AP Bio Cells 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
in vivo
in organism
in vitro
in the laboratory
Homogenate
mashed up tissue or cells
Lysosomes
sacs of hydrolytic enzymes. intracellular digestion to renew itself by breaking down and recycling cell parts
Amphipathic
both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
Organelles
sub-cellular structures with specific functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a cell.
Isotonic
equal concentration of solute particles on both sides of the membrane.
facilitated diffusion
Passive transport involving protein channels
Plasma membrane
selectively permeable membrane that regulates traffic that enters and leaves the cell.
Golgi Apparatus
membranous sacs that package substances produced in rough ER and secrete them to other places of the cell or to the cell surface for export
Microfilament
AKA --> actin filaments;
cleavage furrow, Pseudopods, skeletal muscle to contract
microtubules
made of protein tubulin (globular proteins) make up of cilia, flagella,(9 +2 configuration) and spindle fibers ( triplet configuration)
Prokaryotes
ancestral cell; no nucleus, no internal membranes, circular DNA, anaerobic or aerobic respiration, small, unicellular, no cytoskeleton (bacteria)
chromoplast
store carotenoid pigments (red orange yellow of carrots, tomatoes, and daffodils)
Glycoprotein
a conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component that helps with cell adhesion and recognition.
Apoptosis
programmed cell suicide; initiated by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die.
Gap Junction
are considered communicative and provide cytoplasmic connections between cells. They are specialized membrane proteins that allow the passage of ions (i.e. Na+ and K+) and small molecules. Are found in heart cells,
Phagocytosis
"cell eating:" movement of large particles and ions into the cell (seen unicellular organisms).
Prometaphase
nuclear envelope is completely gone, spindle fibers (microtubles) attach to chromosomes at centromere specifically at the kinetichore region, centrioles are at the opposite ends of the cell.
Cancerous Cell Division
exhibits neither density-dependent inhibition nor anchorage dependency causing cells to divide out of control.
Response
the changes that occur during transduction result in the activation of cellular processes (the desired result of signaling); the turning on of the gene.
leucoplast
store starch found in roots like turnips or potato
Nucleolus
specific region in the nucleus in interphase where components of ribosomes are synthesized
Centrosomes
organize spindle fibers, give rise to spindle apparatus during cell division
Smooth ER
Assists synthesis of steroid hormones, connects rough ER to Golgi apparatus, carry out various detoxification process
Desmosomes
serve as anchors for filaments and rivet cells together
Metastasis
the spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site.
Metaphase
spindle fibers move the chromosomes so that they line up on the _______ plate.
Symport
two types of molecules/ions in same direction.
Nucleus
control center of the cells that contains the cell's "genetic library" (i.e. chromosomes) and is enclosed by a nuclear envelope that is composed of two layers of membrane with distance nuclear pores that allow the passage of macromolecules into and out of it.
Antiport
transports two types of molecules in opposite directions (e.g. sodium potassium pump).
Mitotic Spindle
an assemblage of microtubles and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis.
Uniport
transports one type of molecule/ion in one direction (e.g. proton pump).
Genome
the genetic material of an organism located in the chromosomes of a cell.
Diffusion
the random spreading out of molecules or ions down a concentration gradient (higher to lower concentration). The steeper the concentration gradient, the more rapid this is. The net result is an even distribution of particles: equilibrium. H2O, O2, and CO2 use this method to leave the cell.
Cyclin
protein that regulates the cell cycle that is degraded after MPF is destroyed in anaphase; without it, molecules become inactive bringing mitosis to a close.
Exocytosis
materials are exported from the cell via vacuoles or vesicles expelling waste and secreting cellular proteins like enzymes and hormones.
Kinetichore
a structure of proteins attached to the centromere of a chromosome that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
Integrin
A receptor protein built into the plasma membrane that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
Intracellular Junctions
one way cells communicate and coordinate with each other. In plants its called plasmodesmata which are cytoplasmic channels through cell walls and in animals there are tight ____ (cells fuse together), desmosomes (anchoring ____), and gap ____(communicating______).
cholesterol
embedded in the interior of bilayer to stabilize the membrane.
Centrioles
two of these in centrosomes at right angles
Cell wall
cell structure not found in animal cells. made of cellulose
Peripheral proteins
proteins loosely bound to the surface of plasma membrane
Freeze Fracture
Ways to study cells: prepare detailed cast of the membrane
countercurrent exchange
flow of adjacent fluids in opposite directions that maximizes the rate of simple diffusion. Fish gills.
Density-dependent Inhibition
phenomenon in which crowded cells stop dividing.
Reception
binding of the signal molecule to the plasma membrane presumably involving an integral protein.
Cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately following mitosis.
Cytokinesis in Plant Cells
vesicles containing cellulose and lignin form cell plate with in the cell and the contents of the cell plate merging wit the new cell ____ and middle lamella formed from polysaccharides.
Hypotonic
cell or region that contains a lower solute concentration.
Mitosis
division of a nucleus resulting in two identical daughter nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Types of Cell Communication
cell junctions, cell-cell recognition, local signaling: paracrine signaling, synaptic signaling, and long distance signaling: hormonal signaling.
Dynamic Equilibrium
result of diffusion where there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration.
P53 Gene
a tumor suppressor the promotes the synthesis of cell cycle inhibiting proteins.
Eukaryote
cell with a membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Protists, fungi, plans, and animals are made up of this type of cell.
Osmotic Pressure
the ________ needed to stop the movement of water across a membrane which is used to measure _______ potential.
G Protein-Coupled Receptors
plasma membrane receptors work with the help of this protein as it binds to the energy rich molecule GTP. Once the membrane receptor binds to this protein, the complex it forms binds to a specific enzyme and activates it. Once activated, the enzyme can trigger the next step in a communication cascade or pathway. (Vision and smell depend on this).
Tissue culture
Ways to study cells: study cells in vitro
Transduction
as a result of binding, a series of changes occur in the receptor molecule on the cell's surface and in other molecules inside the cell.
G2 (Gap Phase 2)
continued increase in organelles, RNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton disaggregates, centriole duplication is completed, microtubular proteins begin to aggregate; final preparation for cell division.
Carrier Mediated Transport
a carrier molecule is used to transport the desired molecule or ion across a membrane.
Extracellular Matrix
found in animal cells and are involved in support, adhesion, movement and development; cellular glue that stick your cells together. Formed from glycoproteins secreted by the cells often composed of collagen and protoglycan complex.
Plasmolysis
when a plant cell is in a hypertonic environment, the cell will lose water to its surroundings, shrink, and its plasma membrane will pull away from the cell wall.
Organelles only in Plant Cells
chloroplasts, cell wall, large central vacuole, and plasmodesmata.
Maturation-Promoting Factor (MPF)
a protein complex of cyclin and Cdk (cyclin-dependent kinase) required for a cell to progress from late interphase to mitosis. Promotes mitosis by phosphorylating various proteins. Its activity peaks during metaphase. Is destroyed during anaphase.
G1 Phase Check Point
appears to be the most important. If the cell gets the "go ahead" signal at this point, it normally completes the entire cell cycle and divides. If not, the cell enters a non-dividing phase known as G0. Some cells remain in this phase while others can be stimulated to reenter the cycle.
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