatric speciation
c) polygenic drift
d) genetic drift
e) hardy-weinberg equilibrium
embryo sac
The female gametophyte of angiosperms, formed from the growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure with eight haploid nuclei.
segregation of functions in the cortex of the left and right hemispheres of the brain
Daughter nuclei begin to form, nuclear envelopes arise from cellular materials, chromosomes become less condensed
Atomic number
Number of protons in an element
if a chromsome is present in triplicate in the fertilized egg (2n +1 chromosomes) the aneuploid cell is said to be trisomic
urinary bladder
a membranous sac for temporary retention of urine
reducing agent
In generalized reaction, substance X, the electron donor
Glucose + Glucose
Maltose + Maltose form ------------------
Kinetic energy
the energy of motion, which is directly related to the speed of that motion. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter
a 3D region around the nucleus in which an electron moves; can hold up to 2 electrons (8 in each energy level)
main components of plasma membrane
phpospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates
Tight Junction
Membranes of two cells tightly pressed together; prevents leakage of EC fluid across layer of epithelial cells.
The large organ that lies above the stomach and produces bile is the _______
The repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer are small molecules called __.
The _____ side of the Golgi apparatus buds off vesicles that travel to other sites.
A coenzyme that can accept an electron and acts as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain.
transport protein
A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane.
gastrovascular cavity
Blind digestive cavity in animals that have a sac body plan
Gastric Juices
What do cells lining the stomach release?
central vacuole
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
CAM plants
an adaption to plants so they recieve CO2 at night and close stomata during day; cactus (succulents)
High Recombination Frequency
More likely to be recombined. (high frequency, very far apart)
gene cloning
The production of multiple copies of a gene
genetic map
an ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome
Proton, Electron, Neutron
What 3 particles make up an atom?
companion cell
6 A type of plant cell that is connected to a sieve-tube member by many plasmodesmata and whose nucleus and ribosomes may serve one or more adjacent sieve-tube members.
Acidic solution
any solution with a pH level below 7; donate H+ ions ex lemon juice, hydrochloric acid HCl
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
The four main classes of large biological molecules are __, __, __, and __.
hypotonic / swell / burst / hemolysis
When water enters an animal cell, it is a _______ solution and the cell will _____ and ______, suffering through _______.
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