AP Bio Midterm 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
loosen; free
undeveloped shoots
- SH (thiols)
symbol for reproductive rate
chromatin fibers condense, nucleoli disappear, chromosomes appear as sister chromatids joined at centromeres and along arms, mitotic spindle begins to form, centrosomes move away from each other
fatty acid
building blocks of lipids
Similar (analogous) structure or molecular sequence that has evolved independently in two species.
in classification, the taxonomic category about class
"energy currency of cells"—we only stores 1/3 of glucose as ATP, mitochondria break down glucose to make ATP. Every cell on earth uses ATP. Your cells on average use 10 million ATP per second in humans
Cell Junctions
anything that anchors cells, passageways from cell to cell. Intercellularjunctions: tight junctionsm demosomes, gap junctions
chemosynthetic bacteria
autotrophs, some are NITRIFYING: convert nitrite (NO2) into nitrate (NO3)
electrochemical gradient
Chemical gradient and electrical gradient combine, determines the net direction of ionic diffusion
brown algae
A muticellular, photosynthetic protist with a characteristic brown or olive color that results from carotenoids in its plastids, most are marine and some have a plantlike body
In angiosperms, a nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm with two polar nuclei during double fertilization. It provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.
above the sepals, generally brightly colored and aid in attracting pollinators
a codon codes for ___ amino acid
deposit feeders
removal of suspended food particles from surrounding water by capture or filtration
covalent bond
intramolecular bond where atoms are sharing electrons equally
A stinging , capsule-like organelle in a cnidocyte.
Sites on the Ribosome
A is first
P is second
E is exit site
balanced polymorphism
ability of natural selection to maintain diversity
A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.
an organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. All the offspring from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles are monohybrids. For example, parents of genotypes AA and aa produce a monohybrid of genotype Aa.
the two-part format of the scientific name
Cytoplasm streaming
A circular flow of cytoplasm, involving myosin and actin filaments, that speeds the distribution of materials within cells.
: polysaccharides
Ø Joined by different glycosidic linkages that give it diff 3D shapes
□ Storage material to provide sugar for cells
Starch and Glycogen
Structure Cellulos chiten
prezygotic barriers
a reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization if interspecific matting is attempted
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
free energy
The portion of a biological system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system.
the type of cell with a true nucleus
chemical reactions
the making and breaking of chemical bonds
Prokaryotic cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
Golgi apparatus
Made of of flattened membranous sacs that modify, store and export products from the endoplasmic reticulum. Has a cis and trans face and packages cell products to be exported.
maximum likelihood
A principle that states that when considering multiple phylogenetic hypotheses, one should take into account the one that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events, given certain rules about how DNA changes over time
Frequency-dependent selection
A decline in the reproductive success of a morph resulting from the morph's phenotype becoming too common in a population
secondary cell wall
between plasma membrane and primary wall, often deposited in several laminated layers, has a strong and durable matrix that affords the cell protection and support
female part of a flower, consisting of a stalk with an ovary at the base and a stigma, which traps pollen, at the tip
point mutations
chemical changes in just one base pair of a gene
Primary Electron Acceptor
in the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast, a specialized molecules that shares the reaction-center complex with a pair of chlorophyll a molecules and that accepts an electron from them
Calvin Cycle Phase 3
REgeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP)- the 5 molecules of GCP are rearranged into 3 molecules of RuBP. 3 ATP are used (Total 9 ATP and 6 NADPH)
Physically linked
genes that are on the same chromosome as one another
abyssal zone
the deep sea (2000 meters or more) where there is no light
a graded change in a character along a geographic axis
fragile X syndrome
Piece of X hangs from thread of DNA
organized in a circle
vascular bundles in dicots stems are _____________
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
field; soil
division of cytoplasm
Study of heredity
-nomy; -nome
distribute; arrange; law
(G) cartilage;chondricythyes: fish with cartilage composing their skeleton
2 types of protiens
Chloroplasts converting sun energy into the chemical energy of glucose and other organic molecules
tugor pressure
hydrostatic pressure in plants
a macromolecular assembly that includes all the enzymes involves in DNA replication.
____ specifically moves water molecules across a differentially permeable membrane
a transparent membrane covering the eyeball and under surface of the eyelid
an interaction of the constituent subunits of a protein whereby a conformational change in one subunit is transmitted to all the others.
Also called anchoring cells, function like rivets, fastening adjacent cells together in strong sheets. Held in place by intermediate filaments made of keratin protein.
Differences between members of the same species.
Mature, gamete producing structure of bryophytes.
the reactant an enzyme acts on
a process that's essentially the reverse of a dehydration reaction; means "to break with water"
The cell part responsible for photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells
All eukaryotic cells DO NOT have
Cell Wall
Tough extracellular structure of plant cells that distinguishes them from animal cells
A set of characteristics used to assess the similarities and differences between various species, leading to a classification scheme; the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.
An alcohol with three carbons each with a hydroxyl group. Part of a fat.
Motor Proteins
Work with the cytoskeleton to facilitate movement of the cell or in cilia and/or flagella.
fluid mosaic model
composition of phosolipids, proteins, sterols, and glycoproteins
Restriction enzymes
**a. Work at recognition sitesb. Function only at “sticky ends”c. Produce uniform lengths of DNAd. Function in virusese. Are produced by viruses to breakdown bacterial DNA
DNA contains what type of information
Genetic information
therapeutic cloning
-solves the problem of immune acceptance because stem cells are cloned directly from the person's body
Which type of adaptation:Shape of the bird's head = ___
Controlled Variables
The characteristics of the control group and experimental group that are held constant
Of the following wavelengths of light, which would you expect to be least absorbed by chlorophyll a ?
vascular tissue
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
The process by which energy is stored into a H+ ion, gradiation is used to drive cellular work
Geologic record
The division of Earth’s history into periods, grouped into five eras: Archaean, Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. The periods in the Cenozoic era are further divided into epochs.
When a protein unfolds and loses its native form. Can be caused by changes in salt concentration, pH, temp or other environmental change.
Chemical Reaction
A process leading to chemical changes in matter; involves the making and/or breaking of chemical bonds.
One of a vast kingdom of eukaryotic organisms, primarily unicellular or simple multicellular; mostly aquatic
lipid bilayer
1. double layer of phospolipids and basic framework of cell membrane
2. contain fatty acid tails and hydrophilic heads
the fluid filled region inside of a cholorpast
When two oxygen atoms share two pairs of electrons, is that a double or single bond?
shotgun sequencing
DNA is randomly cut into small fragments, the cloned fragments are sequenced, and then a computer is used to put together all the overlaps.
The site where the reading is done takes place in the ___
Class Gastropoda (Phylum Molluska)
snails and slugs; asymmetric symmetry
___ is not found in prokaryotic cells.
nuclear envelope
to form or mark differently from other such things; distinguish.
The heart of science is a search for information and explanation focused on specific questions
All the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; a community and its physical environment.
Allopatric Speciation
A mode of speciation induced when the ancestral population becomes segregated by a geographical barrier
An algae that is very close to land plants. Shares rosette cellulose synthesizing complex, enzymes contained within the organelle called peroxisomes, flagellated sperm, and phragmoplasts, (an alignment of cytoskeleton and golgi-derived vesicles) with land plants. Different in that it doesn't xperience alternation of generations.
DNA-binding motifs
proteins that bind to DNA employ DNA bindng motifs, including the helix-turn-helix, homeodomain, zinc finger, and leucine zipper.
problem solving
The cognitive method of devising a way to proceed from one state to another in the face of real or apparant obstacles
Pyruvic acid is considered a (n) ____ aerobic cellular respiration
intermediate in
a noncoding segment in a length of DNA that interrupts a gene-coding sequence or nontranslated sequence, the corresponding segment being removed from the RNA copy before transcription.
5' end
A phosphate group on the free end in the nucleotide polymer
What is it called when the DNA in a cell is scrambled around in the nucleus?
____ is to somatic cell as Haploid is to____
diploid; gamete
Class Anthozoa (Phylum Cnideria)
sea anenomes, most corals, sea fans; no medusa stage
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
A fatty acid with one or more double bonds. Due to the double bonds, there are less H atoms than in a saturated fatty acid.
How did the planets early atmosphere change to include oxygen
tiny cells using photsynthesis released oxygen as a byproduct
. Respiration ____ and Cellular Respiration_____:
B) is gas exchange… produces ATP
All EXCEPT which of the following events shuffle existing alleles into different combinations in sexually reproducing organisms?
a. Changes in chromosome structure**b. Mutationc. Independent assortment of chromosomesd. Crossing overe. Fertilization
Which electrons have more potential energy: the electrons closer to the nucleus of the electrons farther away from the nucleus?
The ones farther away from the nucleus.
*D Which of the following does NOT promote speciation?
a. Gamete differences**b. Gene flowc. Season of fertilityd. Natural selectione. Genetic drift
In a hydrolysis reaction, _____, and in this process water is_____.
A monomers is broken up into its consituent polymers..... produces
No; they are at a minimum of G
Can a closed system at equilibrium do work? Why or why not?
Class Order
(G) self;autotroph: self-feeder
Release of energy
a-, an-
no; lacking; none
(G) outside;extraembryonic membranes: membranes found outside the embryo
Two types of phoshpolipids
The interior membrane of mitochondria. They increase the surface area where the metabolic activities of the organelle happen. Encloses the mitochondrial matrix.
(G) form, shape;morphogenesis: the changes of form of an organism
Reduction division - cell division
photosynthetic organisms derive their carbon from
cells that are specialized for tansmitting chemical and electrical signals frome one location in the body to another
Microscopic pores through which carbon dioxide and oxygen pass. Stoma is the singular form.
The basic structural and functional unit of life, which consists of living material enclosed by a membrane
saturated fatty acids
contain no double bonds
(L) to swell;turgor: the pressure exerted on the plant cell wall which results from osmosis causing the cell to swell
tandem clusters
genes that are transcribed simultaneously, which increases the amount of mRNA available for protein production.
AnimalsPlantsBacteria & Fungi
3 types of organisms
Sugar metabolism occurs in association with this organelle
of or pertaining to trees; treelike.
short term memory
reflects immediate sensory perceptions of an object or idea
A phylogenetic tree in which the lengths of the branches reflect the number of genetic changes that have taken place in a particular DNA or RNA sequence in the various lineages.
Three fatty acids linked to a glycerol, also called a triglyceride
Plasma Memebrane
A selective barrier which allows passage of oxygen, nutrients and wastes.
What makes up a duplicated chromosome?
Sister Chromatids
integral proteins
proteins that cross the entire phospholipid bilayer
Chemical found in plants that hardens the cell walls.
Heat/thermal energy
kinetic energy associated with random movement of atoms or molecules
cell differentiation
-cell is committed to a particular developmental pathway.
-takes place in stages - cells becomes partially committed, acquires positional labels that reflect its location in the embry.
-become differentiated in two ways
1. via differential inheritance of cytoplasmic determination
2. via cell-to-cell interactions (induction)
The 4 letters in a DNA molecule
The packaging of secretory proteins occurs in association with this structure
endoplasmic reticulum
Microtubules DO NOT develop from _____
plasma membrane
deuterostome development
In animals a developmental mode distinguished by the development of the anus from the blastopore ; often also characterized by radial cleavage and by he body cavity forming as out pockets of mesodermal tissue.
sensory neurons
carry info. from external and internal environment from sensory receptors to cns
a period of time marked by distinctive character, events, etc
metabolic pathway
a series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds
enzyme-substrate complex
when an enzyme and substrate bind together
What forms in Cytokinesis in plant cells?
Cell Wall
Oxidative phsphorylation
Takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane, net production of 32 ATP
Sex chromosomes
a. Determine genderb. Vary from one sex to anotherc. Carry some genes that have nothing to do with sexd. Were unknown to Mendel**e. All of these
Karyokinesis and cytokinesis in animals is NOT related to _____
formation of spindle fibers
expression vectors
contain all the sequences necessary to drive expression of inserted DNA in a specific cell type. Used in genetic engineering.
____ would  be used by white blood cells to ingest bacteria
Phylum Echinodermata
sea stars, sea urchins, brittle stars, sea cucumber; deuterosome; radial anatomy but bilateral symmetry; water vascular system; most have hard ecoskeletons
Which produces the most ATP per glucose molecule
aerobic respiration
The upper or anterior division of the animal body that contains the brain, the chief sense organs, and the mouth
a species or group of species that is closely related to the ingroup, the various species being studied
Golgi Complex
Products from the ER are modified and stored before being sent to other parts of the cell or out of the cell. Made up of flattened, membranous sacs, called cisternae. Stacks have polarity a cis and a trans face. Cis receives from the ER by way of transport vesicles. The Trans face pinches off and forms a vesicle for transport. the ER ptoducts are modified while in the Golgi lumen such as adding carbohydrates to glycoproteins. It also makes certain macromolecules. the membranes of the cisterae have unique proteins for the varying functions they perform.
A haploid cell, such as an egg or sperm.  Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
Georges Cuvier believed in what?
Catastrophism - major catatsrophes cause extinctions
point mutation
a mutation that affects a single base. base substitution = substitution of one base pair for anothernonsense mutation = transcribed codon converted to a stop codon.frameshift = addition or deletion of a single basetriplet repeat expansion mutations = triplet sequence of DNA that is repeated.
A mutant protist is found without an inner mitochondrial membrane. What would be disrupted?
oxidative phosphorylation
An animal that posses a true coelom. A body cavity lined by tissue derived only from mesoderm.
Balanced Chemical Equation
A chemical equation in which there are equal numbers of each type of atom in the reactants and products.
DNA contains ___________ but NOT ________________
a. Sulfur; phosphorus**b. Phosphorus; sulfurc. Potassium; sulfurd. Sulfur; potassiume. Proteins; phosphorus
expressed sequence tags
another form of STS used to identify genes that are transcribed
Glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system b/c
Formaion of acetyl coA
Takes place in the cytoplasm, no ATP produced
overview of transcription
- The strand that is copied is called the template strand.  The RNA transcipt's sequence is complementary to this strand.  The DNA strand not used as a template is the coding strand.
- The RNA transcript created is mRNA.
- Has three parts: initiation, elongation, and termination.
- During initiation, promoters provide attachment sites for RNA polymerase.
- During elongation, the RNA transcript is synthesized. Nucleotide triphosphates are joined in the 5' to 3' direction by RNA poly.  As this continues, DNA is unwound by RNA poly and rewound behind it.  The region that is unwound is the transcription bubble.
-During termination, terminators cause RNA poly to stop and release the DNA when it reaches a stop sequence.  The RNA transcript dissociates from the DNA and the DNA rewinds.
Muscle Soreness associated with strenuous exercise is at least partly due to
the presence of latic acid produced during fermentation in muscle cells
Which of the following statements concerning cancer cells is most accurate?
a. Proto-oncogenes are part of the regulatory section of a chromosome**b. Tumor cells have lost their ability to stop dividingc. Proto-oncogenes help control runaway cell divisiond. Benign tumor cells usually spread only to adjacent organse. Metastasis is the spread of benign cells
Single, dorsal, tubular nerve cord
Anterior end of this cord is usually enlarged to form the brain
What is the difference between solution and mixture
A 5 gallon bucket filled with water and the following substances thrown in are examples of...Solution > Sugar with water because it can disolveMixture > Dirt with water because it clumps together and does not disolve
The major challenge in using adult DNA in the cloning process is
a. Purifying the DNAb. Inserting the DNA into cells**c. Switching on its genes in controlled waysd. Turning of unnecessary genese. Determining what DNA is best to use
What are the four parts of an amino acid?
an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen group, and an R group (or side chain)
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