AP Biology 101 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Abiotic
Nonliving.
gastrulation
...
larynx
voice box
cerebral cortex
...
Epinephrine
increases blood-glucose level
Inducer
inactivates the repressor
Tetanus
a sustained maximal response
tRNA
interpreter of mRNA messages
Pili
surface appendix protective layer called a capsule
glycolipids
carbs covalently bonded to proteins
thylakoids
membranous sacs within the chloroplasts where chlorophyll is found
Organelles
Various functional components that make up cells
pericycle
in root only
sheathes vascular cylinder (stuff inside the endodermis)
parenchyma cells 1 or more layers thick
divide rapidly and perpendicularly to root long axis
r-selection
The concept that in certain (r-selected) populations, a high reproductive rate is the chief determinant of life history.
xylem
The tube-shaped, nonliving portion of the vascular system in plants that carries water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant.
Hormone
In multicellular organisms, one of many types of circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and act on specific target cells to change their functioning.
monohybrid
a ________ cross has one characteristic
kingdom
A taxonomic category, the second broadest after domain.
Lagging Strand
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
aerobic
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
puberty
stage of development when reproductive organs mature
cellulose
polymer of glucose, w/ different glycosidic linkages, makes tough walls around plant cells, is hard for humans to digest
polyribosomes
An aggregation of several ribosomes attached to one messenger RNA molecule.
proton
A stable, positively charged subatomic particle in the baryon family having a mass 1,836 times that of the electron.
polymer
a long molecule consisting of many identical or similar building blocks linked by covalent bonds
osmosis
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Reactant
A starting material in a chemical reaction.
competitive inhibitors
resemble normal substrate molecule and compete for active site, reducing productivity
functional groups
group of atoms that usually participate in chemical reactions in an organic molecule, atoms attached to the carbon skeleton that participate in chemical reactions, dictate molecular behavior
Protein
Consists of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into conformations
compound
substance of 2+ different elements in a fixed ratio
Biogeochemical cycles
Nutrient cycle that involves both biotic and abiotic factors.
steroid
consists of carbon atoms arranged in four attached rings; three of the rings contain six carbon atoms, and the fourth contains five; synthesized from isoprene units
chromatin
organization of DNA and proteins into fibrous material
e. coli
rod-shaped bacterium native to the intestines of mammals
Isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures and hence different properties
deoxyribonucleic acid
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
domain
an independently folding part of a protein
NAD+
coenzyme that can accept an electron and acts as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain
Effectors
Muscles and/or glands that carry out suitable responses to the stimulation.
chemical level(simplest form)
atoms combine to form molecules
Nucleic acid
A long-chain alternating polymer of deoxyribose or ribose and phosphate groups, with nitrogenous bases—adenine, thymine, uracil, guanine, or cytosine (A, T, U, G, or C)—as side chains. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids.
blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the
left atrium
capsid, enzyme
in lysogenic viruses, the viral RNA makes two types of proteins as it waits. what are the two proteins used for?
lake turnover
vertical movement of water brought on by seasonal temperature changes
Systemic circulation
the circuit common in all vertebrates that brings oxygen-rich blood from the capillaries of the respiratory exchange surfaces to the body's cells, and delivers oxygen-poor blood back to the heart for transfer to the gill, pulmocutaneuous, or pulmonary circuit
storage
the type of protein that stores amino acids; example: ovalbumin is the protein of egg white, used as an amino acid source for developing embryos
true breeding
Plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate.
intercellular joining
the function of membrane proteins in which membrane proteins of adjacent cells hook together, as in gap junctions or tight junctions
B pleated helix
where different regions of the polypeptide chain have turned back on itself, leads to folding
endoparasites
parasites that live within the body of their host,such as tapeworms and malarial parasites.
multiple fruit
A fruit derived from an inflorescence, a group of flowers tightly clustered together.
recombinant DNA
broad range of techniques that involve the manipulation of the genetic material of organisms, produces fragments of DNA from two sources or organisms joined together to form a single molecule.
MHC Molecule
Macromolecule that is recognised by T cell receptor
What blank has the same number of molecules as a blank of any other substance
mole
Facultative Anaerobes
organisms that don't need more energy than what anaerobic respiration gives them
somatic sensations
the components of the central and peripheral nervous systems that receive and process information
spectrophotometer
a machine that measures the ability of a pigment to absorb various wavelengths of light
Absorption Spectrum
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue encasing a neuron's axon that speeds transmission
Primary Cell Wall
in plants, a relatively thin and flexible layer first secreted by a young cell
Profundal Zone
zone in a freshwater habitat that is below the limits of effective light penetration
exergonic reaction
proceeds with a net release of free energy and is spontaneous
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat, and in spontaneous reactions, the free energy of the system also decreases.
linkage map
A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes. The greater the frequency of recombination between two genetic markers, the farther apart they are assumed to be. See also genetic map.
Surface Tension
Measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break surface of liquid
Biological Species Concept
a species concept defining a species as a population or group thereof whose members potentially interbreed and produce fertile offspring
In theory, a state in which a population is not ev
genetic equilibrium
Blood pressure
the pressure exerted on the walls of a blood vessel
trophic levels
The energy levels or steps in a food chain or food web: primary producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer e
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
A nucleic acid found in all living cells which carry the organisms hereditary information; consists of nucleotides called A adenine T thymine G guanine C cystosine
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
define "r-selection", aka "density independent selection".
selection for life history tratis that maximise reproductive success in uncrowded environments.
which of the following is the correct sequence from the growing tips of the root upward?
root cap, apical meristem, zone of cell division, zone of elongation, zone of cell maturation
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