AP Biology 148 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
spire
breathe
Hybrid-
mongrel
archaeo-
primitive; ancient
pleur-
rib; lung
DNA/RNA
deoxyribonucleic acid/ribonucleic acid, two types of nucleic acids, enable organisms to reproduce complex components one generation to next
Organic compounds
Carbon-based molecules
Systole
Contraction of the heart
Repressor
switches off the operon
flagella
long, snake-like structures that protrude from the cell membrane
DNA
directs Rna synthesis, controls protein synthesis, the double stranded molecule that contains the genetic code
plasmodesmata
Plasma-membrane-lined channels in the cell wall that interconnects adjacent plant cells
centrioles
small, paired, cylindrical structures that produce microtubules to pull replicated chromosomes apart during cell division
caffeine
The alkaloid crystalline compound found in tea and coffee plants. It is a stimulant of the central nervous system
lepidosaurs
The reptilian group that includes lizards, snakes, and two species of New Zealand animals called tuataras.
competitive inhibitor
reversible inhibitors that compete with the substrate for the active site on an enzyme. They are often chemically very similar to the normal substrate molecule and reduce the efficiency of the enzyme as it competes for the active site
Observation 1
Population size would increase---> organisms reproduced successfully
Mole
Amount of an element/compound whoese mass in grams is equivalent to its atomic mass
Community
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
integrins
cell surface receptor proteins, span the membrane and bind to associated proteins, in a position to transmit changes between ECM and cytoskeleton
synapse
is a junction between two neurons
modern synthesis
theory of evolution emphasizing natural selection ,gradualism, and populations as the fundamental units of evolutionary change; aka neodarwanism
point mutation
change in a single gene
integral proteins
Typically transmembrane proteins with hydrophobic regions that completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
pheromones
A chemical substance produced and released into the environment by an animal, esp. a mammal or an insect, affecting the behavior or physiology of others of its species
Parasitic or saprobic fungus that forms a thick-wa
zygomycetes
Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V—Z, has been most successful in terms of the percent of its
derived species that are extant?
A) V
B) W
C) X
D) Y
E) Z
e
wavelength
The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
genetic engineering
direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
energy coupling
using energy from an exergonic reaction to fuel an endergonic reaction
carbonyl groups
A functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom.
Proteoglycan
a clyco protein containing a portein core with attached long, linear, carb chains
local regulators
A chemical messenger that influences cells in the vicinity.
solvent
substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
gene pool
genes of population
pool of genetic resources
embryo sac
The female gametophyte of angiosperms, formed from the growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure that typically has eight haploid nuclei.
monomers
small units that make up the polymers
IgD
B cell receptor
bound to b cell membrane
microfilaments
made of actin protein, combine with myosin to allow for muscle movement
chlorophyll B
A type of yellow-green accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
nitrogen fixation
bacteria turn nitrogen gas in ammonia
other bacteria turn ammonia into nitrate which plants can absorb easily
Basophil
White blood cell circulating in blood that secretes histamine and other substances with roles in inflammation.
Cuticle
Waxy layer secreted to prevent water loss.
life history
The series of events from birth through reproduction and death.
The most recent common ancestor of all land plants was probably similar to modern-day members of which
group?
A) green algae
B) red algae
C) charophytes
D) brown algae
E) angiosperms
c
plastids
One of a family of closely related plant organelles, including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).
Aristotle
All Living forms could be arranged on a scale, ladder of increasing complexity, later called the "scale of nature" Opposed any concept of evolution and viewed species as fixed and unchanging.
Oxidizing Agent
The electron acceptor in a redox reaction.
chemical reaction
one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
Four of the five answers below are related by the presence of vascular tissue. Select the exception.
a. whisk ferns
b. mosses
c. pine trees
d. flowering plants
e. horsetails
mosses
Cytoplasm
the protoplasm of a cell excluding the nucleus
all plants eventually...
use the Calvin Cycle
*C4 separates steps of C-fixation structurally, CAM separates them in time
RNA polymerase
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
Ion
An atom or group of atoms with electrons added or removed, giving it a negative or positive electrical charge.
diploid cells
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
Sulfhydryl Group
A functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (—SH).
Glycosidic Linkage
a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
kinetin
this is a type of cytokinin which generates plant growth, breaks seed dormancy, and expands leaves
sickle-cell anemia
caused by a mutation that modifies hemoglobin
Cell wall
A protective layer external to the plasma membranc
law of segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
Prokaryotic Cell
Cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The molecule found in cells that contains genetic information
You are given the task of designing an aerobic, mixotrophic protist that can perform photosynthesis in fairly
deep water (e.g., 250 m deep), and can also crawl about and engulf small particles. With which two of these
structures would you provide your pro
d
short-day plant
A plant that flowers (usually in late summer, fall, or winter) only when the light period is shorter than a critical length.
internal fertilization
sperm and egg meet inside the females body
specialized organ is used to deliver sperm
free energy
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature is uniform throughout the system.
dopamine
A compound present in the body as a neurotransmitter and a precursor of other substances including epinephrine
Main Function (Lipids)
Energy storage gram for gram fat gives 2x as much energy as a carbohydrate.
What is attached to teh carboxyl in a fatty acid
hydrocarbon group
Third Position Wobble
The third position of the codon is redundant, just a place holder.
What is hierarchal order?
High degree of order between an organism's internal and external parts.
Which of the following is not common to all phyla of vascular plants?
The development of seeds
alternation of generations
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants.
What occurs during the second level of protein folding?
H bonds form between the polar R groups within the amino acid sequence
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