AP Bio- : Cell Respiration Flashcards

Terms Definitions
a dehydrogenase
What oxidizes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
redox reactions
what are oxidatin-reduction reactions
Electron carrier
molecules that carry electrons
cristae
Where does oxidative phosphorylation take place?
substrate-level phosphorylation
fermentation is the anaerobic catabolism of organic nutrients to generate ATP by what?
cytochromes
What are proteins with an iron-containing heme group?
Anabolism
Metabolic process by which larger molecules are synthesized form smaller ones; anabolic metabolism
Catabolism
Metabolic process that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones; catabolic metabolism
2
FADH2 provides electrons that have enough energy to make _ ATP
pyruvate
What is actively transported into the mitochondrion?
ATP
A drug destroys the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. If you incubate the isolated mitochondria in a solution of the drug, what wouldn't be made during transport of electrons down the respiratory chain?
oxaloacetate
During the citric acid cycle, citrate is progressively decomposed back to what?
a mitochondrion
What consists of an intermembrane space between the two membranes to house H+?
4
How many protein complexes are there in oxidative phosphorylation?
mobile electron carriers
Q and cytochrome c are what?
fructose bisphosphate
Which compound has the highest free energy (will produce the most ATP when oxidized?
reduction
What is the addition of electrons to another substance?
NAD+
the two electrons and one proton are passes to what coenzyme, reducing it to NADH?
oxidative phosphorylation
What is a chemiosmotic mechanism in which a proton motive force drives protons through ATP synthases located in the membrane?
Metabolic pool
Metabolites that are the products of and / or the substrate for key reaction in cells, allowing one type of molecule to be changed into another type, such as carbohydrates converted to fats
Chemiosmosis
Ability of certain membranes to use a hydrogen ion gradient to drive ATP formation
reducing agent
What is a synonym for an electron donor?
ATP and NAD+
From an energetic viewpoint, what do muscle cells in oxygen deprivation gain from the reduction of pyruvate?
two hydrogen atoms
What are removed by enzymes called dehydrogenases during the oxidation of glucose?
an electron transport chain
Energy from respiration is slowly released in a series of small steps as electrons are passed from NADH down what?
exergonic redox reactions
What reactions produce the H+ gradient that drives the production of ATP in mitochondria?
2; 0; 0
How many NADH, FADH2, and ATP is created in Conversion to Acetyl CoA?
beta oxidation
Fatty acids are broken down by what to acetyl CoA?
tightly bound, nonprotein prosthetic groups
Most components of the electron transport chain are proteins with what?
2; 0; 2
How many NADH, FADH2, and ATP is created in Glycolysis?
NADH+H+ to NAD+
In the I of the electron transport chain, what turns into what?
transport molecules, make ATP, and rotate flagella
Prokaryotes use H+ gradients generated across their plasma membranes to what?
glycerol and fatty acids
What is yielded by by the digestion of fats?
2 pyruvate, 2 CoA, and 2 NAD+
What are the inputs to the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA?
2 ATP, 2 Co2, 2 FADH2, 6 NADH
For one glucose, what are results of Krebs cycle?
2 acetyl CoA, 2 ADP + (P)i, 6 NAD+, and 2 FAD
What are the inputs of the citric acid cycle?
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