AP Bio: Photosynthesis Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Thykaloid
Made up of Granum
hypertonic
more solute/less water (shrivel)
CO2
What is reduced in photosynthesis?
4
PH in light INSIDE thylakoid
Chemiosmosis
in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient(have to be more electronegative as you go down) across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
rubisco
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
Chlorophyll
Green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is important in algal and plant photosynthesis; occurs as chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.
reduction
What step convert PGA to G3P?
tracheids
Specialized cells to conduct water, key cells in xylem.
Chlorophyll a
A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions.
Action Spectrum
Average of Carotenoids, chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B
Photosystem 1
(Functions 2nd) Reaction Center is P700(far red), Uses Light to excite electrons and converts NADP to NAPDH, It has light dependent reactions, also spilts water to make Oxygen.
Consumers
an organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
chlorophyll b
A type of yellow-green accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
Photosystem I
electron acceptor P 700 (pigment absorbs best at 700)
blue, orange
Chlorophyll b absorbs mainly what colors of light?
noncyclic pathway
a pathway that electrons usually follow during the LIGHT REACTIONS beginning with photosystem II
plasmolysis
cell loses water in a hypertonic environment (wilting)
Where do the electrons needed by photosystem II originate?
water
Spectrometer
Measures the ability of a pigment to absorb wavelength of light
Primary Electron Acceptor
A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reaction-center chlorophyll a molecules; it accepts an electron from one of these two chlorophylls.
photophosphorylation
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Thomas Engelmann
1883 - aerobic bacteriz, prism and algae
12 PGA
All the CO2 combining with RuBP produces what?
NADPH
what goes into the Calvin Cycle from light reactions? (electrons)
Calvin Cycle
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
primary electron receptor
A molecule located in the thylakoid membrane that accepts electrons lost from chlorophyll a in either photosystem I or II.
PEP, carboxylase, oxaloacetate, maltate, bundle sheath
In C4 photosynthesis, instead of rubisco, CO2 combines with _____, catalyzed by [previous answer] ________, to form __________. That is then converted to _______, which is taken to the ______ ______.
RuBP carboxylase
enzyme that starts the Calvin cycle by catalyzing attachment of carbon atom from CO2 to RuBP
How does carbon dioxide enter the leaf?
through the stomata
Cyclic Electron Flow
A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen. Makes up the differences in ATP required for the Calvin Cycle., and a rise in NADPH can contribute to a switch to this route.
1 G3P
What is the net output of the Calvin cycle?
6 ATP
What energy is used to convert G3P to RuBP?
Photosystem I (PS I)
One of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has two molecules of P700 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
photosystem II, P680; photosystem I, P700
In photosynthesis, electrons go from __________ __, P___ to __________ __, P___.
broaden spectrum of colors ableo be absorbed; MOST IMPORTANTLY, photoprotection: absorb and disipate excess light that would otherwise harm plant
What are the functions of carotenoids?
stomata, PEP carboxylase, and malic acid
At night, what is working in CAM plants?
In the Calvin cycle, CO2 is combined _____.
with a 5-carbon compound to form an unstable 6-carbon compound, which decomposes into two 3-carbon compounds
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