AP Bio Second Semester 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
to receive
condensed, unreadable DNA
White blood cells
location of crossing over
Specialized metabolic compartments bounded by a single membrane
Produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water
Oxygen is used to break down various types of molecules
fungi located outside of cells
beta isomer of polysaccharaides: indigestible (fiber), in plants
Creates four, genetically different daughter haploid cells
Meiosis I- results in two haploid daughter cells
Meiosis II- results in four haploid daughter cells
- Prophase I- occupies most of cell's time in meiosis; chromosomes condense; homologous chromosomes pair up (synapsis); crossing-over occurs (chiasmata- place where crossing-over has occured); nuclear envelope disappear
-Metaphase I- tetrads line up on metaphase plate; microtubules attach to kinetochores
-Anaphase I- pairs of homologous chromosomes seperate; move to opp. sides of cell
-Telophase I and cytokinesis- forms two haploid daughter cells; cytokinesis simultaneous
-Prophase II- spindle apparatus forms; chromosomes move toward metaphace plate; sister chromatids not identical
- Metaphase II- sister chromosomes line up on metaphase plate; kinetochores of chromatids attach to microtubules extending from opposite poles
- Anaphase II- sister chromatids seperate; chromatids now considered chromosomes; move toward opposite poles
- Telophase II and cytokinesis- chromosomes at opposite poles; nuclei form and chromosomes decondense; results in 4 genetically different daughter haploid cells
Food vacuole- formed by phagocytosis
Contractile vacuole- found in many freshwater protists, pump excess water out of cells
Contral vacuole- found in many mature plant cells, hold organic compounds and water
division of the cell's cytoplasm
dealing with the geographical distribution of animals and plants
A virus that infects bacteria
Genetic makeup of an organism.
used in membrane to regulate fluidity
Paleontology: fossil age based on strata
Network of fivers extending throughout the cytoplasm
Organizes the cell's structure and activities, anchoring many organelles
Roles- help support cell and maintain shape, interacts with motor proteins to produce mobility, vesicles can travel along it, help regulate biochemical activities
Microtubules- thickest fiber
Microfilaments- thinnest fiber
Intermediate filaments- middle fiber
Levels of complexity
Biosphere, ecosystems, communities, populations, organisms, organs and organ systems, tissue, cells organelles, molecules
situated just external to plasma membrane; it is composed of glycoproteins secreted by the cell (most prominent of which is collagen). The ECM greatly strengthens tissues and serves as a conduit for transmitting external stimuli into the cell, which can turn genes on and modify biochemical activity.
Glycolysis results in the net production of how many molecules of ATP?
The manipulation of living organisms or their components to produce useful products.
Genetic Engineering
the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
Chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose
directional selection
Natural selection that favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range
triplet code
Set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains
Clade of protists with "hairy" flagellum includes water molds, diatoms, and brown algae
modern method of sequencing based on bursts of light
competitive inhibitors
inhibitors that block enzyme active sites
two main elements with low electronegativity
Elements essential for life
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
-OH, helps dissolve molecules such as sugars; ex: alcohols such as ethanol and methanol
gap junctions
provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell and in this way are similar in their function to the plasmodesmata in plants; consists of membrane proteins that surround a pore through which ions, sugars, amino acids, and other small molecules may pass; they are necessary for communication between cells in many types of tissues, including heart muscle, and in animal embryos
1) The nuclear envelope begins to fragment, allowing the microtubules to attach to the chromosomes. 2) The two chromatids of each chromosome are held together by protien kinetochores in the centromere region 3) The microtubules will atach to the kinetochores.
RNA viruses that use the enzyme reverse transcriptase to transcribe DNA from an RNA template. The new DNA then permanently integrates into a chromosome in the nucleus of an animal cell. The host transcribes the viral DNA into RNA that may be used to synthesize viral proteins or may be released from the host cell to infect more cells
What do microtubules make up?
cilia and flagella
Northern Blotting
combines gel electrophoresis of mRNA followed by hybridization with a probe on a membrane
the earth science that studies fossil organisms and related remains
the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation
Lymphatic system
the interconnected system of spaces and vessels between body tissues and organs by which lymph circulates throughout the body
One of a group of parasitic protozoans, some of which cause human diseases
facilitated diffusion
The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions, bound to carrier proteins, down their concentration gradients.
gram stain
Identifies bacteria as "positive" or "negative"
mitotic spindle
An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
The tissue of a leaf sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
sister chromatids
Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.
rule of multiplication
Probability of a compound event.
restriction enzymes
A degradative enzyme that recognizes and cuts up DNA (including that of certain phages) that is foreign to a bacterium
Human Genome Project
An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome
ATP synthase
Protein that functions in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a proton gradient to make ATP
lower esophageal sphincter
prevents acidic stomach contents from refluxing
Hutton and Lyell
Geology: earthy is old, rock layers
functional groups
attach to the carbon skeleton have diverse properties. The behavior of organic molecules is dependent on the identity of their functional groups
Proteins are made up of amino acids that are joined by which of the following type of bonds?
For each molecule of glucose that is metabolized by glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, what is the total number of NADH and FADH2 molecules produced?
The process that produces the greatest amount of ATP during respiration is. . .
Oxidative phosphorylation
Heart Attack
a sudden severe instance of abnormal heart function
having the ability to give rise to unlike cells
noncompetitive inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site
RNA polymerase
Enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription
sympatric speciation
Mode of speciation occurring as a result of a radical change in the genome of a subpopulation
An accident of meiosis or mitosis in which the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to separate.
reaction center
The chlorophyll a molecule and the primary electron acceptor in a photosystem
tumor-suppressor gene
A gene whose protein products inhibit cell division, thereby preventing uncontrolled cell growth (cancer)
RNA vs DNA structure
RNA- ribose, uracil (for thymine), single strand
DNA- deoxyribose, thymine, double helix
90% of the cell cycle; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
The fungi are a member of which domain in the three domain system of classification?
A chemist wishes to make an organic molecule less acidic. Which of the following functional groups should be added to the molecule in order to do so?
A. Carboxyl
B. Sulfhdryl
C. hydroxyl
D. amino
E. phosphate
D. amino
Descent of Modification
principle that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time
Base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule
dehydration synthesis
A chemical process in which a polymer forms as monomers are linked by the removal of water molecules.
Levels of structure for proteins
Primary- sequence of amino acids; peptide bonds
Secondary- coils and folds in polypeptide chain (backbone) (alpha helix and beta pleated sheet); hydrogen bonds
Tertiary- interactions among various side chains (R groups); hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals forces, disulfide bridges, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds
Quaternary- protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains
If red blood cells in isotnic medium are placed in distilled water, what will happen?
swell and lyse
A gene found in viruses or as part of the normal genome that is involved in triggering cancerous characteristics
How does a cell stop division?
During anaphase, MPF switches itself off by starting a process that leads to the destruction of cyclin molcules. Without cyclin moleules Cdk molecules become inactive, bringing mitosis to a close.
Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize?
A. Ionic Bonds
B. Nonpolar covalent bonds
C. Polar covalent
D. Hydrogen bonds
E. Covalent bonds
D. Hydrogen bonds
Sticky End
an end of DNA in which one strand of the double helix extends a few units beyond the other
How does RNA polymerase differ from DNA polymerase?
RNA polymerase can initiate RNA synthesis, but DNA polymerase requires a primer to initiate DNA synthesis
Which of the following best describes allosteric inhibition of an enzyme
A. The inhibitor binds to the mRNA to prevent translation of the enzyme
B. the inhibitor binds the the enzyme substrate
C. the inhibitor binds to the enzyme but not at its active sit
C. the inhibitor binds to the enzyme but not at its active site (if it was to bind at its active site it would be a competitive inhibitor)
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