AP Biology 126 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
anti-
against
Sporo
chondrocytes
Cartilage cells.
nitrogen
3 bonds
somatic cells
body cells
Kinesiology
study of movement
kinetic energy
energy of motion
monosaccharides
Carbohydrate monomers (single-unit sugars).
sporophyll
A leaf specialized for reproduction.
Polysaccharides
Macromolecules, serve as storage material
nucleic acid
macromolecule containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
extracellular fluid
plasma and interstitial fluid
Patchiness
Localized variation in environmental conditions within an ecosystem, arranged spatially into a complex of discrete areas that may be characterized by distinctive groups of species or ecosystem processes
Heat Storage
Hydrogen bonds require considerale heat before they break, minimizing temeprature changes.
symbiosis
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
Phloem
Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
urea
A soluble nitrogenous waste produced in the liver by a metabolic cycle that combines ammonia with carbon dioxide.
lagging strand
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
monosomic
having only 1 of a chromosome
properties of carbohydrates
Monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the complexity
microevolution
Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation.
phenotype
the physical expression of a gene
chloroplast
sites of photosynthesis. convert solar energy--> chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2 and H20
bryophytes
include 24,000 species of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Non-vascular land plant. The haploid stage dominates its life cycle, and its sperm require standing water to reach eggs.
Vertebrate societies tend to be
relatively flexible.
axillary bud
bud that develops in the axil
diffusion
movement of molecules so they spread out evenly
leading strand
the strand made continuously during DNA replication; nucleotides are steadily added one after another by DNA polymerase
Enzyme
a macromolecule that acts as a catalyst without being consumed by the reaction
pyridimines
cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U).
In complex land plants, the diploid stage is resistant to adverse environmental conditions, such as dwindling water supplies and cold weather. The diploid stage progresses through which sequence?
a. gametophyte--->male and female gametes
b. spores--->s
zygote--->sporophyte
fossil record
The chronicle of evolution over millions of years of geologic time engraved in the order in which fossils appear in rock strata.
Gametes
Sperm and Egg Cells. Have haploid number (Half as many as Somatic Cell)of chromosomes. Undergo Meiosis.
oxidation
the loss of electrons from one substance
Macrophages
-"Pacman" amoeboid cells that roam the maze of fibers, engulfing bacteria and the debris of dead cells by phagocytosis
-Are a type of loose connective tissue
Cofactors
Inorganic ions that bond to enzymes and are essential to function.
Vascular tissue
Tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plants.
ssrRNA
has history extending form the 1st prok
disulfide bridges
covalent bonds within proteins helping to reinforce their structures
Uniformitarianism
theory that mechanism of change are constant over time
osmoreceptors
a sensory receptor primarily found in the hypothalamus of most homeothermic organisms that detects changes in osmotic pressure
Swim Bladder
A flotation device that exchanges gases with blood.
Amoeba
refer to protists that move and feed by means of pseudopodia, not a monophyletic group;
salivary amylase
an enzyme produced in salivary glands; begins the breakdown of starch in maltose
fermentation
the process by which pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid or ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide
gastrulation
The formation of a gastrula from a blastula.
fixed action pattern
behaviors that are independent from environment (ex. fish with red underbellies)
What is the three dimensional shape of proteins
conformation
evaporative cooling
as liquid evaporates, the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down.
genomic imprinting
The parental effect on gene expression whereby identical alleles have different effects on offspring, depending on whether they arrive in the zygote via the ovum or via the sperm.
Centriole
made from 9 sets of triplets of microtubules.
47 XXY would be a _____ with Klinefelter's disorder.
male
Define: Reactant
the starting materials in a chemical reaction
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different masses.
transport proteins
membrane proteins that form a pump that uses ATP to actively transport solutes across the membrane
ether bond
the gycosidic linkage that joins two monosaccharides to form a disaccharide
Cytochromes
iron containing protein at the end of the Electron Transport Chain
Casparian strip
barrier to unrestricted flow of water and solutes into the vascular cylinder
multiple alleles
more than 2 alleles/versions of a gene (ex: blood type)
Carbohydrate
A sugar or one of its dimers or polymers.
Short-Day Plant
A plant that flowers (usually in late summer, fall, or winter) only when the light period is shorter than a critical length.
Pyrimidine
has a six membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms; members are cytosine(C), thymine(T) and uracil(U)
Active site
The specific portion of an enzyme that binds the substrate and forms the catalysis pocket
reduction reaction
a reaction in which a reactant gains an electron (-)
human life cycle (7 steps)
fertilization, zygote, mitosis, human, gonads, meiosis, gametes, PROCESS STARTS OVER
Pyramid of energy
each step represents a transfer of energy (only 10% of energy is transferred from level to level)
transport vesicles
A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.
Dolly the sheep
the first ever cloned animal that marked an era of revolutionary ideas. Developed in Scotland in 1997 by a geneticist named Ian Wilmut.
Monomer
A small molecule, two or more of which can be combined to form oligomers (consisting of a few monomers) or polymers (consisting of many monomers).
mass number
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
What type of cell would need to have a mutation in order to pass it on to offspring?
Gamete.
nonpolar covalent bond
A covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity.
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that has one or more double-bonded carbon atoms formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton; there will be a kink in the hydrocarbon chain wherever a -cis double-bond occurs (causes bending)
Leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs)
a diverse group of blood cells specialized in immune response
Finishing touches on mRNA transcripts
-a cap is attached to the 5' end: the cap is a NUCLEOTIDE, and it conatins methyl and phosphate groups. The cap will help bind the mRNA to a ribosome.
-a tail of about 100 to 300 NUCLEOTIDES are attached to the 3' end, which contains PROTEINS. This tail will slowly be destroyed, and it will determine how long an mRNA molecule will last.
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