AP Biology 103 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
replication
...
encephal
brain
etho
custom, habit
corpus callosum
...
circadian rythem
biological clock
Hydrophilic
attracted to water
basidiocarps
fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes
speciation
formation of new species
obligate aerobes
must have oxygen present
troph
one who feeds, well fed
eukaryotic cells
nucleus (phospolipid bilayer), organelles with membranes, found in our body, larger (100 micrometers), much more complex
Phage
a virus that infects bacteria
ethylene
source- damaged or aged tissue
effect
-inhibits cell elongation in stems
-stimulates aging in leaves
-stimulates ripening in fruits
Herbivory
(+/‐) part of community interactions (interspecific)
protoderm
The outermost primary meristem, which gives rise to the epidermis of roots and shoots.
Telomerase
an enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres
atomic number
number of protons or electrons
absorption
uptake of nutrients by body cells
hydrophobic
"water-hating"; does not mix with water
desmosome
function like rivets fastening cells together into strong sheets Intermediate filaments reinforce this
neritic zone
shallow zone over continental shelf
morphogen
signaling molecule encoded by master genes diffuse out from their source and form a concentration gradient in the embryo
morphogen's effect on cells depends on concentration
-concentration determines expression of genes
primary structure
unique sequence of amino acids
rough ER
sythesis of secretory proteins (glycoproteins) specialized cells secrete proteins produced by rough ER ribosomes and membrane production
radioactive isotope
natural or artificially created isotope of a chemical element having an unstable nucleus that decays, emitting alpha, beta, or gamma rays until stability is reached.
glycogen
a polymer of glucose that is extensively branched
heat
Thermal energy; the amount of energy associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form.
species selection
A theory maintaining that species living the longest and generating the greatest number of species determine the direction of major evolutionary trends.
glycolysis
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
weak acid/weak base
reversibly dissociates, releasing or binding H+
triaglycerol
three fatty acid molecules join to glycerol, resulting in fat
Homologous Structures
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
hemocyanin
A type of respiratory pigment that uses copper as its oxygen-binding component. Hemocyanin is found in the hemolymph of arthropods and many molluscs.
Lipids
Some are used for energy storage, structural components of cellular membranes, or important hormones. What is this?
substrate
(1) A specific substance (reactant) on which an enzyme acts. Each enzyme recognizes only the specific substrate or substrates of the reaction it catalyzes. (2) A surface in or on which an organism lives.
transcription
the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
myosin
A type of protein filament that interacts with actin filaments to cause cell contraction.
deletion
loss of nucleotide pairs in a gene
Amino acids
organic mcs possessing both carboxyl and amino groups (20)
Polyribosomes
group of several ribosomes attached to and translating the same mRNA
Active Transport
Pumps substances against the direction in which their concentration gradient would take them.
physiology
concerns the functions of the bodys parts
Channel
A membrane protein that forms an aqueous passageway though which specific solutes may pass.
gel electrophoresis
The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.
no
does dsDNA need to make a replicative form?
Systems Biology
An approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems.
Reflex arc
a network of nerves that constitutes and automatic response to a stimulus that bypasses the brain
Allosteric Inhibition
two active sites; one site for inhibitor, changes shape of other active site to become inactive
glycosidic linkage
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
viviparous
term used to refer to animals that bear live young that are nourished directly by the mother's body as they develop
Fermentation
Allows a cell to continue to produce ATP without the use of oxygen. It is under anaerobic conditions. Consists of Glycolysis.
electron transport chain
sequence of electron carrier molecules that transfer electrons and release energy during cellular respiration
apomixis
The ability of some plant species to reproduce asexually through seeds without fertilization by a male gamete.
double helix
two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA
Mast cells
a vertebrate body cell that produces histamine and other molecules that trigger the inflammatory response.
nucleic acid
Polymers that cans serve as the blueprints for proteins.
Feedback inhibition
metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme
LASIK
Eye surgery to correct vision in which a laser reshapes the inner cornea
the carbon fixation stage of the calvin cycle produces ___ of 3-phosphoglycerate for each carbon dioxide fixed
two molecules
Plasma Membrane
thin outer boundary of a cell that regulates the traffic of chemicals between the cell and its surroundings
experiment
a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis
Passive transport
the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane with no expenditure of energy
Solstice
either of the two times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator
Apical meristems
Sites of cell division at the plant's shoots and roots. They allow for the plant to reach for nutrients in the soil.
Free Energy
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature is uniform throughout the system.
meiosis
a two stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organims that results in cells with half the chromosomes number of the original cells
peptide bond
Amino acids are joined together when a dehydration reaction removes a hydroxyl group from the carboxyl end of one amino acid and a hydrogen from the amino group of another.The resulting covalent bond is called a
Stabalizing Selection
form of natural selection in by which the center of the curve remains in its current position; occurs when individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end
Theory that great slabs (plates) of the Earth's ou
plate tectonics theory
Closed circulatory system
a type of circulatory system in which blood is always contained in vessels and exchange only occurs at the capillaries
lower than 7
where are acids found on the pH scale?
saturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that has no double-bonded carbon atoms so that as many hydrogen atoms as possible are bonded to the carbon skeleton
All bryophytes (mosses) have which of the following in common?
A lack of vascular tissue
list the four main types of organic compounds
1. carbohydrates
2. proteins
3. lipids
4. nucleic acids
saltatory conduction is a term applied to conduction of impulses
jumping from one node of ranvier to the next in a myelinated neuron.
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