AP Biology 106 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
a woman
action potential
any living thing
mRNA base triplet
plant growth and phototropism
Process that ventilates lungs
stores food or contains pigment
Georges Cuvier
developed paleontology advocated catastrophism
special arrangement of microtubules, help move cells, larger and less numerous
Hydroxyl group
(-OH) found in alcohols
haploid stage of plant
produces gametes by mitosis
species richness
total # of different species
The multicellular diploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
maintained by a balanced buffer system- balanced equilibrium
the structure that holds sister chromatids together
covalent bond
electrons are shared between atoms
In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a greater solute concentration.
studies all abiotic factors and communities
-energy flow, chemical cycling among abiotic and biotic factors
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
Substance being dissolved (sugar, kool aid,...)
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages.
hollow cylinder that supports and shapes cell
a common component of animal cell membranes and is also the precursor from which other steroids are synthesized
gastrin has its effect on this
gastric lining
A common type of polyploid species resulting from two different species interbreeding and combining their chromosomes.
action carried out by muscles or glands under control of the nervous system in response to a stimulus; essential for finding food and mates
hydroxl group
Hydroxide bonded to carbon skeleton; OH
the type of protein that transports other substances; example: hemoglobin, the iron-containing protein of vertebrate blood, transports oxygen from lungs to other parts of the body
Evolutionary Tree
A branching diagram, developed by Charles Darwin, that reflects a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms.
double circulation
A circulation scheme with separate pulmonary and systemic circuits, which ensures vigorous blood flow to all organs.
monounsaturated fats
fatty acids with one double bond
a specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
growth factors
chemicals that stimulate the division and differentiation of new cells during growth
(1) An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons. (2) The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell. (3) A cluster of neurons.
redox reaction
a chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
a chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation
nucleic acid
class of compounds which includes DNA
systematic study of the full protein sets encoded by genomes
consist of three to millions of subunits that may or may not be identical
that change takes place in long, continuous processes
A white blood cell that ingests microorganisms by endocytosis.
expression vector
A cloning vector that contains the requisite prokaryotic promoter just upstream of a restriction site where a eukaryotic gene can be inserted.
what is a special name for a combination shaped virus that attacks bacteria?
Part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function
large folds in the lining of the intestine that increase the surface area available for absorption
amino acids
the monomers from which proteins are constructed
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area.
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Allows the cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substrates by receptors to which substrates attach which are then engulfed by the cell
Lytic cycle
a viral reproductive cycle in which copies of a virus are made within a host cell, which then bursts open, releasing new viruses
a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
wild type
An individual with the normal (most common) phenotype.
any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates the production of antibodies
Saturated Fat
a fat made from saturated fatty acids
Origin of Replication
where bacterial chromosomes begin to replicate
The white outer layer of the eyeball. At the front of the eye it is continuous with the cornea
The study of the past and present geographic distributions of organisms.
countercurrent heat exchanger
a special arrangement of blood vessels that helps trap heat in the body core and is important in reducing heat loss in many endotherms
Eukaryotic Cell
a type of cell with a membrane enclosed nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles; organisms that have these cells are protists, plants, fungi, and animals
Primary Succession
succesion that occurs on land where no soil exists,
Missense Mutation
The most common type of mutation, a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.
Water (H20)
What is the only known substance to exist at solid, liquid, and gas in a natural environment?
haploid cells
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells. They are instrumental in almost everything that an organism does.
Photic Zone
The upper area in an aquatic biome, where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis
Model used to calculate the time of origin of one
molecular clock
Somatic Nervous system
the branch of the motor division of peripheral nervous system that carries signals to skeletal muscles in response to external stimuli; this system is reponsible for voluntary conscious movement. Acetylcholine is its neurotransmitter
kinetic energy
The energy of motion; the energy of a mass of matter that is moving. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter.
Depending on where the carbon is in a monosaccharide, what are they called
ketose, aldose
It is theorized that some cellular organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, evolved from
prokaryotes that had symbiotic associations with larger cells
Definition of Petiole
The stock of the leaf that joins the leaf to the node of the stem
Driving force that pushes the root tip through the soil is due primarily to?
Elongation of cells behind the root apical meristem
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