AP Bio Test 18 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
mont-
mountain
Glycolysis
Glycolysis
Fur coat
Pelage
Mammalia
Class = ___
Flagella
In Eukaryotes, specialized arrangements of microtubules such as on sperm cells. Also in some unicellular organisms for motility.
stop codons
UAA, UGA, UAG
Phylum Nematoda
roundworms; nonsegmented; pseudocoelometes; tough outer cuticle that resembles exoskeletons
Which macromolecule contains glycogen, cellulose, chitin, and frutose?
carbohydrates
cardi-
(G) heart;cardiac muscle: heart muscle
Environment
Everything outside the living organism
Mitochondria
Cells power producer, converts energy into forms that are usable by the cell
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid5 C sugar - RibosePhosphate groupNitrogenous baseDouble helix of chains of nucleotides
Acid
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
Homeostasis
the balanced internal environment of the body; automatic tendency of an organism to maintain such a steady state
adhesion proteins
Form junctions between adjacent cells
cell walls
• Bacteria: peptidoglycan • Archaea: varied, but protein-based – With distinctive lipids in cell membranes • Eukarya: – Fungi: Chitin – Plants & Algae: Cellulose and other polysaccharides – (Animals and most protists don’t have cell walls)
operon
genes encoding related functions are clustered together. It is a single transcripting unit that encodes multiple enzymes necessary for a biochemical pathway.
Starch
Complex sugar, hard to break up
Phylum Chordata
notochord: flexible connection b/w digestive tube and nerve cord; forms support along length of animal; dorsal hollow nerve cord: develops into central nerve system; Pharyngeal slits: remnant filler feeding adaptation; muscular part anal tail
terrestrial
Pertaining to, consisting of, or representing the earth as distinct from other planets.
nerves
bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system
Paraphyletic
Pertaining to a taxon that excludes some members that share a common ancestor with members included in the taxon.
chemical energy
energy stored in the chemical reaction, the point at which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction
Microtubules
Found in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. Hollow rods or tubes made from the globular protein tubulin. They shape and support the cell. They also guide secretory vesicles from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Also imprtant in cell division. In many cells they grow out of an area called the centrosome.
Aldehyde
An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton
Lysosomes
Tiny sacs that carry digestive enzymes that break down waste.
Apicomplexans
•All parasitic – all need other organisms to survive •Apical complex – helps to invade host’s tissues •Elaborate life cycles  might need various hosts to complete cycyles •Plasmodium – causes malaria by invading a red blood cells i.uses mosquito and humans as hosts •Toxoplasma – toxoplasmosis i.Hosts: cats and animals eaten by cats (eg rats) ii.Microbe change the behavior of the host (kinda like rabies)
Kinetic energy
associated with relative motion of objects
disaccharide
a double sugar consisting of 2 monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis (glycosidic linkage)
Carrier protien
Protien that moves materials within the cell and between cells
In the ETC of cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is ___
oxygen
You have designed an experiment to test the effect of water on the growth of bread mold. In this case, the presence of water represents the ____
variable
spore
In fungi, a haploid cell, produced either asexually or sexually, that produces mycelium after germination.
thalamus
sorts income sensory info and sends it to the appropiate brain centers, regulates emotion and arousal
Spontaneous Generation
The incorrect notion that life can emerge from inanimate material
cofactors
any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. cofactors can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis.
Food Vacuoles
Formed by phagocytosis. The engulfing of food particles by a lysosome.
Alcohol Fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
ATP
the primary source of energy for the cell. Adenosine triphosphate. Made of nitrogenous base adinine bonded to ribose and a chain of 3 phosphate groups. When a phosphate group is hydrolyzed, energy is released as in an exergonic reaction.
An all inclusive word for the growth and development of life is...
Ontogeny
Induced fit
brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the chemical reaction
steps of translation
1. initiation. in prokaryotic initiation, the initiation complex includes an initiator tRNA molecule. subunit position on mRNA due to a sequence called the ribosome-binding sequence. in eukaryotic initiation, same except lacks RBS.2. elongation adds successive amino acids. when entire ribosome is assembled around tRNA and mRNA, elongation factor brings 2nd charged tRNA to ribosome to bind to empty A site. peptide bond forms between amino acid of initiator tRNA and newly arrived charged tRNA. The steps are: 1. matching tRNA anticodon with mRNA codon. 2. peptide bond formation 3. translocation of the ribosome.- Termination: proteins being translated can be targeted to the ER in eukary. once its there, it can be modified by the addition of sugars and then transported to the golgi apparatus.
associative learning
The acquired ability to associate one environmental feature (such as a color) with another (such as danger).
Subphylum Cephalochordates (Phylum Chordata)
Aganathans: jawless fishes; two existent classses: hagfish and lampreys; no jaws, hagfish are scavengers, lampreys = filter feeders; cartilaginous skeletons, no paired appendages
How many pairs of autosomes do human somatic cells contain
22
secondary endosymbionts
A process in eukaryotic evolution in which a heterotrophic eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell, which survived a symbiotic relationship inside the heterotrophic cell.
Evaporative Cooling
As a liquid evaporates, the surface of the liquid that remains cools down. This is because the "hottest" molecules are the ones to leave and go into gas. EX: himan sweat
Basal Body
Anchors the cilia or flagella to a cell. identical in strucutre to a centriole In fact, the basal body of sperm cells is thought to become the centriole of the fertilized cell.
steroids
made up of 4 rings that are fused together. one comon type of steroid is colesteral. It is an important component of cell membranes. Others are found in hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.
The mass of an electron is only _____ as much as the mass of a proton or neutron.
1/2000
Overview of DNA replication
1. initiation - initiator proteins recognize and bind to the origin, forming a complex that opens the helix to expose single stranded templates used for the process of building a new strand.2. elongation - DNA polymerase matches existing DNA bases w/ complementary nucleotides and links them together to make the new strand. It adds new bases to the 3' end (synthesizes in the 5' to 3' direction)3. termination - prokaryotes have circular DNA so replication ends at the origin. In eukaryotes, it ends at the telomeres.
Subphylum Urochordata (Phylum Chordata)
tunicates; sessile, marine animals; adult stage does not possess most of chordate characteristics but larval stage has 4 characteristics
Which of the following are produced during the Calvin Cycle?
glucose, ADP, NADP+
Organells in Animal Cells (different from plant cells)
Centrioles, lysosomes, small vacuoles (if present), only has cell membrane (irregular shape)
active site
the region on the enzyme that binds to the substrate (usually a pocket or groove)
The theory of catastrophism
a. Was proposed by Lyellb. Indicates that a series of disasters necessitated separate acts of creation to replace species that became extinctc. States that one worldwide disaster led to massive extinction and subsequent replacement by a new creation**d. Held that after a series of massive extinctions the world was repopulated by the survivors of existing speciese. Has absolutely no basis in fact because extinctions just happen with no apparent patterns
As a result of the cascade of electrobs down the etc of light reactions ____ is reduced to ____
NADP+... . NADPH
Each FADH2 yields a max of ___ ATP and NADH yields ____ ATP as a result of transferring pairs of electrons to the electron transport chain
2...3
D* Early on, researchers suspected that Dolly was physically older than her chronological age because of the results from a study of her
**a. Telomeresb. Bloodc. Egg cellsd. Brain tissuee. Teeth
differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription
1. eukaryotes have 3 RNA polymeases instead of 1. Each polymerase has its own promoter.2. instead of a single factor allowing promoter recognition, eukaryotes use transcription factors, which are necessary for the RNA poly II enzyme to get to a promoter and initiate gene expression.3, eukaryotic transcripts are modified betwen transcription in the nucleus and export of mRNA to the cytoplasm. A 5' cap is added, a 3' poly-A tail is added, and splicing occurs.
The ability of H20 molecules to form H_ with other H20 molecules is critical to
AlL of the ABOVE
Which of the following is a group of interbreeding individuals of the same species that are reproductive isolated from other species?
a. Individualsb. Species**c. Populationd. Polyploidse. All of these
How is C4 photosynthesis different from C3 photosynthesis?
C4 plants  are more effective C02 fixers than C3 b/c they prevent photorespiration.
What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis? (just for fun)
6CO2 + 6H2O ==> C6H12O6 + 6O2
The three generalizations of the cell theory are
1. All organisms composed of one or more cells2. The cell is the most basic unit of life3. All cells originated from pre-existing cells
What is found in the nucleus? What is found outside the nucleus in the cloud?
Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus. Electrons moving at nearly the speed of light form a cloud around the nucleus.
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